subjektiv-dinglich

English translation: as a personal right in rem

22:07 Nov 26, 2018
German to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Real Estate / Land Register
German term or phrase: subjektiv-dinglich
This term occurs in a Swiss land register.

It appears that this term has to do with a part of the property being dependent on the main part of the property, i.e., it is sold along with the main property (such as the electric lines going to the house are not separated from the main property when it is sold; rather, they are sold together and they cannot be separated from each other).

I'm interested in this phrase/word as it applies to the following:

dingliche Verbindung / subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung
1/5 subjektiv=dingliches Miteigentum an Blatt 000, Kataster 000, EGRID...

I am aware of the following website; however, I am not coming up with a better translation a result of it.

https://www.anmerkung.ch/exkurse/exkurs-anmerkungsgrundstuec...
Timothy Wood
United States
Local time: 03:50
English translation:as a personal right in rem
Explanation:
"The existence of the expectant right, a precursor to ownership (BGHZ 28, 16, at 27), as a personal right in rem (subjektiv-dingliches Recht) is weakened by its dependency on the underlying contract. which is subject to the law of obligations (schuldrechtlicher Vertrag) (see Serick, op. cit.)."https://books.google.com/books?id=FcTbBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA835&lpg=...

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Note added at 1 day 17 hrs (2018-11-28 15:25:12 GMT)
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In rem right:
Right associated with a property, not based on any personal relationship.
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/in-rem-right.ht...

Compare with your source:

Jeder Anteil an der Miteigentumsliegenschaft (= „Anmerkungsparzelle“) ist mit einem andern Grundstück (=„herrschendes Grundstück“) untrennbar verbunden (= „subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum“; auch: unselbständiges Miteigentum), so dass diese das Schicksal je ihres Hauptgrundstücks teilen und nicht als Sachwerte des Rechtsverkehrs gelten https://www.anmerkung.ch/exkurse/exkurs-anmerkungsgrundstuec...

subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung = in rem connection

Compare with this:
" in international tax law the UK has the right to tax the worldwide income of the company based on the ‘in personam’ connecting factor of residence; the PE host state has fiscal jurisdiction over the company since the branch is an ‘in rem’ connection between it and the taxpayer." (p.7)
https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/4721/1/Timothy_Adam_MA_Taxation_...

Subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum = in rem right to property

Compare with this:
"The court found that under German law a usufructuary had an in rem right to the property which included (a) enjoyment of the income; (b) co-possession with the legal owner; (c) a voice in management to preserve the usufructuary's rights, and (d) a right to prevent sale of the property." https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/244...

Selected response from:

Michael Martin, MA
United States
Local time: 05:50
Grading comment
Thank you! This is the most concise and helpful answer.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
3in rem claim-right of
Herbmione Granger
3as a personal right in rem
Michael Martin, MA


Discussion entries: 16





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
as a personal right in rem


Explanation:
"The existence of the expectant right, a precursor to ownership (BGHZ 28, 16, at 27), as a personal right in rem (subjektiv-dingliches Recht) is weakened by its dependency on the underlying contract. which is subject to the law of obligations (schuldrechtlicher Vertrag) (see Serick, op. cit.)."https://books.google.com/books?id=FcTbBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA835&lpg=...

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Note added at 1 day 17 hrs (2018-11-28 15:25:12 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

In rem right:
Right associated with a property, not based on any personal relationship.
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/in-rem-right.ht...

Compare with your source:

Jeder Anteil an der Miteigentumsliegenschaft (= „Anmerkungsparzelle“) ist mit einem andern Grundstück (=„herrschendes Grundstück“) untrennbar verbunden (= „subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum“; auch: unselbständiges Miteigentum), so dass diese das Schicksal je ihres Hauptgrundstücks teilen und nicht als Sachwerte des Rechtsverkehrs gelten https://www.anmerkung.ch/exkurse/exkurs-anmerkungsgrundstuec...

subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung = in rem connection

Compare with this:
" in international tax law the UK has the right to tax the worldwide income of the company based on the ‘in personam’ connecting factor of residence; the PE host state has fiscal jurisdiction over the company since the branch is an ‘in rem’ connection between it and the taxpayer." (p.7)
https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/4721/1/Timothy_Adam_MA_Taxation_...

Subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum = in rem right to property

Compare with this:
"The court found that under German law a usufructuary had an in rem right to the property which included (a) enjoyment of the income; (b) co-possession with the legal owner; (c) a voice in management to preserve the usufructuary's rights, and (d) a right to prevent sale of the property." https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/244...



Michael Martin, MA
United States
Local time: 05:50
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 40
Grading comment
Thank you! This is the most concise and helpful answer.
Notes to answerer
Asker: The authors of this book are definitely highly qualified people. I think this one makes the most sense and it is the most succinct.

Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

13 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
in rem claim-right of


Explanation:
https://www.edgelearningmedia.com/2016/07/07/subjective-righ...
A subjective right is a legally recognised and valid claim by a legal subject to a certain legal object. Therefore, when a legal subject acquires a right in a thing or object as a result of a lawful real relationship with the thing or object, the right is a subjective right.

https://digitalcommons.law.lsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?artic...
In order to explain more clearly certain features of German civil law, analytical jurists in Germany draw a distinction among "right" (subjektives Recht), "claim" (Anspruch) and "action" (Klage)... Claim has been defined in the German Civil Code as "the right to demand from another the performance of an act or omission." B.G.B. $ 194. Claims, therefore, are species of the generic concept "subjective right."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claim_rights_and_liberty_right...
A claim right is a right which entails responsibilities, duties, or obligations on other parties regarding the right-holder.

https://practiceguides.chambers.com/practice-guides/public-p...
Finally, the tenderers’ subjective right to claim compliance with public procurement law against contracting authorities (Section 97 paragraph 6) deserves mentioning.

https://law.hofstra.edu/pdf/academics/journals/lawreview/lrv...
In the early 1900s, Wesley Hohfeld, a leader in legal rights talk,7 lamented the looseness of rights language in the law.8 In response to what he saw as indiscriminate use of the term, he categorized “rights” into rights (now commonly called claim-rights or claims), privileges, powers, and immunities.9

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Note added at 20 hrs (2018-11-27 18:58:36 GMT)
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I think that subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung boils down to fixture, or essential part of the property.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixture_(property_law)
Fixtures are known in civil law as essential parts

http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_bgb/englisch_bgb....
Section 94
Essential parts of a plot of land or a building
(1) The essential parts of a plot of land include the things firmly attached to the land, in particular buildings, and the produce of the plot of land, as long as it is connected with the land. Seed becomes an essential part of the plot of land when it is sown, and a plant when it is planted.
(2) The essential parts of a building include the things inserted in order to construct the building.

https://www.miteigentum.ch/miteigentums-arten/unselbstaendig...
Beim unselbständigen Miteigentum ist jeder Anteil an der Miteigentums-Liegenschaft (oft bezeichnet als „Anmerkungsparzelle“) mit einem anderen Grundstück (Hauptgrundstück, auch „herrschendes Grundstück“) untrennbar verbunden (= Subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum). Der Miteigentümer erhält durch die subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung ein Realrecht vermittelt.

https://haeusermann.ch/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Die-Mischu...
Unselbstständiges Miteigentum liegt dann vor, wenn die Miteigentumsanteile den jeweiligen Eigentümern bestimmter Grundstücke, den so genannten Hauptgrundstücken, zukommen. Der Eigentümer des Hauptgrundstücks ist damit stets auch Eigentümer des unselbstständigen Grundstücks15. Diese Verbindung wird technisch als "Verknüpfung" bezeichnet und entsteht durch die Erklärung des Eigentümers beider Grundstücke, eine solche Verknüpfung einzuge-hen, und mit der entsprechenden Eintragung im Grundbuch.
Unselbstständiges Miteigentum wird zum Teil auch als subjektiv-dingliches Miteigentum be-zeichnet16. Subjektiv-dingliche Rechte sind "Rechte, die dem jeweiligen Subjekt eines dingli-chen Rechts, namentlich dem Eigentümer, zustehen"17. Bei der Verknüpfung handelt es sich um eine solch subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung, denn dem Eigentümer des Hauptgrundstücks steht immer auch das Eigentum am damit verknüpften, unselbstständigen Miteigentumsanteil zu18.

https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/personal prop...
In accession, the personal property of one owner is physically integrated with the property of another so that it becomes a constituent part of it, losing any separate identity. Accession can make the personal property of one owner become a substantially more valuable chattel as a result of the work of another person. This transformation occurs when the personal property becomes an entirely new chattel, such as when grapes are made into wine or timber is made into furniture.
Subject to the doctrine of accession, personal property can become real property through its transformation into a fixture. A fixture is a movable item that was originally personalty (personal property) but which has become attached to, and associated with, the land and is, therefore, considered a part of the real property.

You can see this a quasi-literal translation in this Germanish comparative law study:
https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ebooks/files/321952723.pdf
9.1. Fixtures (attachment of personalty to realty)
9.2. Accessio (attachment of personalty to personalty)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicquid_plantatur_solo,_solo_...

Attachment is not a good idea.
https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/attachment
https://texas.public.law/statutes/tex._civ._practice_and_rem...

Also not relevant, as far as I can see: personal right (right in personam).

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Note added at 2 days 13 hrs (2018-11-29 11:17:34 GMT) Post-grading
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The reference below might help for any country that gives ownership by land cadaster registration. No. 6 matches the German-Swiss descriptions of "Subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung eines Miteigentumsanteils (auch: unselbständiges Miteigentum) mit dem Hauptgrundstück."

https://www.elra.eu/contact-point-contribution/estonia/the-c...
First division of register part “Composition of Registered immovable” provides the following information:
6. the merger and division of registered immovables and the joining of a part of a registered immovable with the registered immovable, or separation of a part of a registered immovable from the registered immovable.

https://www.notariate.zh.ch/deu/ind_glo.php?glo_id=219
subjektiv dingliche Verbindung
"angemerktes" Miteigentum: Art. 32 GBV; das Miteigentum wird bei einem "herrschenden" Grundstück angemerkt. Beim in Miteigentumsanteile aufgeteilten Grundstück werden unter der Rubrik "Eigentümer" die Grundbuchblätter der "herrschenden" Grundstücke eingetragen.

I'm not a law professional, so I'm not going to demand any particular translation.

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Note added at 15 days (2018-12-12 09:37:25 GMT) Post-grading
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After digging through numerous articles on property law around the world and along history, I think "(real) appurtenance" is suitable for subjektiv-dingliche Verbindung in this situation. Fortunately, at least for translators, it covers both the property (Pertinenzstück) and the rights (Pertinenzien, Realrechte).
https://en.langenscheidt.com/english-german/appurtenance

Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten
...
Theilbare und untheilbare Sachen. Pertinenzstücke.
(I 2) §. 42. Eine Sache, welche zwar für sich selbst bestehen kann, die aber mit einer andern Sache in eine fortwährende Verbindung gesetzt worden, wird ein Zubehör oder Pertinenzstück derselben genannt.
(I 2) §. 43. Unbewegliche Sachen, die mit einer andern unbeweglichen Sache durch die Natur verbunden worden, machen mit ihr nur Eine (!) Substanz aus.
(I 2) §. 44. Dagegen haben sowohl bewegliche als unbewegliche Sachen, die einem andern Ganzen durch die Handlung oder Bestimmung eines Menschen zugeschlagen werden, die Eigenschaft eines Pertinenzstücks.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/appurtenance
law : an incidental right (such as a right-of-way) attached to a principal property right and passing in possession with it

https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/appurtena...
• If appurtenant, then the easement belongs to what is called the dominant estate (property) and passes to new owners for all time until the easement is abandoned. For example, an easement for ingress and egress over another's property is an easement appurtenant. The property that enjoys the easement is the dominant estate, and the property over which one may travel is called the servient estate. A sale of the dominant estate automatically includes a transfer of the easement, because it is appurtenant.
• Contrast with an easement in gross, which might be a right to park one's antique car at a friend's house and gain ingress and egress for purposes of using the car. This easement is personal and not tied to any particular real estate.
• This is a tricky area of the law that generally requires the assistance of a lawyer specializing in complex real estate issues. The seminal case on the subject is the 1850 English case of Ackroyd v. Smith.

"Limited real rights" seems close enough to subjektiv-dingliche Rechte.
https://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/definition/subjektiv-di...
Ausführliche Definition
dem jeweiligen Eigentümer eines anderen Grundstücks zustehende dingliche Rechte, z.B. Grunddienstbarkeiten, Überbaurente, Notwegrente.

Compare with dingliches Recht.
absolutes, subjektives Recht, das eine unmittelbare Herrschaft über eine Sache gewährt und durch besondere (dingliche) Ansprüche gegenüber jedem Dritten geschützt ist, z. B. Eigentum (Sachenrecht); beim beschränkten dinglichen Recht ist das Herrschaftsrecht des Hauptrechtsinhabers eingeschränkt, z. B. Reallast, Nießbrauch; dingliche Klage, Klage, deren Inhalt die Geltendmachung eines dinglichen Rechts ist.

"Subordinate real right" is even closer and accounts for the "subjektiv" in the compound.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usufruct
Usufruct is a limited real right (or in rem right) found in civil-law and mixed jurisdictions that unites the two property interests of usus and fructus
... Usufruct comes from civil law, under which it is a subordinate real right (ius in re aliena) of limited duration, usually for a person's lifetime.

https://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/subjektiv
spätlateinisch subiectivus, zu lateinisch subiectus = unter etwas liegend; untergeben, adjektivisches 2. Partizip von: subicere, Subjekt

I wonder if the American equivalent for this class of property rights would be:
https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?width=840...
(A)The term “interest in real property” includes fee ownership and co-ownership of land or improvements thereon, leaseholds of land or improvements thereon, options to acquire land or improvements thereon, and options to acquire leaseholds of land or improvements thereon.

Phrases like "Mit dem Grundstück ist subjektiv-dinglich verbunden:" seem to always refer to the Swiss Kataster+Grundbuch and Swiss property law.
https://www.gfvbl.ch/public/upload/assets/1173/GRUNDSTÜCKKAT...
5.4 Miteigentum (Art. 646 ff ZGB)
Ein und dieselbe Sache steht anteilmässig mehreren Personen zu. Die Sache kann nach Bruchteilen unterteilt werden (1/2, 1/3, 1/8 etc.). Jeder Miteigentümer/jede Miteigentümerin hat für den entsprechenden Anteil die Rechte und Pflichten eines Eigentümers und kann diesen Anteil veräussern oder verpfänden, soweit dies mit den Rechten der übrigen Miteigentümer in Einklang steht.
... Die Miteigentumsanteile werden oft subjektiv-dinglich mit der zu erschliessenden Parzelle verknüpft. Das heisst, die Parzelle kann nicht ohne das Miteigentum am Weg verkauft werden. Dasselbe kann bei Einstellplätzen in Autoeinstellhallen so im Grundbuch eingetragen werden.

To me the "subjektiv" indicates that the Verbindung is "pr(a)edial", which really shouldn't be equated with "personal" in terms of property or rights.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Servitude_in_civil_law

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/praedial
1 : being or made up of land or immovable property or the profits therefrom : landed —used chiefly with reference to the Roman and civil law systems and practically equivalent to the *real* of English law
2 : of, relating to, or arising from land or landed property : attached to land
- praedial slaves
- a praedial relationship

Louisiana Law Review, Volume 43 | Number 1, September 1982
Creation of Servitudes by Prescription and Destination of the Owner
A. N. Yiannopoulos
Article 654 of the Louisiana Civil Code declares that "predial servitudes may be natural, legal, and voluntary or conventional."' There is a corresponding classification of predial servitudes in the French Civil Code.2 In Germany and in Greece, however, the notions of natural and legal servitudes have given way to the idea of limitations on ownership; as a result, in the legal systems of these two countries all servitudes are conventional.

http://civillawdictionary.pbworks.com/w/page/15934874/S Civi...
Predial servitudes - A predial servitude is a charge on a servient estate for the benefit of a dominant estate. Similar to an appurtenant easement. A predial servitude is either apparent or nonapparent. Apparent servitudes are those that are perceivable by exterior signs, works, or constructions, such as a roadway or a window in a common wall. A nonapparent servitude has no exterior sign of its existence, such as the prohibition of building on an estate or of building above a particular height. A predial servitude may also be acquired by destination. Destination of the owner is a relationship established between two estates owned by the same owner that would be a predial servitude if the estates belonged to different owners.

Herbmione Granger
Germany
Local time: 11:50
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you for the very, very extensive list of links here that pertain to my question. I have read several of them and I agree that "attachment" is not a good idea. I am still somewhat puzzled that a "personal right (right in personam)" would be connected by a hyphen to a "right in rem". I think "fixture" or "essential parts" point in a relevant direction, but I am still looking for something slightly more concise...not sure where to go at this point.

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