spannungsfrei härten

English translation: hardens without internal stresses

14:21 Dec 20, 2016
German to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Construction / Civil Engineering / Building supplies (plaster, mortar, etc.)
German term or phrase: spannungsfrei härten
According to the description of a mortar for a building supplies catalogue/website:

"[The mortar] härtet spannungsfrei und ist danach sowohl wasser- als auch frostfest."

"hardens without stress" and "hardens stresslessly" really don't sound like natural English to me, which seems to be corroborated by the lack of examples of either phrase (and the few examples I found don't sound natural, either).

Please help - many thanks in advance! :-)
jt1979
Local time: 10:30
English translation:hardens without internal stresses
Explanation:
Here's a suggestion. Also, I know "stresslessly" doesn't get many hits, but i think it's understandable and thus a possible translation.

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Note added at 4 hrs (2016-12-20 18:25:10 GMT)
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Or I suppose you could say "hardens evenly/uniformly".
Selected response from:

philgoddard
United States
Grading comment
Many thanks to everyone for your helpful responses. In the end I went with "hardens without stress" (to which this response is closest), but all the suggestions are useful. In particular, many thanks to Johannes for all the pertinent references.
3 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5cures or sets relieved from stress (stress-relieved hardening, i.e. curing or setting)
Johannes Gleim
4 +1hardens without internal stresses
philgoddard
3tension free
Mair A-W (PhD)
3harden without shrinkage/without forming cracks
Michael Martin, MA


  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
tension free


Explanation:
sounds more likely

Mair A-W (PhD)
Germany
Local time: 11:30
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
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4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
hardens without internal stresses


Explanation:
Here's a suggestion. Also, I know "stresslessly" doesn't get many hits, but i think it's understandable and thus a possible translation.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 4 hrs (2016-12-20 18:25:10 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Or I suppose you could say "hardens evenly/uniformly".

philgoddard
United States
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 33
Grading comment
Many thanks to everyone for your helpful responses. In the end I went with "hardens without stress" (to which this response is closest), but all the suggestions are useful. In particular, many thanks to Johannes for all the pertinent references.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Kim Metzger: Or hardens and dries to a stress-free compound. http://www.chemilink.com/66.asp
3 days 2 hrs
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5 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
harden without shrinkage/without forming cracks


Explanation:
Having checked some sources, these seem to be the primary concerns with mortar.

Michael Martin, MA
United States
Local time: 05:30
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 58
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6 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
cures or sets relieved from stress (stress-relieved hardening, i.e. curing or setting)


Explanation:
stress-relieved hardening

As I checked the context mortar too late, I have to reorder my references. And to complete the missing links impossible to copy with the smartphone I had to power on the computer.

The full term consists of two individual terms. First the term "spannungsfrei". This can be taken from metallurgy without making errors.

stress-relieved adj. spannungsfrei geglüht
thermally stress relieved spannungsfrei geglüht
http://dict.leo.org/ende/index_de.html#/search=spannungsfrei...

Domain Iron, steel and other metal industries
de
Term spannungsfrei gluehen
Reliability 3 (Reliable)
Term Ref. Stattmann,Kraftwerkstechnik I

en
Term to stress-relieve
Reliability 3 (Reliable)
Term to stress-relief anneal
Reliability 3 (Reliable)
http://iate.europa.eu/SearchByQuery.do?method=searchDetail&l...

The second term is "Härten". In metallurgy context this is translated by "hardening":

Das Härten von Stahl ist eine Erhöhung seiner mechanischen Widerstandsfähigkeit durch gezielte Änderung und Umwandlung seines Gefüges. Es kann durch Wärmebehandlung mit anschließendem schnellen Abkühlen erfolgen. Wird ein Metall plastisch verformt, so breiten sich im Werkstück Versetzungen aus. Um nun die Festigkeit zu erhöhen, müssen Maßnahmen getroffen werden, die die Bewegung von Versetzungen behindern.
:
Beim Abschrecken bildet sich in den Außenbereichen (die schnell genug abkühlen) Martensit. Ab einem Kohlenstoffanteil von 0,6 % ist mit Restaustenit RA zu rechnen, da die Martensitfinishtemperatur Mf unter der Raumtemperatur liegt und so nicht das gesamte Austenit in Martensit umgewandelt wird. Die Umwandlung dieses sog. Restaustenits erfolgt verzögert und wird von einer Volumenvergrößerung begleitet. Dies führt zu beträchtlichen Spannungen im Werkstück. Verzug und Risse können die Folge sein.
In diesem nur abgeschreckten Zustand ist der Stahl sehr hart und spröde und für technische Verwendungen nicht brauchbar. Der Zustand wird sehr treffend mit "glashart" bezeichnet.
In einem zweiten Schritt, dem so genannten Anlassen, auch Tempern genannt, kann die Härte vermindert und die gewünschten Gebrauchseigenschaften (Härte, Zugfestigkeit und Zähigkeit) des Stahls eingestellt werden. Dabei wird der Stahl, je nach Legierungsanteilen und gewünschten Eigenschaften, nochmals erwärmt. Es entsteht die gewünschte Gebrauchshärte. Je höher die Anlasstemperatur, desto geringer wird die Härte. Dafür nimmt die Zähigkeit zu.
Das Anlassen wird je nach Gehalt an Legierungselementen und Kohlenstoff im Temperaturbereich von 100 bis 350 °C, bei hochlegierten Stählen bis 600 °C durchgeführt. Einige höher legierte Stähle (z. B. Werkstoff 1.2379 mit 12 % Chromanteil) haben ein recht kompliziertes Anlassverhalten, sie erreichen nämlich beim dritten Anlassen mit ca. 500 °C eine höhere Härte als beim ersten Mal (Sekundärhärtemaximum). Bei pulvermetallurgisch erzeugten (PM-)Stählen wird die Gebrauchshärte jedoch über die Starttemperatur beim Abschrecken eingestellt, das Anlassen erfolgt bei einheitlichen Temperaturen.
Den kombinierten Vorgang des Härtens und Anlassens bezeichnet man als Vergüten.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Härten_(Stahl)

Hardening is a metallurgical 222metalworking process used to increase the hardness of a metal. The hardness of a metal is directly proportional to the uniaxial yield stress at the location of the imposed strain. A harder metal will have a higher resistance to plastic deformation than a less hard metal.
:
• Martensitic transformation, more commonly known as quenching and tempering, is a hardening mechanism specific for steel. The steel must be heated to a temperature where the iron phase changes from ferrite into austenite, i.e. changes crystal structure from BCC (body-centered cubic) to FCC (face-centered cubic). In austenitic form, steel can dissolve a lot more carbon. Once the carbon has been dissolved, the material is then quenched. It is important to quench with a high cooling rate so that the carbon does not have time to form precipitates of carbides. When the temperature is low enough, the steel tries to return to the low temperature crystal structure BCC. This change is very quick since it does not rely on diffusion and is called a martensitic transformation. Because of the extreme supersaturation of solid solution carbon, the crystal lattice becomes BCT (body-centered tetragonal) instead. This phase is called martensite, and is extremely hard due to a combined effect of the distorted crystal structure and the extreme solid solution strengthening, both mechanisms of which resist slip dislocation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardening_(metallurgy)

ASTM A421 / A421M - 15
Standard Specification for Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete
https://www.astm.org/Standards/A421.htm

Ähnlich verhält es sich auch mit Mörtel. Wenn dabei weniger das Ergebnis, sondern mehr der Vorgang des Aushärtens gemeint ist, verwendet man dafür häufig einen noch spezielleren Ausdruck, nämlich "curing" oder "setting". Auch dies lässt sich mit 'stress-relieved' kombinieren.

Mörtel (von lat. mortarium "Mörser", "Mörtelgefäß"; regional auch Speis, m.) ist ein Baustoff, der aus einem Bindemittel (beispielsweise Kalk oder Zement), Gesteinskörnung mit höchstens 4 mm Korngröße, gegebenenfalls Zusatzstoffen und Zusatzmitteln, sowie Zugabewasser besteht[1] und durch chemische Reaktion der Bindemittel erhärtet.
:
Aushärtung
Das Bindemittel erhärtet entweder durch physikalische (Trocknung, etwa bei Lehm) oder chemische Vorgänge:
Im Luftmörtel kann das Bindemittel nur an der Luft, z. B. durch Trocknung oder durch Reaktion mit Kohlenstoffdioxid, aushärten.
Wassermörtel oder hydraulischer Mörtel härtet auch unter Wasser aus.
https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mörtel

Cement mortar becomes hard when it cures, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure; however the mortar is intended to be weaker than the building blocks and the sacrificial element in the masonry, because the mortar is easier and less expensive to repair than the building blocks. Mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand, a binder, and water. The most common binder since the early 20th century is Portland cement but the ancient binder lime mortar is still used in some new construction.
:
Ordinary Portland cement mortar, commonly known as OPC mortar or just cement mortar, is created by mixing powdered Ordinary Portland Cement, aggregate and water.
It was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824, largely as a result of efforts to develop stronger mortars. It was made popular during the late nineteenth century, and had by 1930 became more popular than lime mortar as construction material. The advantages of Portland cement is that it sets hard and quickly, allowing a faster pace of construction. Furthermore, fewer skilled workers are required in building a structure with Portland cement.
:
Lime mortar
Main article: Lime mortar
The setting speed can be increased by using impure limestone in the kiln, to form a hydraulic lime that will set on contact with water. Such a lime must be stored as a dry powder. Alternatively, a pozzolanic material such as calcined clay or brick dust may be added to the mortar mix. Addition of a pozzolanic material will make the mortar set reasonably quickly by reaction with the water.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_(masonry)

Fachgebiet Industriestruktur
de
Terminus Härtung
Zuverlässigkeit 3 (Zuverlässig)
Terminus das Härten
Zuverlässigkeit 3 (Zuverlässig)

en
Definition the process of changing a thermosetting resin into its final insoluble, in fusible form. Also applied to the physical change in a PVC paste composition brought about by heating
Terminus curing
Zuverlässigkeit 3 (Zuverlässig)
Terminus setting
Zuverlässigkeit 3 (Zuverlässig)
http://iate.europa.eu/SearchByQuery.do?method=searchDetail&l...

curing [tech.] das Aushärten kein Pl. [Oberflächenbehandlung]
hardening [tech.] das Aushärten kein Pl.
precipitation heat treatment [tech.] das Aushärten kein Pl.
age hardening [tech.] das Aushärten kein Pl.
curing process [tech.] das Aushärten kein Pl.
http://dict.leo.org/ende/index_de.html#/search=Aushärten&sea...

to cure aushärten 84
to set [cure, harden] aushärten 9
to sclerotise [Br.] entom. zool. aushärten [Chitinpanzer etc.]
to sclerotize entom. zool. aushärten [Chitinpanzer etc.]
curing Aushärten {n} 35
setting [hardening] material tech. Aushärten {n} [z. B. Kunststoff, Kleber] 9
http://www.dict.cc/?s=ausHärten

SurePoxy VLM is especially recommended as a stress-relieved binder in abrasion and chemical resistant mortars on concrete or steel. It is also useful as a skid resistant overlay for concrete bridges, parking decks and roadways. It is resistant to water and chloride ion penetration.
http://kaufmanproducts.net/cgi-bin/search.cgi?search=search&...

Compressive strength is dependent on the specific proportions and processing conditions of each formulation. Unlike lime products, which set only at the surface and then require long periods of time for deeper reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide, natural cement is a true hydraulic cement, achieving full-depth set within minutes or hours. Ultimate strength then develops slowly over the course of 90 days' cure and beyond. (on 1st page)
:
… is a true hydraulic cement, achieving full-depth set within minutes or hours. ... natural cements continue to relieve stress and remain mechanically compatible with masonry ...
https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd...
(Note: 2nd page is payable for downloading)


Johannes Gleim
Local time: 11:30
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 290
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