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"claquer" du plasma

English translation: achieve plasma breakdown

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
French term or phrase:\"claquer\" du plasma
English translation:achieve plasma breakdown
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14:31 Sep 17, 2011
French to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Nuclear Eng/Sci
French term or phrase: "claquer" du plasma
Parce qu’il faut des parois extrêmement propres pour créer plasma. Il faut parfois 1 semaine de conditionnement de la machine pour pouvoir à nouveau « claquer » un plasma.
Allan Jeffs
achieve plasma breakdown
Explanation:
In most fields "breakdown" is negative, something you don't want, and it might well also be the case once, having "created" plasma (for the purposes of nuclear fusion), that plasma degenerates. Maybe. Maybe if there is not continued heat input it reverts to its initial gaseous state, I don't know. At any rate, ideally this won't happen, and the aim is to heat plasma to a temperature that is totally, or nearly, self-sustaining.

The term "plasma breakdown" is indeed used in nuclear fission for the "creation" of plasma. It something of a misnomer, however, since the plasma does not break down (not at this point, anyway), but rather the gas does, forming the plasma. I guess, at the risk of appearing grammaticastic, nuclear physicists make lousy grammarians.

On fait alors circuler un courant électrique dont l'action déclenche un « CLAQUAGE » puis une ionisation du gaz, et enfin sa transformation en plasma.
http://www.iter.org/fr/mach/fuelcycle

As a first step to starting the fusion reaction, all air and ANY IMPURITIES MUST BE EVACUATED from the Vacuum Vessel. The powerful Magnets that will help to confine and control the plasma are then turned on and the low-density gaseous fuel is introduced into the Vacuum Vessel by a gas injection system. Once the fuel has been introduced into the vacuum chamber, an electrical current is applied to the system which causes the gas to BREAK DOWN electrically, become ionized, and FORM A PLASMA.
http://www.iter.org/mach/fuelcycle

 Give a small puff of gas into the vessel (this neutral gas fills the whole vessel)
 Ramp up the flux in the transformer to obtain a high Electric field (this leads to PLASMA BREAKDOWN
[ ... ]
PLASMA BREAKDOWN
 Gas mostly neutral. But always one of the electrons is free
 The electric field accelerates this electron which gains in energy
 When the fast electron hits one of the atoms it can ionize it and generate an additional electron
 The avalanche leads to the BREAK DOWN
 Works well for low density (long mean free path) and high electric field
 Conditions mostly empirically determined
[ ... ]
Short time after the PLASMA BREAKDOWN one starts the feed back control of the plasma current
It is slowly ramped to a stationary value required by the discharge
www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/research/cfsa/people/.../lecture10.ppt

www.springerlink.com/index/mv271w05j7223x60.pdf
In the initial stage, PLASMA BREAKDOWN and heating will be produced by an ECRH ... candidates for magnetically Confined Nuclear Fusion experiments. For the ...


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2011-09-17 21:35:40 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/39/1/012/pdf/0741-3335_39_1_012.pdf
– (ii) the loop voltage required to obtain the stable plasma-current ramp-up must be greater than that to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN only;

iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/18/2/.../pdf/0963-0252_18_2_025013.pdf
Microwave power required to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN, to sustain the plasma ...

meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP11/Event/151742
... to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN in the applied electric field. This constraint could be overcome by puffing pre-ionized plasma into the chamber instead of neutral ...

nstx.pppl.gov/DragNDrop/Publications_Presentations/.../Gates_FED.pdf
– which should be enough to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN and ramp up (in black).

digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1471&context=etd
required to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN. A difference of 10 to 20% in any of the above may result in no plasma. The banks displayed in fig. ...

Selected response from:

xxxBourth
Local time: 04:27
Grading comment
Thanks a bundle Alex - I hadn't seen this expression before.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4achieve plasma breakdownxxxBourth
3create a plasma
chris collister


Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
create a plasma


Explanation:
"Claquer" normally means to strike an arc, and is what is involved in dielectric breakdown. Here I guess the text is related to some form of plasma containment vessel such as at the JET fusion experiment in Oxford, and Tokamaks elsewhere. The author clearly thinks that "claquer" is not exactly comme il faut, hence the "..", but I would play it safe with "create" or "generate".

chris collister
France
Local time: 04:27
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 55
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
achieve plasma breakdown


Explanation:
In most fields "breakdown" is negative, something you don't want, and it might well also be the case once, having "created" plasma (for the purposes of nuclear fusion), that plasma degenerates. Maybe. Maybe if there is not continued heat input it reverts to its initial gaseous state, I don't know. At any rate, ideally this won't happen, and the aim is to heat plasma to a temperature that is totally, or nearly, self-sustaining.

The term "plasma breakdown" is indeed used in nuclear fission for the "creation" of plasma. It something of a misnomer, however, since the plasma does not break down (not at this point, anyway), but rather the gas does, forming the plasma. I guess, at the risk of appearing grammaticastic, nuclear physicists make lousy grammarians.

On fait alors circuler un courant électrique dont l'action déclenche un « CLAQUAGE » puis une ionisation du gaz, et enfin sa transformation en plasma.
http://www.iter.org/fr/mach/fuelcycle

As a first step to starting the fusion reaction, all air and ANY IMPURITIES MUST BE EVACUATED from the Vacuum Vessel. The powerful Magnets that will help to confine and control the plasma are then turned on and the low-density gaseous fuel is introduced into the Vacuum Vessel by a gas injection system. Once the fuel has been introduced into the vacuum chamber, an electrical current is applied to the system which causes the gas to BREAK DOWN electrically, become ionized, and FORM A PLASMA.
http://www.iter.org/mach/fuelcycle

 Give a small puff of gas into the vessel (this neutral gas fills the whole vessel)
 Ramp up the flux in the transformer to obtain a high Electric field (this leads to PLASMA BREAKDOWN
[ ... ]
PLASMA BREAKDOWN
 Gas mostly neutral. But always one of the electrons is free
 The electric field accelerates this electron which gains in energy
 When the fast electron hits one of the atoms it can ionize it and generate an additional electron
 The avalanche leads to the BREAK DOWN
 Works well for low density (long mean free path) and high electric field
 Conditions mostly empirically determined
[ ... ]
Short time after the PLASMA BREAKDOWN one starts the feed back control of the plasma current
It is slowly ramped to a stationary value required by the discharge
www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/research/cfsa/people/.../lecture10.ppt

www.springerlink.com/index/mv271w05j7223x60.pdf
In the initial stage, PLASMA BREAKDOWN and heating will be produced by an ECRH ... candidates for magnetically Confined Nuclear Fusion experiments. For the ...


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2011-09-17 21:35:40 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/39/1/012/pdf/0741-3335_39_1_012.pdf
– (ii) the loop voltage required to obtain the stable plasma-current ramp-up must be greater than that to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN only;

iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/18/2/.../pdf/0963-0252_18_2_025013.pdf
Microwave power required to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN, to sustain the plasma ...

meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP11/Event/151742
... to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN in the applied electric field. This constraint could be overcome by puffing pre-ionized plasma into the chamber instead of neutral ...

nstx.pppl.gov/DragNDrop/Publications_Presentations/.../Gates_FED.pdf
– which should be enough to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN and ramp up (in black).

digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1471&context=etd
required to ACHIEVE PLASMA BREAKDOWN. A difference of 10 to 20% in any of the above may result in no plasma. The banks displayed in fig. ...



xxxBourth
Local time: 04:27
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 218
Grading comment
Thanks a bundle Alex - I hadn't seen this expression before.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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