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German term or phrase:Fortgeschrittenen-Leistungsnachweis
In German this is colloquially called a _Schein_.
It refers to an exam you take during your studies at University that relates to a a specific course of lectures.
By passing this exam you can prove that you understood these lectures.
Explanation: My DAAD dictionary "Begriffe aus Wissenschaft und Hochschule" gives for Schein: certificate; course certificate; credit; and for Leistungsnachweis:proof of academic achievement. Take your pick!