gleichschenkelig

English translation: metacentric

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
German term or phrase:gleichschenkelig (chromosome)
English translation:metacentric
Entered by: Trudy Peters

21:52 Oct 24, 2004
German to English translations [PRO]
Science - Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) / chromosomes
German term or phrase: gleichschenkelig
Die Chromosomen der Metaphase zeigen als Einschnürung das Centromer und die Spindelfaseransatzstelle des Chromosoms. Für eine geordnete Teilung und das Auseinanderweichen der Chromatiden ist es unbedingt nötig. Seine Lage am jeweiligen Chromosom bestimmt dessen **gleich- bzw. ungleichschenkelige, auch einschenkelige** Gestalt.

Translator used "metacentric, submetacentric or even telocentric structure." Does that sound right?
Trudy Peters
United States
Local time: 15:41
metacentric, submetacentric, telocentric, subtelocentric, acrocentric
Explanation:
Chromosomes are classified according to the position of the centromere as follows:

metacentric:
chromosome with the centromere at or near the middle of the chromosome

telocentric:
chromosome with the centromere at the very end

submetacentric and subtelocentric:
chromosomes with the centromere located at intermediate positions (submetacentric if closer to the middle and subtelocentric if closer to the end) extremes above

acrocentric:
chromosomes with markedly unequal arms are acrocentric.

Truly telocentric chromosomes are very rare in nature, although they have been found in some species, and in some human individuals. Normally in human chromosomes that appear telocentric, such as chromosome 21, the telomere is not technically at the end, and so they are called acrocentric. This is the right term for all normal chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21, 22 and Y) in humans.

For a book reference, I can recommend Eeva Therman ad Millard Susman "Human Chromosomes".

I hope this helps.
Good luck.
Selected response from:

Krisztina Vasarhelyi
Local time: 12:41
Grading comment
Beautiful! Thanks, Krisztina, and thanks to Zareh and Eckhard, too.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +2metacentric, submetacentric, telocentric, subtelocentric, acrocentric
Krisztina Vasarhelyi
5Not for grading
Zareh Darakjian Ph.D.
3isosceles
Eckhard Boehle


  

Answers


23 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
Not for grading


Explanation:
Hi Trudy:

Metacentric is correct: This means that the centromere (where the chromosomes meet
each other) is located such that the two legs are not equal in length). I will look for the
others as well...

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Note added at 25 mins (2004-10-24 22:18:01 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Sorry... metacentric is correct but it corrseponds to equal legs (of course this is also
isoscles in geometry parlance).

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 29 mins (2004-10-24 22:22:53 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Trudy: The submetacentric is also correct (the legs are not equal because the centromere
is not in the middle. the one with the ein... that could be telocentric (the centromere at
the end, which I think it is).. the only other possibility is acrocentric (the centromere near
the end) which I don\'t think is correct.

Zareh Darakjian Ph.D.
United States
Local time: 12:41
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ArmenianArmenian
PRO pts in category: 44
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

17 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
isosceles


Explanation:
http://amba.charite.de/cgh/protocol/02/class.html:
Specific:
Chr. 1 Easy to identify, take care that the orientation is correct:
end of the small arm lighter than the rest of the chromosome
centromeric heterochromatin like an isosceles triangle with the base directed towards the long arm ()
Chr. 2 2nd largest chromosome (size similar to chr. 1), submetacentric
Chr. 3 3rd largest chromosome, metacentric


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 31 mins (2004-10-24 22:24:03 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Sorry, only now I saw your question underneath!
All these forms of chromosomes \"metacentric, submetacentric, telocentric\" exist. Moreover, there are \"acrocentric structures\".
Please check the example URLs to decide which one fits here best.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100...
Ten metaphases per individual were observed in a total of 10 females of Atta and 10 females of A. heyeri. The mitotic plates of A. sexdens piriventris showed 2n = 22, presenting metacentric, submetacentric, and acrocentric chromosomes. This number was also found by Fadini and Pompolo (1993, 1996) for Atta sexdens rubropilosa, A. laevigata and A. bisphaerica.

A. heyeri had 2n = 38, with metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes. Goñi et al. (1983) found no telocentric, but described subtelocentric chromosomes for A. heyeri, A. hispidus, and A. ambigus.

http://www.cellservkits.com/NewFiles/ResultsKit4.html:
Note the typical chromosome structure with the centromere evident in each chromosome. The sister chromatids are also evident. The position of the centromere is used to classify chromosomes as either: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric. A chromosome of a fourth category, telocentric chromosome, has the centromere terminally situated. However, there are no human telocentric chromosomes. Close examination will show the presence of all three types in this photograph.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&d...
Z. pendula cv Quadricolor had a unique banding pattern, i.e., satellite bands in the unique short chromosome, telomeric bands at the long arms of all metacentric chromosomes, and single interstitial bands in six telocentric chromosomes. Two clones of S. purpurea had telomeric bands at many chromosome arms and satellite bands in two nearly metacentric and one submetacentric chromosomes, but some differences were found between them. On the other hand, all the chromosomes of T. ohiensis had telomeric bands at both arms, and three submetacentric chromosomes had satellite bands.

Eckhard Boehle
Germany
Local time: 21:41
Works in field
Native speaker of: German
PRO pts in category: 4
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
metacentric, submetacentric, telocentric, subtelocentric, acrocentric


Explanation:
Chromosomes are classified according to the position of the centromere as follows:

metacentric:
chromosome with the centromere at or near the middle of the chromosome

telocentric:
chromosome with the centromere at the very end

submetacentric and subtelocentric:
chromosomes with the centromere located at intermediate positions (submetacentric if closer to the middle and subtelocentric if closer to the end) extremes above

acrocentric:
chromosomes with markedly unequal arms are acrocentric.

Truly telocentric chromosomes are very rare in nature, although they have been found in some species, and in some human individuals. Normally in human chromosomes that appear telocentric, such as chromosome 21, the telomere is not technically at the end, and so they are called acrocentric. This is the right term for all normal chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21, 22 and Y) in humans.

For a book reference, I can recommend Eeva Therman ad Millard Susman "Human Chromosomes".

I hope this helps.
Good luck.

Krisztina Vasarhelyi
Local time: 12:41
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in HungarianHungarian, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
Beautiful! Thanks, Krisztina, and thanks to Zareh and Eckhard, too.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Zareh Darakjian Ph.D.: Beautiful!
1 hr
  -> Thank you Zareh!

agree  Kathinka van de Griendt
6 hrs
  -> Thanks Kathinka!
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