flow production (Assembly line production)
Bei der FließMontage verrichten einzelne Mitarbeiter jeweils nur einen kleinen Teil oder sogar nur wenige Handgriffe der Montagearbeiten, die bis zur Fertigstellung eines Produktes nötig sind. Die Materialien werden mit Fließbändern oder anderen Fördergeräten von Montageplatz zu Montageplatz befördert. Innerhalb einer festgelegten Zeit müssen am Montageplatz dann die entsprechenden Handgriffe erledigt werden.
Erfolgen Transport und Montage in festgelegtem Rhythmus, der Taktzeit, ist die Fließfertigung zeitlich gebunden. Die zeitlich gebundene Fließmontage gilt als effizienter Fertigungsablauf, bei dem hohe Produktivität möglich ist. Die Kapazitäten können sehr genau geplant werden. Dies ist eine Voraussetzung für geringe Lagerkosten. Zudem werden durch die sich wiederholten Montagehandgriffe Fehlerquote und Ausschuss verringert.
Nachteilig ist die geringe Flexibilität einer Fließfertigung beispielsweise gegenüber Maschinenstörungen oder schwankenden Auslastungen. Zudem führt monotone Arbeit bei den Arbeitskräften häufig zu Abstumpfung und Motivationsproblemen.
In flow production (Assembly line production), individual employees carry out just a small proportion of the assembly Work needed to complete a product, possibly even just a few operations. Materials are carried from one assembly point to the next on conveyor belts or other conveying systems. The necessary work or operations at an assembly point thus need to be carried out within a set timeframe.
When transport and assembly follow a set rhythm - the cycle time - the flow production is said to be timed. Timed flow production is an efficient production sequence that enables companies to achieve high levels of productivity. Capacities can be planned very precisely, which is essential when seeking to keep storage costs low. Furthermore, repetitive assembly operations help to lower error rates and rejects.
The main disadvantage to flow production is poor flexibility, such as when responding to machine faults or fluctuating utilisation. Furthermore, monotonous work can often have a numbing affect on employees, sapping their motivation.
Note added at 1 Tag 7 Stunden (2018-02-14 16:22:47 GMT)
That term is not only used by German companies but by genuine British companies as well:
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Flow production (Process Production) is also a very common method of production. Flow production is when the product is built up through many segregated stages; the product is built upon at each stage and then passed directly to the next stage where it is built upon again. The production method is financially the most efficient and effective because there is less of a need for skilled workers.
flow production noun [ U ] uk us PRODUCTION
→ continuous production
noun [ U ] uk us also continuous processing, also flow production
PRODUCTION a manufacturing process in which finished products are made from basic materials in one continuous process without interruption:
Oil refineries, for instance, use a continuous production process, and refining equipment works twenty-four hours a day.
Flow production (often known as mass production) involves the use of production lines such as in a car manufacturer where doors, engines, bonnets and wheels are added to a chassis as it moves along the assembly line. It is appropriate when firms are looking to produce a high volume of similar items. Some of the big brand names that have consistently high demand are most suitable for this type of production.
Advantages of flow production
Flow production is capital intensive. This means it uses a high proportion of machinery in relation to workers, as is the case on an assembly line. The advantage of this is that a high number of products can roll off assembly lines at very low cost. This is because production can continue at night and over weekends and also firms can benefit from economies of scale, which should lower the cost per unit of production.
Disadvantages of flow production
The main disadvantage is that with so much machinery it is very difficult to alter the production process.
This makes production inflexible and means that all products have to be very similar or standardised and cannot be tailored to individual tastes.
Another disadvantage of using flow production is that the work can be pretty boring for employees involved. Keeping staff motivated is therefore an important issue for management.
1. 1. FLOW PRODUCTION
2. 2. WHAT IS FLOW PRODUCTION ? • Flow production involves a continuous movement of items through the production process. This means that when one task is finished the next task must start immediately. Therefore, the time taken on each task must be the same. • Flow production (often known as mass production) involves the use of production lines such as in a car manufacturer where doors, engines, bonnets and wheels are added to a chassis as it moves along the assembly line. It is appropriate when firms are looking to produce a high volume of similar items. Some of the big brand names that have consistently high demand are most suitable for this type of production.
Difference between batch and flow production methods
Batch production is the manufacture of different version of the same basic product in batches (eg. different colour, types of paint, different varieties of jams etc)
There is some repetition of production which is for stock (rather than to order). Production is not continuous. Change-over between batches means that resources are idle at times. Consequently, production managers have to plan production schedules to minimize changeovers. The machinery employed will be specialised for production of the firm's products, but yet flexible enough for different batches.
Flow Production requires specialist machinery. Because of the high capital investment requirement, it is essential to achieve high level of utilisation. This requires a high level of sales of a fairly standardized product made for stock.
Flow production links up with a strategy of undifferentiated marketing whereas batch production suggests that the product is tailored to suit the needs of particular customers or segments.
The manpower required is specialist, but low in skills and performing repetitive task as compared to batch production where the levels of skills required are comparatively high.
The great advantage of line production is that with long production runs unit costs will be very low as compared to batch production.
Production is organised so that different operations can be carried out one after another, in a continuous sequence. For example, cars will move from one operation to the next, often along a conveyor belt. The main features of flow production are:
• Large quantities are produced.
• Simplified or standard product.
• Semi-skilled workforce specialising in one task only.
• High degree of automisation.
• Large stocks or raw materials and work in progress.
It is sometimes called mass production due to the large number of goods being made. Flow production often relies upon the use of computers to control the production process. They control the speed and conditions whilst monitoring levels of quality. They allow large numbers o fproducts to be produced continually to exact standards or control continuous production which has many processes.
| Johannes Gleim|
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