# okrężność

## English translation: circularity

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
 Polish term or phrase: okrężność English translation: circularity Entered by:

 15:26 Nov 16, 2013
Polish to English translations [PRO]
Art/Literary - Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts) / philosophy of photography
 Polish term or phrase: okrężność Jednym z najoczywistszych sposobów doświadczania czasu jest następstwo zdarzeń, które możemy uszeregować według relacji „wcześniej” i „później”. Możliwe wydaje się wyprowadzenie jednowymiarowości lub okrężności z porządku przyczynowego, przedstawionego w zdjęciu.
 Local time: 23:44
 circularity Explanation:What else? --------------------------------------------------Note added at 20 mins (2013-11-16 15:47:26 GMT)--------------------------------------------------Time has traditionally been viewed as either like a circle or like a line. Plato, Aristotle and many other Greek and Roman thinkers, particularly the Stoics, advocated a circular view of time. Linear time first appeared in Hebrew and Zoroastrian Iranian writings. Seneca was an advocate of linear time. Augustine thought time was specifically like a line segment. It had a distinct beginning and end, from Genesis to judgement day. Later on Aquinas agreed, and even further on Newton mathematically represented time as a line in his equations. Prominent thinkers such as Barrow, Leibniz, Locke and Kant all agreed with a linear type of time, and in the 19th century time was widely regarded, in both philosophy and science, like a line. It wasn't until 1949, when Kurt Godel, working with Einstein's equations, developed "closed loops of proper time", which are semi-circular in that they allow one to end up where they started after going forward in time. (From the internet encylopedia of philosophy - http://www.iep.utm.edu/t/time.htm)
Selected response from:

Frank Szmulowicz, Ph. D.
United States
Local time: 17:44
 4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

3 +2circularity
 Frank Szmulowicz, Ph. D.
3 +1circularity of cause and effect
 mike23

Discussion entries: 3

14 mins   confidence: peer agreement (net): +1
circularity of cause and effect

Explanation:
I've seen such a term. Hope it is the one sought

 mike23United KingdomLocal time: 22:44Native speaker of: Polish

agree  Frank Szmulowicz, Ph. D.: In the sentence, "the causal order" relates to "the cause and effect," of course. However, I wonder whether this is not about an artistic/inner perception of time.
 18 mins
-> Cheers. Artistic perception of a sequence of events, you mean? Who knows. I was also thinking of circular causality referring to mutual interactions of causes and consequences. anyway

11 mins   confidence: peer agreement (net): +2
circularity

Explanation:
What else?

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 20 mins (2013-11-16 15:47:26 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Time has traditionally been viewed as either like a circle or like a line. Plato, Aristotle and many other Greek and Roman thinkers, particularly the Stoics, advocated a circular view of time. Linear time first appeared in Hebrew and Zoroastrian Iranian writings. Seneca was an advocate of linear time. Augustine thought time was specifically like a line segment. It had a distinct beginning and end, from Genesis to judgement day. Later on Aquinas agreed, and even further on Newton mathematically represented time as a line in his equations. Prominent thinkers such as Barrow, Leibniz, Locke and Kant all agreed with a linear type of time, and in the 19th century time was widely regarded, in both philosophy and science, like a line. It wasn't until 1949, when Kurt Godel, working with Einstein's equations, developed "closed loops of proper time", which are semi-circular in that they allow one to end up where they started after going forward in time. (From the internet encylopedia of philosophy - http://www.iep.utm.edu/t/time.htm)

 Frank Szmulowicz, Ph. D.United StatesLocal time: 17:44Native speaker of: English, PolishPRO pts in category: 35

agree
 3 mins
-> I am most grateful for your support here.

agree  mike23: Seems we are on the same wavelength
 4 mins
-> Thanks. It must be superluminal mental telepathy via tachyons (which would violate the cause and effect hypothesis).

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