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contournement des blocs

English translation: proxy wars

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
French term or phrase:contournement des blocs
English translation:proxy wars
Entered by: 2020Translation
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12:16 Sep 9, 2011
French to English translations [PRO]
Military / Defense / Cold War Strategy
French term or phrase: contournement des blocs
I am working on the translation of a French doctrine document which refers to 'la stratégie de contournement des blocs', and I'm getting nowhere with it. Can anyone help? It is part of a footnote: 'Comme cela a été le cas dans le cadre de la stratégie de contournement des blocs pendant la Guerre froide.' This footnote emphasises the statement that insurgencies are at times supported by third-party nations.

Grateful for any suggestions as to where I may find an answer such as documents that may shed some light. Please note that this is for a university assignment, in which this discussion will be quoted in the list of translation resources

Regards, and thanks.
2020Translation
Local time: 11:39
proxy wars
Explanation:
I think you really need to tell us about what the particular case is an example of, unless you wish to oblige us all to spend hundreds of hours revising our Cold War 101 lecture notes.

At a guess though, might it be about proxy warfare?

The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the Cold War came to direct conflict between the two superpowers. The CONFLICT WAS PLAYED OUT THEREAFTER BY PROXY: one side or the other lending support to third-party states, engaging in espionage and covert operations, and arming and funding guerrilla movements and insurgencies. In 1964 the United States, led by President Lyndon Johnson, made the decision to commit troops and aircraft to the civil war in South Vietnam, and for 10 years the U.S. fought to contain the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union
http://history.howstuffworks.com/cold-war/the-cold-war-timel...

A PROXY WAR OR PROXY WARFARE is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.
Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain nation usually have their own interests, which can diverge from those of their patron.
Typically PROXY WARS FUNCTION BEST DURING COLD WARS, as they become a necessity in conducting armed conflict between at least two belligerents while continuing cold warfare.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war

IMO all wars are plain poxy.


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Note added at 42 mins (2011-09-09 12:58:49 GMT)
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Sorry folks, that was meant to be guess-level confidence.

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Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 14:28:59 GMT)
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OK, it looks like proxy war to me. The article is about the Caractéristiques des insurrections actuelles http://www.cicde.defense.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/DIA_3-4-4.pdf.

Dans les modèles théoriques classiques des guerres révolutionnaires26, l’insurrection doit passer progressivement de la clandestinité à la guérilla ET SE DÉVELOPPER JUSQU’À POUVOIR AFFRONTER DANS UNE BATAILLE CLASSIQUE LES FORCES DE SÉCURITÉ27. Aujourd’hui, sans être totalement exclu, ce modèle est moins probable, car il SUPPOSE LE SOUTIEN MASSIF DE L’INSURRECTION PAR DES PAYS TIERS28.
28 Comme cela a été le cas dans le cadre de la stratégie de contournement des blocs pendant la Guerre froide.
http://www.cicde.defense.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/DIA_3-4-4.pdf

"The diversion strategy applied by the opposing blocks during the Cold War", maybe?
I don't much like "diversion strategy" because it can have so many different meanings, though it can be said that the two blocs DIVERTED their belligerance towards each other into third countries where they fought a proxy war. It's just a pity "bypass strategy" or "ring road strategy" doesn't work ...

The article was written in November 2010, but describes exactly what happened in Libya, where the insurrection would have got nowhere without the "enhanced" no-fly zone imposed by NATO powers.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 14:37:38 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Got it! "Proxy strategy"

The PROXY STRATEGY, of providing military and security assistance to regional players, ‘the Nixon Doctrine,’ failed first with the fall of the Shah, and the Gulf War buried it, for the next twenty years
http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/how-perpetual-war-became-u-...

After the Allied victory in May 2003, the Iraq
war evolved into a PROXY WAR against terrorism. In the past, Cold War America and the Soviet Union avoided
direct military confrontation with each other via wars in Korea and Vietnam.

Similarly, Jihadists learned that a direct attack on the U.S. (9/11) led to a direct American attack against their
sponsoring terrorist state (the U.S. invasion of Taliban Afghanistan in 2001). Thrown off balance, terrorists
focused their actives on Iraq. With terrorists drawn to Iraq, the U.S. avoided further terrorist attacks at home.
Simply, the proxy war in Iraq contains the threat of terrorism to the United States.

The 2009 shift in terrorist activities from Iraq to Afghanistan indicates the American PROXY STRATEGY
http://webspace.webring.com/people/sn/neocon/NotesOnPaxAmeri...

We developed a strong relationship with the Shah of Iran to help him become a regional power. This was the CLASSIC COLD WAR PROXY STRATEGY. In theory, just as we shored up the South Vietnamese government to oppose Communism in southeast Asia, we were strengthening the Persian people to be a bulwark against Communism … and to prevent the Soviet Union from gaining significant influence over the oil
http://history.sf-fandom.com/2010/09/27/u-s-walks-away-from-...
Selected response from:

xxxBourth
Local time: 12:39
Grading comment
Thank you very much for your help. Sadly, having never used this, I expected an e-mail notifying me of an answer, so I didn't check until it was too late. However, having researched the topic more and reading related documents, it also became clear to me that proxy wars (though I agree with strategy also in some contexts) was the correct translation. Thanks again!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4proxy warsxxxBourth
3circumvention of the blocs (Eastern and Western)liz askew
Summary of reference entries provided
liz askew

  

Answers


29 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
circumvention of the blocs (Eastern and Western)


Explanation:
This is my understanding

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NON-CIRCUMVENTION & NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT ...
www.proz.com › ... › English to French › Law: Contract(s) - Cached
26 Feb 2008 – (KudoZ) English to French translation of NON-CIRCUMVENTION & NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT : accord de non-contournement et de ...

procédure de contournement
www.proz.com › KudoZ home › French to English › Law/Patents - Cached
13 Jan 2001 – French term or phrase: procédure de contournement. relative ...
non-circumvention principle/ to circumvent > principe de non ...
www.proz.com › KudoZ home › English to French › Law/Patents - Cached
2 Jul 2003 – Security Subject Field(s) – Sécurité générale de l ...

liz askew
United Kingdom
Local time: 11:39
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

40 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
proxy wars


Explanation:
I think you really need to tell us about what the particular case is an example of, unless you wish to oblige us all to spend hundreds of hours revising our Cold War 101 lecture notes.

At a guess though, might it be about proxy warfare?

The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the Cold War came to direct conflict between the two superpowers. The CONFLICT WAS PLAYED OUT THEREAFTER BY PROXY: one side or the other lending support to third-party states, engaging in espionage and covert operations, and arming and funding guerrilla movements and insurgencies. In 1964 the United States, led by President Lyndon Johnson, made the decision to commit troops and aircraft to the civil war in South Vietnam, and for 10 years the U.S. fought to contain the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union
http://history.howstuffworks.com/cold-war/the-cold-war-timel...

A PROXY WAR OR PROXY WARFARE is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.
Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain nation usually have their own interests, which can diverge from those of their patron.
Typically PROXY WARS FUNCTION BEST DURING COLD WARS, as they become a necessity in conducting armed conflict between at least two belligerents while continuing cold warfare.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war

IMO all wars are plain poxy.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 42 mins (2011-09-09 12:58:49 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Sorry folks, that was meant to be guess-level confidence.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 14:28:59 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

OK, it looks like proxy war to me. The article is about the Caractéristiques des insurrections actuelles http://www.cicde.defense.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/DIA_3-4-4.pdf.

Dans les modèles théoriques classiques des guerres révolutionnaires26, l’insurrection doit passer progressivement de la clandestinité à la guérilla ET SE DÉVELOPPER JUSQU’À POUVOIR AFFRONTER DANS UNE BATAILLE CLASSIQUE LES FORCES DE SÉCURITÉ27. Aujourd’hui, sans être totalement exclu, ce modèle est moins probable, car il SUPPOSE LE SOUTIEN MASSIF DE L’INSURRECTION PAR DES PAYS TIERS28.
28 Comme cela a été le cas dans le cadre de la stratégie de contournement des blocs pendant la Guerre froide.
http://www.cicde.defense.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/DIA_3-4-4.pdf

"The diversion strategy applied by the opposing blocks during the Cold War", maybe?
I don't much like "diversion strategy" because it can have so many different meanings, though it can be said that the two blocs DIVERTED their belligerance towards each other into third countries where they fought a proxy war. It's just a pity "bypass strategy" or "ring road strategy" doesn't work ...

The article was written in November 2010, but describes exactly what happened in Libya, where the insurrection would have got nowhere without the "enhanced" no-fly zone imposed by NATO powers.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 14:37:38 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Got it! "Proxy strategy"

The PROXY STRATEGY, of providing military and security assistance to regional players, ‘the Nixon Doctrine,’ failed first with the fall of the Shah, and the Gulf War buried it, for the next twenty years
http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/how-perpetual-war-became-u-...

After the Allied victory in May 2003, the Iraq
war evolved into a PROXY WAR against terrorism. In the past, Cold War America and the Soviet Union avoided
direct military confrontation with each other via wars in Korea and Vietnam.

Similarly, Jihadists learned that a direct attack on the U.S. (9/11) led to a direct American attack against their
sponsoring terrorist state (the U.S. invasion of Taliban Afghanistan in 2001). Thrown off balance, terrorists
focused their actives on Iraq. With terrorists drawn to Iraq, the U.S. avoided further terrorist attacks at home.
Simply, the proxy war in Iraq contains the threat of terrorism to the United States.

The 2009 shift in terrorist activities from Iraq to Afghanistan indicates the American PROXY STRATEGY
http://webspace.webring.com/people/sn/neocon/NotesOnPaxAmeri...

We developed a strong relationship with the Shah of Iran to help him become a regional power. This was the CLASSIC COLD WAR PROXY STRATEGY. In theory, just as we shored up the South Vietnamese government to oppose Communism in southeast Asia, we were strengthening the Persian people to be a bulwark against Communism … and to prevent the Soviet Union from gaining significant influence over the oil
http://history.sf-fandom.com/2010/09/27/u-s-walks-away-from-...


xxxBourth
Local time: 12:39
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 136
Grading comment
Thank you very much for your help. Sadly, having never used this, I expected an e-mail notifying me of an answer, so I didn't check until it was too late. However, having researched the topic more and reading related documents, it also became clear to me that proxy wars (though I agree with strategy also in some contexts) was the correct translation. Thanks again!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Reference comments


7 mins
Reference

Reference information:
Monde chinois Monde chinois
- [ Translate this page ]
www.cerium.ca/IMG/.../RChantal-L_enigme_de_la_puissance_chi...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
Roromme Chantal, L'énigme de la puissance chinoise : originalité et fondements ..... large d'une stratégie de contournement ou d'affaiblissement des puissances occidentales .... A. Scobell, “Chinese Diplomacy Goes Global: Motives,. Methods ...

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Note added at 8 mins (2011-09-09 12:24:14 GMT)
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La stratégie de puissance de la Chine en Afrique
- [ Translate this page ]
bdc.aege.fr/public/La_strategie_de_puissance_de_la_Chine_en_Afrique.pdf
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
L'intention de contourner ou d'affaiblir les puissances occidentales et notamment les Etats-Unis, pas toujours favorables aux intérêts chinois.25. 23 G.Xiong ...

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Note added at 8 mins (2011-09-09 12:24:36 GMT)
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blocs

may well be referring to the East and West

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 9 mins (2011-09-09 12:25:26 GMT)
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yep
Cold War
www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/coldwar.html - Cached
The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and conflict short of ... perceptions of hostile intention between military-political alliances or blocs. ...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 12 mins (2011-09-09 12:28:20 GMT)
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circumvention?

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Note added at 13 mins (2011-09-09 12:29:19 GMT)
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A Strategy of 'Circumvention': American Policy Towards the ...
www.politique.uqam.ca/upload/files/.../PDF-107-strategy_cir...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
by CP David - 1995 - Cited by 1 - Related articles
circumvention strategy on US policy towards the former .... strategy of circumvention vis—d—vis the. Yugoslav ... passive stage in the strategy of circumvention. ...

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Note added at 24 mins (2011-09-09 12:40:35 GMT)
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Brustlein (2004) Concentration et contournement de la puissance ...
- [ Translate this page ]
www.getcited.org/pub/103432854 - Cached
by C Brustlein - 2004
17 févr. 2007 – Concentration et contournement de la puissance dans l'après-guerre froide" (Power concentration and circumvention after the cold war) ...

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Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 15:08:31 GMT)
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bit more info

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:l6OnQOF...

La guerre froide s’est caractérisée par sa longue durée (un demi-siècle), par l’absence de guerre directe entre les adversaires, par une polarisation autour de deux puissances dominantes, enfin surtout par la mise en œuvre de la dissuasion nucléaire. Le risque prohibitif d’une annihilation mutuelle par l’échange des frappes balistico-nucléaires interdisait d’engager une guerre majeure, même au niveau conventionnel. Incapables de trouver une résolution politique à leur antagonisme, les adversaires recoururent à des stratégies indirectes de contournement : soit en cherchant à affaiblir l’ennemi par des conflits limités sur des théâtres lointains (Viêtnam, Afghanistan), soit en développant une guerre psychologique visant à briser la volonté de poursuivre l’affrontement, soit encore en pratiquant une stratégie d’attrition économique et technologique par le biais de la course aux armements.


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Note added at 2 hrs (2011-09-09 15:10:17 GMT)
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Warfighting - Google Books Result
books.google.com/books?isbn=1602060592...United States Marine Corps - 2007 - History - 120 pages
In fact, this is the genesis of maneuver — to circumvent the enemy's strength to strike at a weakness. While the element of surprise is often of decisive importance ...

liz askew
United Kingdom
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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