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Schmalbahn

English translation: machine direction (MD)

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18:53 Dec 20, 2003
German to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Printing & Publishing / printing
German term or phrase: Schmalbahn
Durch Feuchtigkeit, Temperatur und mechanische Beanspruchung zeit ein Druckbogen im Druck und in der Weiterverarbeitung in *Schmalbahn* ein anderes Arbeitsvermögen (Dehnung) als gegen die Laufrichtung.


I have found several different options for "Schmalbahn" in Leo, Dicdata and Kucera and am not sure which is best in this context. Any qualified help much appreciated!
Rebecca Holmes
United States
Local time: 12:52
English translation:machine direction (MD)
Explanation:
Indeed Schmal-/Breitbahn = long/short grain. However, these terms refer rather to the paper itself (how it was cut in relation to the direction of the original paper roll). In relation to the printing process, the terms 'machine/cross direction' are more relevant.

"Machine and Cross Direction
Paper has a definite grain direction due to greater orientation of fibres in the direction of travel of the paper machine. This grain direction is known as machine direction. The cross direction is the direction of paper at right angles to the machine direction. Some of the properties vary with the MD and CD and hence the values are reported in both the directions. While sheeting the paper, machine and cross direction are to be kept in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suit the end use requirements. Examples: 1. All printing papers are to be cut in long grain (The biggest dimension in the grain direction). 2. Book papers fold better and the book stays open better if the sheets are out so that the machine direction runs up and down the pages. 3. Wrap around labels for metal cans and bottles are to be cut with the machine direction vertical to obtain greater flexibility about the can. Long grain and Short grain : The sheet is in long grain if the larger dimension is parallel to grain (MD) direction. The sheet is said to be in short grain if the larger dimension is parallel to cross direction (CD)." (first link below)


The choice of direction is important in sheetfed offset printing due to the fact that paper behaviour is different along/across the grain, mainly in view of: 1) elongation, 2) curling, and 3) folding. Here's some more to it:


"Paper Grain - All paper has grain. Long grain paper has the grain running the length while short grain paper has the grain running the width. Why is this important? If you need to fold the paper, you MUST fold it with the grain otherwise you will get a ragged fold. You can buy most paper with either long or short grain." (second link below)

"Die zugehörige Abkürzung lautet "SB". Mit dieser Bezeichnung wird eine Aussage über die Faserrichtung (besser Laufrichtung) eines Blattes oder Bogens gemacht. Bei Schmalbahn liegt die längere Seite parallel zur Laufrichtung. Beispiel: 70 x 100 cm bedeutet Schmalbahn, Gegenteil: 70 x 100 cm bedeutet Breitbahn. Das unterstrichene Maß zeigt die Dehnrichtung."
http://www.buchbinder-chemnitz.de/start.htm?url=glossar/schm...

"Laufrichtung
Die Laufrichtung ist die Richtung in der das Papier bei der Herstellung durch die Papiermaschine läuft. Die Laufrichtung beim Papier/Karton zu kennen ist wichtig, da Papier sich durch Feuchtigkeit ausdehnt und zwar immer quer zur Laufrichtung. Dieses Verhalten kann beim Drucken zu Schwierigkeiten mit der Passgenauigkeit der einzelnen Druckgänge führen. Desweiteren lässt sich Papier besser in Laufrichtung verarbeiten. Die Laufrichtung wird auch als Maschinenrichtung bezeichnet. Papierbogen werden je nach Laufrichtung als Schmalbahn (Laufrichtung parallel zur langen Seite) oder Breitbahn (Laufrichtung parallel zur kurzen Seite) genannt. Bei der Papierbogen-Bestellung wird die Laufrichtung entweder durch ein M (Maschinenrichtung) oder durch eine Unterstreichung der Dehnrichtung kenntlich gemacht, z. B. 35 cm x 50 cm M oder 35 cm x 50 cm.

Biegeprobe
Zwei Papierstreifen mit verschiedener Laufrichtung biegen sich unterschiedlich stark.
Feuchtigkeitsprobe
Ein angefeuchtetes Blatt Papier wölbt sich in die Maschinenrichtung
Nagelprobe
Ein Blatt Papier, an dessen Kanten man mit den Fingernägeln entlangfährt, kräuselt sich an der Dehnrichtungsseite
Reißprobe
Beim Einreißen eines Blattes Papier, entsteht in der Dehnrichtung ein gezackter Riss."
http://www.geldsetzer.de/Glossar/g_l.html



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 days 10 hrs 56 mins (2003-12-23 05:50:16 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

William:

Just to make sure, I consulted a friend of mine, a printing shop manager, who\'s been in the business for 30 years.

In fact, Schmal-/Breitbahn = long/short grain, *which is equivalent to* machine/cross direction (MD/CD).

Faserrichtung = grain direction; Laufrichtung = machine direction.

That is, Laufrichtung refers to the direction of the paper roll during the manufacturing of the paper, *not* to the direction of the sheet movement through the printing press (press direction, sheet feed direction).

My confusion stemmed from the fact that in my language we use a phrase roughy equivalent to \'machine direction\' to signify sheet feed direction through the printing press.

Anyway, in English \'machine direction\' (MD) is indeed an equivalent of \'long grain\' (Schmalbahn). While doing some additional research, I found out that \'machine direction\' and \'long grain\' were used at about the same frequency, in relation to commercial printing (as far as Google can be trusted).

In view of all this, Rebecca\'s sentence would be about the difference in a printing sheet\'s properties (namely elongation) when printing grain long, as opposed to printing in cross direction. (Or in long grain, as opposed to short grain, or in MD, as opposed to CD.)

To close with, I found this excerpt that says it all (I think):

\"All machine-made papers have the property of grain - the direction in which most of the fibers lie. Grain is determined by the manner in which fibers align as the sheets are being manufactured in the paper machine.

As the slurry flows from the headbox to the moving fourdrinier wire of the machine, the fibers have a tendency to align parallel to the direction of the flow just like little logs floating downstream. Despite efforts to minimize this effect, most fibers continue to align themselves in the same direction. The direction the majority of fibers are pointing in any given sheet of paper is that sheet\'s grain direction.

The terms grain direction and machine direction are used interchangeably by paper manufacturers. The graphic arts industry uses such terms as folded parallel to the grain, printed grain long, and grain optional to specify how a printed job should be produced Paper grain is very important to commercial printers, and can impact a job in a number of ways, as detailed below . . .

Folding: ....

Dimensional Stability: ....

Rigidity: ....

Tearing: ....\"

http://www.anro.com/mailing-news/ink7.html
Selected response from:

invguy
Bulgaria
Local time: 19:52
Grading comment
Many, many thanks to everyone for the help! Merry post-Christmas and happy New Year. Sorry it took me so long to grade the answer - busy partying with the in-laws (arrghhh...).
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +2long grain
Michael Pauls
4 +1machine direction (MD)
invguy
3 +1long grain?
Kim Metzger
4narrow rollgangels


  

Answers


7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
long grain


Explanation:
just try google



    Reference: http://www.thepapermill.com/pdf_files/grain_direction.pdf
Michael Pauls
Germany
Local time: 18:52
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 12

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  William Stein: right: pauker.at/wordlist.txt
1 hr
  -> well, considering your current job, you're an expert in the field now! Thanks and merry X-mas.

agree  Jose Paez
7 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

9 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
long grain?


Explanation:
Lexikon - SCHMALBAHN
SCHMALBAHN - Der Begriff "Schmalbahn" sagt, dass ein Formatpapier "schmalseitig" aus der Rolle geschnitten wurde, z.B. das Format 61 x 86 cm aus einer 61 cm breiten Rolle (Bahnbreite und Laufrichtung).

http://www.cyberhafen.de/Schmalbahn/druckerei_Schmalbahn.htm

Long Grain / Schmalbahn
Orientación predominante de las fibras en la superficie del papel paralela al lado más largo de la hoja.

http://www.witcel.com.ar/english/services/glossary.htm



    Reference: http://www.cyberhafen.de/Schmalbahn/druckerei_Schmalbahn.htm
    Reference: http://www.witcel.com.ar/english/services/glossary.htm
Kim Metzger
Mexico
Local time: 11:52
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 155

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Marshall Waddell
1 hr
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 day 21 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
narrow roll


Explanation:
Trondt: Polygraph Dictionary
Fachausdrücke der graphishen Industrie

gangels
Local time: 10:52
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 55
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

8 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
machine direction (MD)


Explanation:
Indeed Schmal-/Breitbahn = long/short grain. However, these terms refer rather to the paper itself (how it was cut in relation to the direction of the original paper roll). In relation to the printing process, the terms 'machine/cross direction' are more relevant.

"Machine and Cross Direction
Paper has a definite grain direction due to greater orientation of fibres in the direction of travel of the paper machine. This grain direction is known as machine direction. The cross direction is the direction of paper at right angles to the machine direction. Some of the properties vary with the MD and CD and hence the values are reported in both the directions. While sheeting the paper, machine and cross direction are to be kept in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suit the end use requirements. Examples: 1. All printing papers are to be cut in long grain (The biggest dimension in the grain direction). 2. Book papers fold better and the book stays open better if the sheets are out so that the machine direction runs up and down the pages. 3. Wrap around labels for metal cans and bottles are to be cut with the machine direction vertical to obtain greater flexibility about the can. Long grain and Short grain : The sheet is in long grain if the larger dimension is parallel to grain (MD) direction. The sheet is said to be in short grain if the larger dimension is parallel to cross direction (CD)." (first link below)


The choice of direction is important in sheetfed offset printing due to the fact that paper behaviour is different along/across the grain, mainly in view of: 1) elongation, 2) curling, and 3) folding. Here's some more to it:


"Paper Grain - All paper has grain. Long grain paper has the grain running the length while short grain paper has the grain running the width. Why is this important? If you need to fold the paper, you MUST fold it with the grain otherwise you will get a ragged fold. You can buy most paper with either long or short grain." (second link below)

"Die zugehörige Abkürzung lautet "SB". Mit dieser Bezeichnung wird eine Aussage über die Faserrichtung (besser Laufrichtung) eines Blattes oder Bogens gemacht. Bei Schmalbahn liegt die längere Seite parallel zur Laufrichtung. Beispiel: 70 x 100 cm bedeutet Schmalbahn, Gegenteil: 70 x 100 cm bedeutet Breitbahn. Das unterstrichene Maß zeigt die Dehnrichtung."
http://www.buchbinder-chemnitz.de/start.htm?url=glossar/schm...

"Laufrichtung
Die Laufrichtung ist die Richtung in der das Papier bei der Herstellung durch die Papiermaschine läuft. Die Laufrichtung beim Papier/Karton zu kennen ist wichtig, da Papier sich durch Feuchtigkeit ausdehnt und zwar immer quer zur Laufrichtung. Dieses Verhalten kann beim Drucken zu Schwierigkeiten mit der Passgenauigkeit der einzelnen Druckgänge führen. Desweiteren lässt sich Papier besser in Laufrichtung verarbeiten. Die Laufrichtung wird auch als Maschinenrichtung bezeichnet. Papierbogen werden je nach Laufrichtung als Schmalbahn (Laufrichtung parallel zur langen Seite) oder Breitbahn (Laufrichtung parallel zur kurzen Seite) genannt. Bei der Papierbogen-Bestellung wird die Laufrichtung entweder durch ein M (Maschinenrichtung) oder durch eine Unterstreichung der Dehnrichtung kenntlich gemacht, z. B. 35 cm x 50 cm M oder 35 cm x 50 cm.

Biegeprobe
Zwei Papierstreifen mit verschiedener Laufrichtung biegen sich unterschiedlich stark.
Feuchtigkeitsprobe
Ein angefeuchtetes Blatt Papier wölbt sich in die Maschinenrichtung
Nagelprobe
Ein Blatt Papier, an dessen Kanten man mit den Fingernägeln entlangfährt, kräuselt sich an der Dehnrichtungsseite
Reißprobe
Beim Einreißen eines Blattes Papier, entsteht in der Dehnrichtung ein gezackter Riss."
http://www.geldsetzer.de/Glossar/g_l.html



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 days 10 hrs 56 mins (2003-12-23 05:50:16 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

William:

Just to make sure, I consulted a friend of mine, a printing shop manager, who\'s been in the business for 30 years.

In fact, Schmal-/Breitbahn = long/short grain, *which is equivalent to* machine/cross direction (MD/CD).

Faserrichtung = grain direction; Laufrichtung = machine direction.

That is, Laufrichtung refers to the direction of the paper roll during the manufacturing of the paper, *not* to the direction of the sheet movement through the printing press (press direction, sheet feed direction).

My confusion stemmed from the fact that in my language we use a phrase roughy equivalent to \'machine direction\' to signify sheet feed direction through the printing press.

Anyway, in English \'machine direction\' (MD) is indeed an equivalent of \'long grain\' (Schmalbahn). While doing some additional research, I found out that \'machine direction\' and \'long grain\' were used at about the same frequency, in relation to commercial printing (as far as Google can be trusted).

In view of all this, Rebecca\'s sentence would be about the difference in a printing sheet\'s properties (namely elongation) when printing grain long, as opposed to printing in cross direction. (Or in long grain, as opposed to short grain, or in MD, as opposed to CD.)

To close with, I found this excerpt that says it all (I think):

\"All machine-made papers have the property of grain - the direction in which most of the fibers lie. Grain is determined by the manner in which fibers align as the sheets are being manufactured in the paper machine.

As the slurry flows from the headbox to the moving fourdrinier wire of the machine, the fibers have a tendency to align parallel to the direction of the flow just like little logs floating downstream. Despite efforts to minimize this effect, most fibers continue to align themselves in the same direction. The direction the majority of fibers are pointing in any given sheet of paper is that sheet\'s grain direction.

The terms grain direction and machine direction are used interchangeably by paper manufacturers. The graphic arts industry uses such terms as folded parallel to the grain, printed grain long, and grain optional to specify how a printed job should be produced Paper grain is very important to commercial printers, and can impact a job in a number of ways, as detailed below . . .

Folding: ....

Dimensional Stability: ....

Rigidity: ....

Tearing: ....\"

http://www.anro.com/mailing-news/ink7.html


    Reference: http://www.biltpaper.com/p_properties.asp
    Reference: http://www.invitationsetc.com/m2_pt.htm
invguy
Bulgaria
Local time: 19:52
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in BulgarianBulgarian
PRO pts in category: 12
Grading comment
Many, many thanks to everyone for the help! Merry post-Christmas and happy New Year. Sorry it took me so long to grade the answer - busy partying with the in-laws (arrghhh...).

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  William Stein: But in R's text Schmalbahn is opposed to "Laufrichtung" (machine direction), so shouldn't it be "cross direction" or "laterally"? -- Okay, thanks for clearing that up!
1 day 13 hrs
  -> Thanks for bugging me, William :) I found out I had fallen into a bit of confusion; but my answer turned out to be correct nonetheless (see above).
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