English translation: straight grain (of the fabric)
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Explanation: Knowledge from sewing, sail clothmaking and so on. When you lay a pattern piece or a template onto a piece of fabric, there is often a thick black arrow in the middle explaining that you have to place this arrow on the 'straight grain of the fabric'. In other words, palce it on one of the straight horizontal (the 'weft' or 'fill' = 'chaîne' in French) or vertical ('warp' = 'trame' in French)thread lines in a weave. (If you don't your fabric may twist out of shape). If you want to specifically wish to have more stretch, then you can cut across the stright grain.
It's not a type of fabric, it is thus a term used to describe a woven fabric, as opposed to a knittted jersey type fabric.