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wlasowiec

English translation: Vlasovist [member of Vlasov's [Liberation] army]

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Polish term or phrase:wlasowiec
English translation:Vlasovist [member of Vlasov's [Liberation] army]
Entered by: Jacek Krankowski
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07:34 Sep 1, 2001
Polish to English translations [PRO]
Art/Literary
Polish term or phrase: wlasowiec
Esesmani, Ukraincy i wlasowcy opadaja ishc se wszystkich stron.
brion
Australia
Local time: 06:30
Vlasovist [member of Vlasov's [Liberation] army]
Explanation:
Have given the matter a lot of thought and did some research as well.

As I see it now, I agree that "Vlasovite" would probably sound a bit strange to native-English ears. As Natalia suggested, "Muscovite" would indeed signify an inhabitant of "Moscow [an aside to maybe make you all grin: would an inhabitant of Paris be a "Paris-ite"?...oh the joyful ramifications of language!]

At this point I would tend to be in favor of "Vlasovist"...in analogy with "Stalinist, careerist...etc." the idea being that the "ist" suffix suggests one who subscribes to a philosophy or idea or movement signified by the *proper* noun (where personages are concerned) or the noun (where ideas, philosophies, movements etc. are concerned). But I would hasten to append to this suggestion the qualification that it refers to "Vlasov's army", the most common phrase with which I am familiar in my experience as regards the Vlasov debacle. In other words, those who participated in his sadly abortive attempt against the Soviet Union could well be termed "Vlasovists" and were part of "Vlasov's [Liberation] Army".

I hope that this sheds a little bit of light on the problem!

I will cite some perhaps relevant references for you consideration [bear with me if they seem a bit lengthy and tedious, but I think they are noteworthy]:
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/text/x33/xm3396.html

Career in the Soviet Army.

Soviet army officer who collaborated with the Germans. When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, major general Vlasov was in command of the Thirty - Fourth Army, charged with the defense of Kiev, and he later commanded the Twentieth Army, which defended Moscow; he was promoted to lieutenant general and awarded the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner. In the spring of 1942 he was appointed commander of the Second ("Assault") Army on the Volkhov front; there he and his troops were encircled by the Germans. His attempts to break out of the trap failed, and on July 13 of that year he was taken prisoner.

In the Service of the Germans.

Vlasov was interned in a prisoner - of - war camp for senior Soviet officers. Following talks with senior German intelligence officers, he agreed to collaborate with the Germans against the Soviet regime. He was transferred to the propaganda branch of the Armed Forces High Command in Berlin. In September 1942 Vlasov issued three manifestos; in two of them he denounced Stalin, blaming him and his regime for the military defeats; attacked "Jewish capitalists, " the "Jewish press, " and the "Stalinist Bolshevik - Jewish dictatorship"; and called on Red Army soldiers to desert. In the other manifesto, Vlasov listed thirteen points on which to base a new regime that he would seek to establish in Russia. The plan was that this would be endorsed by the "Smolensk Committee" (a Russian public group that the headquarters of the German Central Army Group was in the process of organizing, to be headed by Vlasov). This plan was abandoned, however, on Hitler's orders, which also directed that Vlasov's activities be confined to propaganda.

The Ostbataillone.

In the period from November 1942 to the winter of 1944, Vlasov trained anti - Soviet propaganda agents at the Dabendorf camp, near Berlin. The agents were assigned to encourage Soviet prisoners of war to volunteer for the Ostbataillone, and, at the front, to encourage Red Army personnel to desert. Several of the Ostbataillone were given badges to wear by the Wehrmacht, bearing the inscription ROA (for Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya, or Russian Liberation Army). The men serving in these units and later on, also other categories of Soviet prisoners of war were called "Vlasovtsy, " but in fact no Vlasov army existed, since there was no unified command headed by Vlasov.

Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia.

It was not until September 16, 1944, after a meeting with Heinrich Himmler, that Vlasov was permitted to set up the Komitet Osvobozhdeniya Narodov Rossii (Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia; KONR), to be recognized as an official representative body, and to form the "Russian Liberation Army, " with Vlasov heading both the "army" and the "committee." Some of the minority groups in the Soviet Union, such as the Ukrainians, refused to join Vlasov, and the Germans permitted them to establish similar organizations of their own. On November 14, 1944, Vlasov's KONR met in Prague and issued the Prague Declaration, spelling out the political principles on which the Vlasov movement was based and the structure of the regime that it would set up - a combination of centralist socialism and capitalism.

Execution by the Soviets.

On May 15, 1945, Vlasov and his staff were handed over to the Soviets. Radio Moscow announced on August 1, 1946, that he and his associates had been tried, sentenced to death, and executed by hanging.
Courtesy of:
"Encyclopedia of the Holocaust"
©1990 Macmillan Publishing Company
New York, NY 10022

http://www.tiac.net/users/knut/Stalin/node117.html





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Vlasov


But how could generals of the Red Army have envisaged collaborating with Hitler? If they were not good Communists, surely these military men were at least nationalists?

This question will first be answered with another question. Why should this hypothesis be any different for the Soviet Union than France? Was not Marshal Pétain, the Victor at Verdun, a symbol of French chauvinist patriotism? Were not General Weygand and Admiral Darlan strong defenders of French colonialism? Despite all this, these three became key players in the collaboration with the Nazis. Would not the overthrow of capitalism in the Soviet Union and the bitter class struggle against the bourgeoisie be, for all the forces nostalgic for free enterprise, be additional motives for collaborating with German `dynamic capitalism'?

And did not the World War itself show that the tendency represented by Pétain in France also existed among certain Soviet officers?

General Vlasov played an important rôle during the defence of Moscow at the end of 1941. Arrested in 1942 by the Germans, he changed sides. But it was only on September 16, 1944, after an interview with Himmler, that he received the official authorization to create his own Russian Liberation Army, whose first division was created as early as 1943. Other imprisoned officers offered their services to the Nazis; a few names follow.

Major-General Trukhin, head of the operational section of the Baltic Region Chief of Staffs, professor at the General Chiefs of Staff Academy. Major-General Malyshkin, head of the Chiefs of Staff of the 19th Army. Major-General Zakutny, professor at the General Chiefs of Staff Academy. Major-Generals Blagoveshchensky, brigade commander; Shapovalov, artillery corps commander; and Meandrov. Brigade commander Zhilenkov, member of the Military Council of the 32nd Army. Colonels Maltsev, Zverev, Nerianin and Buniachenko, commander of the 389th Armed Division.

What was the political profile of these men? The former British secret service officer and historian Cookridge writes:

`Vlassov's entourage was a strange motley. The most intelligent of his officers was Colonel Mileti Zykov (a Jew). He had a been a supporter of the ``rightist deviationists'' of Bukharin and in 1936 had been banished by Stalin to Siberia, where he spent four years. Another survivor of Stalin's purges was General Vasili Feodorovich Malyshkin, former chief of staff of the Far East Army; he had been imprisoned during the Tukhachevsky affair. A third officer, Major-General Georgi Nicolaievich Zhilenkov, had been a political army commissar. They and many of the officers whom Gehlen recruited had been ``rehabilitated'' at the beginning of the war in 1941.'

.

E. H. Cookridge, Gehlen: Spy of the Century (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. 57--58.


So here we learn that several superior officers, convicted and sent to Siberia in 1937, then rehabilitated during the war, joined Hitler's side! Clearly the measures taken during the Great Purge were perfectly justified.

To justify joining the Nazis, Vlasov wrote an open letter: `Why I embarked on the road of struggle against Bolshevism'.

What is inside that letter is very instructive.

First, his criticism of the Soviet régime is identical to the ones made by Trotsky and the Western right-wing.

`I have seen that the Russian worker has a hard life, that the peasant was driven by force into kolkhozes, that millions of Russian people disappeared after being arrested without inquest or trial .... The system of commissars eroded the Red Army. Irresponsibility, shadowing and spying made the commander a toy in the hands of Party functionaries in civil suits or military uniforms ... Many thousands of the best commanders, including marshals, were arrested and shot or sent to labour camps, never to return.'

Note that Vlasov called for a professional army, with full military autonomy, without any Party control, just like the previously cited U.S. Army.

Then Vlasov explained how his defeatism encouraged him to join the Nazis. We will see in the next chapter that Trotsky and Trotskyists systematically used defeatist propaganda.

`I saw that the war was being lost for two reasons: the reluctance of the Russian people to defend Bolshevist government and the systems of violence it had created and irresponsible command of the army ....'

Finally, using Nazi `anti-capitalist' language, Vlasov explained that the New Russia had to integrate itself into the European capitalist and imperialist system.

`(We must) build a New Russia without Bolsheviks or capitalists ....

`The interests of the Russian people have always been similar to the interests of the German people and all other European nations .... Bolshevism has separated the Russian people from Europe by an impenetrable wall.'

.

Vlasov and Vlasovites. New Times 44 (1990), pp. 36--40.





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Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995

http://www.ihffilm.com/aavlasgenfor.html

Patriot or traitor? More than one-half century after his execution, General Andrei Vlasov remains one of World War II's most controversial figures. A brilliant Soviet commander, Vlasov was captured by the German Wehrmacht in July, 1942, and soon became central to the campaign by junior German officers to launch a Russian Liberation Army (usually referred to as the ROA) against Stalin's regime. These plans ran up against Nazi dogmas of Lebensraum and Slavic inferiority, however, and Vlasov spent much of the war under house arrest. Only in the last months of the war did the Germans consent to sponsor a truncated version of his Liberation Army, with predictably futile results. Yet Vlasov's vision--of a Russia freed of Stalin's yoke, with guaranteed freedoms for its peoples--survived his battlefield defeats; that he sought to attain his goals through German Nazi sponsorship underlines the tragedy of his--and Soviet Russia's-- predicament.

This new documentary offers newly-found film footage and extensive interviews with Vlasov's surviving associates, lieutenants, and foot soldiers, including Igor Novosiltzev, Constantine Sacharevitsch, Nikolai Kozlov, Nikolai Numerov, Nikolas Vastchenko, and Nikolai A. Chiketov. The views of Vlasov's German backers are represented by Hans von Herwath, Robert Krötz, and Helmuth Schwenninger, while William Sloane Coffin, Arthur Cowgill, Frank Roberts, and Tom Dennis comment upon the U.S.-British supervised repatriation of Vlasov's surviving troops to the Soviet Union in 1945.

With its multiple perspectives and rich visual documentation, this solidly-researched film provides the clearest picture yet of this difficult subject, revealing Vlasov's tortured legacy in its many dimensions. Germany, 1995, B&W/Color, 59 minutes, English commentary and subtitles.



Vlasov: General for Two Devils (General Vlasov)
758$29.95




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http://www.szyk.com/art/vlasov.html

"Dedicated to "General" Anton Denikin,
former commander in chief of the Dark Forces..."
N.Y. 1946 [On Board]. 14 7/8" x 10".


General Vlasov, The Russian Quisling.
This drawings details ex-Soviet Lieutenant General Andrei A. Vlasov parading his "Russian Army of Liberation" before Hitler, Goering, Goebbels and Himmler in the reviewing box at the right. Russian General Vlasov was born in 1900, a commander of some talent, who after distinguishing himself in the defense of Kiev and Moscow, was taken prisoner by the Germans, fought with them against his former comrades. Himmler authorized him to form an anti-Stalinist "Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia" recruited from Soviet P.O.W.'s and civilian deportees in Germany. He was given command of a special force to fight on the already collapsing Eastern front. In fact Vlasov's troops did little but cause some anxiety to the German General Heinrich, who feared they might desert. Vlasov surrendered to the Americans in May 1945. He was handed over to the Russian authorities and was executed in 1946. (See: the article entitled "Vlasov and Hitler" by George Fisher published in Journal of Modern History, vol. XXIII, March-December, 1951, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pages 58-62).
This pen and ink drawing is signed "Arthur Szyk N.Y. 43." It is also inscribed and signed "Dedicated to 'General' Anton Denikin, former Commander in Chief of the dark forces... Arthur Szyk N.Y. 1946." Anton Denikin (1872-1947) was a Czarist General, former chief of staff of the Imperial Russian Army and commander of the White Russian Army in its fight against the Bolsheviks. A Colonel in the imperial forces at the outbreak of World War I, he led a division which captured 64,000 German and Austrian prisoners in the conflict. In 1938, he gained wide-spread attention with charges that Hitler was planning to invade Russia. At the same time he sharply denounced other exiled Russians who offered to support the German leader.

Provenance: From Arthur Szyk's daughter's collection via Martin Sumers Graphics, New York City.









© 1997-2001, HISTORICANA, Burlingame, California

http://www.150th.com/stories/czech150.htm


Stories Page Another Odyssey of the 150th by George Kimball He stood between me and death by Bill Morrissey The war as seen by a soldier by Norm Southergill WWII with the 150th Engineers As I remember it An Odessy with Patton By Col. Reagan & Jack Duffy Action at Nancy By Col. Bruce Reagan Some suffer in survival By Col. Bruce Reagan Action in Vain In Lorraine By Col. Bruce Reagan The Lil Burgermeister By Col. Bruce Reagan A trip on the queen Mary. By Robert Pearl One Lived and One Died - Story of 2 Nazi POW's 4 Purple Hearts for H & S after crossing the Rhine Czechoslovakia - General Vlasov's Army Sergeant Sylvester Szychulski By Robert Pearl A Night Out By Robert Pearl S.S. Pontotoc. A trip back home after the war. Germany Surrenders The Saga of Jumping Joe ______________________ Table of Contents Main Page Final Tribute Assistance area Basic Training Rivers Crossed Troops Page PTA Plains Trains, etc. Front Lines Dogs & Animals Misc. Pictures Letters, Papers, & Cards Reunions Reports Decorations History and Traditions Post War Activities

General Vlasov's Army In the final days of World War II a complete German army composed of white Russians surrendered to the American forces in Czechoslovakia. This was General Vlasov's Army trying to avoid capture by the Russians.
At the time, I was assigned to a Combat Command to classify roads and bridges and measure road blocks that needed to be removed by the engineers. All at once the column stopped and so I proceeded up the road in front of the column to see what the problem was.

Since there was no sign of travel on the road, my driver and I proceeded with caution. Directly a jeep with a Colonel chased us with a siren blaring. He advised me that there were no known obstacles, that there were no friendly troops in the front of us, that there were German troops and that I should return with him to the head of the column and we did.

Soon after, an army of German soldiers came marching down the road in full dress carrying white flags. It turned out that these were white Russians who had joined the German forces because their political views were opposed to Stalin and the Red Russian communists.

That night the fully armed German Army spent the night in the same town with our company, outnumbering us. Since most of them spoke English and looked like Americans, they readily mingled with us.

General Vlasov was one of the early Soviet war heroes. He distinguished himself in the battle for Moscow but later was seized by the Germans and promptly switched sides to become the highest ranking traitor of World War II.

He recruited an army of Russian prisoners and led them for the Germans until May of 1945.

In Prague, capital of Czechoslovakia, the Czech National Army resistance group staged an uprising in which the puppet German "Vlasov's Army" changed sides and skirmished against the SS garrison in the hope of delivering the City of the Americans - a vain hope for which Vlasov's men paid a terrible price in blood when the Red army entered on 9 of May.

In order to escape certain death Vlasov and the remnants of his Army surrendered to the American forces in Czechoslovakia. At the time the 150Th Combat Engineer Battalion was in support of the Combat Command that accepted the surrender.

Preceding this, on the 4th of Feb. 1945, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met at Yalta to summarize the war activity and decide on the division of German Territory. This they did.

Appended to the agreement was a secret understanding to exchange each others liberated prisoners and to return each others liberated civilians as they were rounded up in Germany.

In accordance with this secret understanding, General Patton returned General Vlasov to Russia where he was hanged. In addition the white Russians were loaded into boxcars and sent back to Russia where they were machine gunned as they got off the train.

(This is based on personal experience and references in John Keegans "The Second World War" and The American Heritage Picture History of World War II.)

Robert W. Pearl


Email: 150thcombat@engineer.com
Back to Story index page

http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue23/oppenh23.htm








Selected response from:

DR. RICHARD BAVRY
Grading comment
I am truly impressed. Thanks God I went to bed after my inquiry, otherwise I'd have to stay up all night till the end of this discussion. It's just shows that it's difficult to be a judge. I must say all the responses were right - most of these terms are used and the response I chose - the term "Vlasovists" is used the least frequently, if one looks for it on the Internet. A friend of mine, an Australian, (because that's where I reside) never heard of "Vlasovites" or "Vlasovists", so I thought "Vlasov's soldiers" would be the term to use, but I was ultimately convinced by such a source as "The Journal of Science" which uses the term "Vlasovists". I don't know how fair is my grading in this case, because, like I said earlier, all the responses are correct - there is an article in New York Times called Vlasov and Vlasovites - so one should perhaps go for the term most easily recognized to people, even if it might not be entirely correct (?)
I would like to thank everybody and especially you Richard, for your insightful contribution.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
na +2Vlasov's soldiers - COMMENT
Robert Pranagal
na +2--
Natalie
na +1Vlasov's soldiers
Robert Pranagal
na +1--
Natalie
na-ites
Joanna Kwiatowska
na?*
Joanna Kwiatowska
naVlasovist [member of Vlasov's [Liberation] army]DR. RICHARD BAVRY
naVote for Vlasovite
Yuri Geifman
na-ites
Joanna Kwiatowska
naVlasov('s) soldier
Robert Pranagal
naVlasovitesLudwig Chekhovtsov
naVlasoritesmichnick
naCommentmichnick
naVlasovitesmichnick
na -1--
Natalie


  

Answers


13 mins peer agreement (net): +1
Vlasov's soldiers


Explanation:
or
Vlasov's people

The most famous single group thus betrayed was what Mr. Solzhenitsyn calls “the Vlasov people,”named after Gen. Andrei Andreyevich Vlasov, a heroic Red Army commander who brought his million men over to the German side after being betrayed by Stalin at the battle of Leningrad in 1942.

from:
http://www.aei.org/oti/oti11742.htm


It should be noted that the majority of Vlasov's soldiers were men who had been raised under the Soviets; few of them believed in God. However, when we served Divine Liturgy, all the soldiers and officers attended. I myself never did meet Vlasov in person.

from:
http://www.roca.org/oa/159-160/159f.htm




    web resources
Robert Pranagal
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 493

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Natalie: This would be the best. Pls see my addition below.
2 hrs
  -> Yes, similarly to VOIVODSHIPS, VLASOVITIES carry little meaning to those who do not know the subject...
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16 mins
Vlasov('s) soldier


Explanation:
Of course, singular form is:

WŁASOWIEC = VLASOV'S SOLDIER

Robert Pranagal
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 493
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29 mins
Vlasorites


Explanation:


Vlasov, Andrey Andreyevich
anti-Stalinist military commander who, captured by the Germans early in World War II, became a turncoat and fought with the Germans against the Soviet Union.


Georgi Vladimov's recently published novel The General and His Army, however, raises many taboo subjects which those celebrating Russia's wartime victories might have preferred to forget--topics such as the Vlasorites, the profligate expenditure of human life, summary executions of supposed collaborators, the activities of the punitive secret-police organs during the war, and, above all, the controversial role of the Soviet generals and military leaders of World War II.

HTH




    Reference: http://www.britannica.com
michnick
Local time: 22:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
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1 hr
Vlasovites


Explanation:
Vlasov and Vlasovites.
New Times 44 (1990), pp. 36--40. ...
www.tiac.net/users/knut/Stalin/node117.html - 9k - CacheSolzhenitsyn
"We would like to open a brief parenthesis for Solzhenitsyn. This man became the official voice for the fiver per cent of Tsarists, bourgeois, speculators, kulaks, pimps, maffiosi and Vlasovites,... "
Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, 1918--1956. An Experiment in Literary Investigation I--II (New York: Harper & Row, 1974)



    Reference: http://www.tiac.net/users/knut/Stalin/node118.html
Ludwig Chekhovtsov
Local time: 14:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian, Native in UkrainianUkrainian
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2 hrs peer agreement (net): -1
--


Explanation:
I agree with Robert's suggestion: "Vlasov's soldiers" would be better. The form "Vlasovites" reminds something like inhabitants of a town (compare: moscovites).

In the spring of 1942 he was appointed commander of the Second ("Assault") Army on the Volkhov front; there he and his troops were encircled by the Germans. His attempts to break out of the trap failed, and on July 13 of that year he was taken prisoner.
Vlasov was interned in a prisoner - of - war camp for senior Soviet officers. Following talks with senior German intelligence officers, he agreed to collaborate with the Germans against the
Soviet regime.
In the period from November 1942 to the winter of 1944, Vlasov trained anti - Soviet propaganda agents at the
Dabendorf camp, near Berlin. The agents were assigned to encourage Soviet prisoners of war to volunteer for the
Ostbataillone, and, at the front, to encourage Red Army personnel to desert. Several of the Ostbataillone were
given badges to wear by the Wehrmacht, bearing the inscription ROA (for Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya, or
Russian Liberation Army). The men serving in these units and later on, also other categories of Soviet prisoners of war were called "Vlasovtsy" ,but in fact no Vlasov army existed, since there was no unified command headed by Vlasov.

You can find lots of information at:
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t082/t08274.html

Natalie
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 1968

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  michnick: Google hits: Vlasovites = 40, Vlasov's soldiers = 1. See also above.
44 mins
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3 hrs
Comment


Explanation:
Compare with Banderites (Stepan Bandera Followers):

When police, Banderites, Vlasovites, or Germans fell into our hands, we usually delivered the latter
www.ukar.org/safer14.shtml

General Meljnik in his place, thus dividing the Ukrainian forces. The "Banderites"
were a powerful group and were prepared.
www.hrvatska.org/~cuvalo/sourc_labor.html

... Banderites (Stepan Bandera Followers): Stepan Bandera was one of the most famous
leaders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)
www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/default.asp?pageid=661

a deserter from the Red Army, who tells of the activities of "Banderites" in the
Zhytomyr (Zhitomir), Kiev and Kamianets'-- Podil'skyi (Kamenets-Podolsky) areas
www.infoukes.com/upa/series01/abs07.html
When the British first discussed cooperation with the Banderites in 1946, they
were initially sceptical about the OUN/B claims
www.searchlightmagazine.com/stories/DangerousLiaisons.htm

was part of the OUN-B, the group in the OUN known as the Banderites, named after
their leader Stephan Bandera. The Banderites were an underground movement made ...

www.genealogyforum.rootsweb.com/gfnews/december00/theme8120...

etc



michnick
Local time: 22:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
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3 hrs peer agreement (net): +2
--


Explanation:
Dear Michnick, I only state that for my non-english ear "vlasovites" sound just as "moscovites", nothing more. I would use "vlasov's soldiers/people/men/gunmen ". Maybe I am wrong.
BTW, of the 40 Google search only several are truly english/american. And even in a long article found on one of those sites (http://free.freespeech.org/earthrise/russdigest/russmonth/vl... "vlasovites" can be found only once.

I guess it would be fine to listen to what a native English speaker would say.

Natalie
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 1968

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Robert Pranagal
1 hr

agree  michnick
1 hr
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4 hrs peer agreement (net): +2
Vlasov's soldiers - COMMENT


Explanation:
Wow, what a heated discussion...

I proposed VLASOV'S SOLDIERS mainly because it carries much more meaning to people who do not too much about history of Eastern Europe than VLASOVITIES does...

Indeed, I reckon that this argument may only be settled by a native speaker of English.

HELP FROM NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKERS PLEASE!!!




Robert Pranagal
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 493

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Joanna Kwiatowska: The problem is, I don't know that many native speakers ever heard of this, unless they're East. European history pundits
28 mins

agree  michnick
58 mins
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6 hrs
-ites


Explanation:
"The suffix "-ite" means "descended or derived from." "

"The Funk and Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary defines the suffix "ite" as "native or inhabitant of." "

-ite (?). [From Gr. , .]
1. A suffix denoting one of a party, a sympathizer with or adherent of, and the like, and frequently used in ridicule; as, a Millerite; a Benthamite.




    Reference: http://www.africanite.com/faq.html
    Reference: http://www.bibleword.org/synag.html
Joanna Kwiatowska
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 24
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6 hrs
-ites


Explanation:
"The suffix "-ite" means "descended or derived from." "

"The Funk and Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary defines the suffix "ite" as "native or inhabitant of." "

-ite (?). [From Gr. , .]
1. A suffix denoting one of a party, a sympathizer with or adherent of, and the like, and frequently used in ridicule; as, a Millerite; a Benthamite.




    Reference: http://www.africanite.com/faq.html
    Reference: http://www.bibleword.org/synag.html
Joanna Kwiatowska
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 24
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

15 hrs
?*


Explanation:
*Whatever the right answer might be, Brion, and depending on the audience you’re translating for (and the rest of the text, of course, which might explain this historical detail, anyway), it might be a good idea to make an annotation at the bottom of the page explaining who the Vlasovites or Vlasov’s people were... because neither one of these expressions conveys any better than the other, the historical background knowledge that everyone here has shown in answering your question. I'll confess, I don’t ever remember hearing of Andrey Vlasov before today.


    Reference: http://machaut.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/WEBSTER.page.sh?PAGE=793
Joanna Kwiatowska
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in pair: 24
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

15 hrs
Vlasovist [member of Vlasov's [Liberation] army]


Explanation:
Have given the matter a lot of thought and did some research as well.

As I see it now, I agree that "Vlasovite" would probably sound a bit strange to native-English ears. As Natalia suggested, "Muscovite" would indeed signify an inhabitant of "Moscow [an aside to maybe make you all grin: would an inhabitant of Paris be a "Paris-ite"?...oh the joyful ramifications of language!]

At this point I would tend to be in favor of "Vlasovist"...in analogy with "Stalinist, careerist...etc." the idea being that the "ist" suffix suggests one who subscribes to a philosophy or idea or movement signified by the *proper* noun (where personages are concerned) or the noun (where ideas, philosophies, movements etc. are concerned). But I would hasten to append to this suggestion the qualification that it refers to "Vlasov's army", the most common phrase with which I am familiar in my experience as regards the Vlasov debacle. In other words, those who participated in his sadly abortive attempt against the Soviet Union could well be termed "Vlasovists" and were part of "Vlasov's [Liberation] Army".

I hope that this sheds a little bit of light on the problem!

I will cite some perhaps relevant references for you consideration [bear with me if they seem a bit lengthy and tedious, but I think they are noteworthy]:
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/text/x33/xm3396.html

Career in the Soviet Army.

Soviet army officer who collaborated with the Germans. When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, major general Vlasov was in command of the Thirty - Fourth Army, charged with the defense of Kiev, and he later commanded the Twentieth Army, which defended Moscow; he was promoted to lieutenant general and awarded the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner. In the spring of 1942 he was appointed commander of the Second ("Assault") Army on the Volkhov front; there he and his troops were encircled by the Germans. His attempts to break out of the trap failed, and on July 13 of that year he was taken prisoner.

In the Service of the Germans.

Vlasov was interned in a prisoner - of - war camp for senior Soviet officers. Following talks with senior German intelligence officers, he agreed to collaborate with the Germans against the Soviet regime. He was transferred to the propaganda branch of the Armed Forces High Command in Berlin. In September 1942 Vlasov issued three manifestos; in two of them he denounced Stalin, blaming him and his regime for the military defeats; attacked "Jewish capitalists, " the "Jewish press, " and the "Stalinist Bolshevik - Jewish dictatorship"; and called on Red Army soldiers to desert. In the other manifesto, Vlasov listed thirteen points on which to base a new regime that he would seek to establish in Russia. The plan was that this would be endorsed by the "Smolensk Committee" (a Russian public group that the headquarters of the German Central Army Group was in the process of organizing, to be headed by Vlasov). This plan was abandoned, however, on Hitler's orders, which also directed that Vlasov's activities be confined to propaganda.

The Ostbataillone.

In the period from November 1942 to the winter of 1944, Vlasov trained anti - Soviet propaganda agents at the Dabendorf camp, near Berlin. The agents were assigned to encourage Soviet prisoners of war to volunteer for the Ostbataillone, and, at the front, to encourage Red Army personnel to desert. Several of the Ostbataillone were given badges to wear by the Wehrmacht, bearing the inscription ROA (for Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya, or Russian Liberation Army). The men serving in these units and later on, also other categories of Soviet prisoners of war were called "Vlasovtsy, " but in fact no Vlasov army existed, since there was no unified command headed by Vlasov.

Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia.

It was not until September 16, 1944, after a meeting with Heinrich Himmler, that Vlasov was permitted to set up the Komitet Osvobozhdeniya Narodov Rossii (Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia; KONR), to be recognized as an official representative body, and to form the "Russian Liberation Army, " with Vlasov heading both the "army" and the "committee." Some of the minority groups in the Soviet Union, such as the Ukrainians, refused to join Vlasov, and the Germans permitted them to establish similar organizations of their own. On November 14, 1944, Vlasov's KONR met in Prague and issued the Prague Declaration, spelling out the political principles on which the Vlasov movement was based and the structure of the regime that it would set up - a combination of centralist socialism and capitalism.

Execution by the Soviets.

On May 15, 1945, Vlasov and his staff were handed over to the Soviets. Radio Moscow announced on August 1, 1946, that he and his associates had been tried, sentenced to death, and executed by hanging.
Courtesy of:
"Encyclopedia of the Holocaust"
©1990 Macmillan Publishing Company
New York, NY 10022

http://www.tiac.net/users/knut/Stalin/node117.html





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Vlasov


But how could generals of the Red Army have envisaged collaborating with Hitler? If they were not good Communists, surely these military men were at least nationalists?

This question will first be answered with another question. Why should this hypothesis be any different for the Soviet Union than France? Was not Marshal Pétain, the Victor at Verdun, a symbol of French chauvinist patriotism? Were not General Weygand and Admiral Darlan strong defenders of French colonialism? Despite all this, these three became key players in the collaboration with the Nazis. Would not the overthrow of capitalism in the Soviet Union and the bitter class struggle against the bourgeoisie be, for all the forces nostalgic for free enterprise, be additional motives for collaborating with German `dynamic capitalism'?

And did not the World War itself show that the tendency represented by Pétain in France also existed among certain Soviet officers?

General Vlasov played an important rôle during the defence of Moscow at the end of 1941. Arrested in 1942 by the Germans, he changed sides. But it was only on September 16, 1944, after an interview with Himmler, that he received the official authorization to create his own Russian Liberation Army, whose first division was created as early as 1943. Other imprisoned officers offered their services to the Nazis; a few names follow.

Major-General Trukhin, head of the operational section of the Baltic Region Chief of Staffs, professor at the General Chiefs of Staff Academy. Major-General Malyshkin, head of the Chiefs of Staff of the 19th Army. Major-General Zakutny, professor at the General Chiefs of Staff Academy. Major-Generals Blagoveshchensky, brigade commander; Shapovalov, artillery corps commander; and Meandrov. Brigade commander Zhilenkov, member of the Military Council of the 32nd Army. Colonels Maltsev, Zverev, Nerianin and Buniachenko, commander of the 389th Armed Division.

What was the political profile of these men? The former British secret service officer and historian Cookridge writes:

`Vlassov's entourage was a strange motley. The most intelligent of his officers was Colonel Mileti Zykov (a Jew). He had a been a supporter of the ``rightist deviationists'' of Bukharin and in 1936 had been banished by Stalin to Siberia, where he spent four years. Another survivor of Stalin's purges was General Vasili Feodorovich Malyshkin, former chief of staff of the Far East Army; he had been imprisoned during the Tukhachevsky affair. A third officer, Major-General Georgi Nicolaievich Zhilenkov, had been a political army commissar. They and many of the officers whom Gehlen recruited had been ``rehabilitated'' at the beginning of the war in 1941.'

.

E. H. Cookridge, Gehlen: Spy of the Century (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. 57--58.


So here we learn that several superior officers, convicted and sent to Siberia in 1937, then rehabilitated during the war, joined Hitler's side! Clearly the measures taken during the Great Purge were perfectly justified.

To justify joining the Nazis, Vlasov wrote an open letter: `Why I embarked on the road of struggle against Bolshevism'.

What is inside that letter is very instructive.

First, his criticism of the Soviet régime is identical to the ones made by Trotsky and the Western right-wing.

`I have seen that the Russian worker has a hard life, that the peasant was driven by force into kolkhozes, that millions of Russian people disappeared after being arrested without inquest or trial .... The system of commissars eroded the Red Army. Irresponsibility, shadowing and spying made the commander a toy in the hands of Party functionaries in civil suits or military uniforms ... Many thousands of the best commanders, including marshals, were arrested and shot or sent to labour camps, never to return.'

Note that Vlasov called for a professional army, with full military autonomy, without any Party control, just like the previously cited U.S. Army.

Then Vlasov explained how his defeatism encouraged him to join the Nazis. We will see in the next chapter that Trotsky and Trotskyists systematically used defeatist propaganda.

`I saw that the war was being lost for two reasons: the reluctance of the Russian people to defend Bolshevist government and the systems of violence it had created and irresponsible command of the army ....'

Finally, using Nazi `anti-capitalist' language, Vlasov explained that the New Russia had to integrate itself into the European capitalist and imperialist system.

`(We must) build a New Russia without Bolsheviks or capitalists ....

`The interests of the Russian people have always been similar to the interests of the German people and all other European nations .... Bolshevism has separated the Russian people from Europe by an impenetrable wall.'

.

Vlasov and Vlasovites. New Times 44 (1990), pp. 36--40.





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Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995

http://www.ihffilm.com/aavlasgenfor.html

Patriot or traitor? More than one-half century after his execution, General Andrei Vlasov remains one of World War II's most controversial figures. A brilliant Soviet commander, Vlasov was captured by the German Wehrmacht in July, 1942, and soon became central to the campaign by junior German officers to launch a Russian Liberation Army (usually referred to as the ROA) against Stalin's regime. These plans ran up against Nazi dogmas of Lebensraum and Slavic inferiority, however, and Vlasov spent much of the war under house arrest. Only in the last months of the war did the Germans consent to sponsor a truncated version of his Liberation Army, with predictably futile results. Yet Vlasov's vision--of a Russia freed of Stalin's yoke, with guaranteed freedoms for its peoples--survived his battlefield defeats; that he sought to attain his goals through German Nazi sponsorship underlines the tragedy of his--and Soviet Russia's-- predicament.

This new documentary offers newly-found film footage and extensive interviews with Vlasov's surviving associates, lieutenants, and foot soldiers, including Igor Novosiltzev, Constantine Sacharevitsch, Nikolai Kozlov, Nikolai Numerov, Nikolas Vastchenko, and Nikolai A. Chiketov. The views of Vlasov's German backers are represented by Hans von Herwath, Robert Krötz, and Helmuth Schwenninger, while William Sloane Coffin, Arthur Cowgill, Frank Roberts, and Tom Dennis comment upon the U.S.-British supervised repatriation of Vlasov's surviving troops to the Soviet Union in 1945.

With its multiple perspectives and rich visual documentation, this solidly-researched film provides the clearest picture yet of this difficult subject, revealing Vlasov's tortured legacy in its many dimensions. Germany, 1995, B&W/Color, 59 minutes, English commentary and subtitles.



Vlasov: General for Two Devils (General Vlasov)
758$29.95




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http://www.szyk.com/art/vlasov.html

"Dedicated to "General" Anton Denikin,
former commander in chief of the Dark Forces..."
N.Y. 1946 [On Board]. 14 7/8" x 10".


General Vlasov, The Russian Quisling.
This drawings details ex-Soviet Lieutenant General Andrei A. Vlasov parading his "Russian Army of Liberation" before Hitler, Goering, Goebbels and Himmler in the reviewing box at the right. Russian General Vlasov was born in 1900, a commander of some talent, who after distinguishing himself in the defense of Kiev and Moscow, was taken prisoner by the Germans, fought with them against his former comrades. Himmler authorized him to form an anti-Stalinist "Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia" recruited from Soviet P.O.W.'s and civilian deportees in Germany. He was given command of a special force to fight on the already collapsing Eastern front. In fact Vlasov's troops did little but cause some anxiety to the German General Heinrich, who feared they might desert. Vlasov surrendered to the Americans in May 1945. He was handed over to the Russian authorities and was executed in 1946. (See: the article entitled "Vlasov and Hitler" by George Fisher published in Journal of Modern History, vol. XXIII, March-December, 1951, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pages 58-62).
This pen and ink drawing is signed "Arthur Szyk N.Y. 43." It is also inscribed and signed "Dedicated to 'General' Anton Denikin, former Commander in Chief of the dark forces... Arthur Szyk N.Y. 1946." Anton Denikin (1872-1947) was a Czarist General, former chief of staff of the Imperial Russian Army and commander of the White Russian Army in its fight against the Bolsheviks. A Colonel in the imperial forces at the outbreak of World War I, he led a division which captured 64,000 German and Austrian prisoners in the conflict. In 1938, he gained wide-spread attention with charges that Hitler was planning to invade Russia. At the same time he sharply denounced other exiled Russians who offered to support the German leader.

Provenance: From Arthur Szyk's daughter's collection via Martin Sumers Graphics, New York City.









© 1997-2001, HISTORICANA, Burlingame, California

http://www.150th.com/stories/czech150.htm


Stories Page Another Odyssey of the 150th by George Kimball He stood between me and death by Bill Morrissey The war as seen by a soldier by Norm Southergill WWII with the 150th Engineers As I remember it An Odessy with Patton By Col. Reagan & Jack Duffy Action at Nancy By Col. Bruce Reagan Some suffer in survival By Col. Bruce Reagan Action in Vain In Lorraine By Col. Bruce Reagan The Lil Burgermeister By Col. Bruce Reagan A trip on the queen Mary. By Robert Pearl One Lived and One Died - Story of 2 Nazi POW's 4 Purple Hearts for H & S after crossing the Rhine Czechoslovakia - General Vlasov's Army Sergeant Sylvester Szychulski By Robert Pearl A Night Out By Robert Pearl S.S. Pontotoc. A trip back home after the war. Germany Surrenders The Saga of Jumping Joe ______________________ Table of Contents Main Page Final Tribute Assistance area Basic Training Rivers Crossed Troops Page PTA Plains Trains, etc. Front Lines Dogs & Animals Misc. Pictures Letters, Papers, & Cards Reunions Reports Decorations History and Traditions Post War Activities

General Vlasov's Army In the final days of World War II a complete German army composed of white Russians surrendered to the American forces in Czechoslovakia. This was General Vlasov's Army trying to avoid capture by the Russians.
At the time, I was assigned to a Combat Command to classify roads and bridges and measure road blocks that needed to be removed by the engineers. All at once the column stopped and so I proceeded up the road in front of the column to see what the problem was.

Since there was no sign of travel on the road, my driver and I proceeded with caution. Directly a jeep with a Colonel chased us with a siren blaring. He advised me that there were no known obstacles, that there were no friendly troops in the front of us, that there were German troops and that I should return with him to the head of the column and we did.

Soon after, an army of German soldiers came marching down the road in full dress carrying white flags. It turned out that these were white Russians who had joined the German forces because their political views were opposed to Stalin and the Red Russian communists.

That night the fully armed German Army spent the night in the same town with our company, outnumbering us. Since most of them spoke English and looked like Americans, they readily mingled with us.

General Vlasov was one of the early Soviet war heroes. He distinguished himself in the battle for Moscow but later was seized by the Germans and promptly switched sides to become the highest ranking traitor of World War II.

He recruited an army of Russian prisoners and led them for the Germans until May of 1945.

In Prague, capital of Czechoslovakia, the Czech National Army resistance group staged an uprising in which the puppet German "Vlasov's Army" changed sides and skirmished against the SS garrison in the hope of delivering the City of the Americans - a vain hope for which Vlasov's men paid a terrible price in blood when the Red army entered on 9 of May.

In order to escape certain death Vlasov and the remnants of his Army surrendered to the American forces in Czechoslovakia. At the time the 150Th Combat Engineer Battalion was in support of the Combat Command that accepted the surrender.

Preceding this, on the 4th of Feb. 1945, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met at Yalta to summarize the war activity and decide on the division of German Territory. This they did.

Appended to the agreement was a secret understanding to exchange each others liberated prisoners and to return each others liberated civilians as they were rounded up in Germany.

In accordance with this secret understanding, General Patton returned General Vlasov to Russia where he was hanged. In addition the white Russians were loaded into boxcars and sent back to Russia where they were machine gunned as they got off the train.

(This is based on personal experience and references in John Keegans "The Second World War" and The American Heritage Picture History of World War II.)

Robert W. Pearl


Email: 150thcombat@engineer.com
Back to Story index page

http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue23/oppenh23.htm











    exhaustively (to the point of exhaustion) given above!
DR. RICHARD BAVRY
PRO pts in pair: 4
Grading comment
I am truly impressed. Thanks God I went to bed after my inquiry, otherwise I'd have to stay up all night till the end of this discussion. It's just shows that it's difficult to be a judge. I must say all the responses were right - most of these terms are used and the response I chose - the term "Vlasovists" is used the least frequently, if one looks for it on the Internet. A friend of mine, an Australian, (because that's where I reside) never heard of "Vlasovites" or "Vlasovists", so I thought "Vlasov's soldiers" would be the term to use, but I was ultimately convinced by such a source as "The Journal of Science" which uses the term "Vlasovists". I don't know how fair is my grading in this case, because, like I said earlier, all the responses are correct - there is an article in New York Times called Vlasov and Vlasovites - so one should perhaps go for the term most easily recognized to people, even if it might not be entirely correct (?)
I would like to thank everybody and especially you Richard, for your insightful contribution.
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20 hrs peer agreement (net): +1
--


Explanation:
Thanks for, your help, Rich! I felt that something was wrong with those "vlasovites". "Vlasovists" is what the asker needs - concise (one word, not two or three) and devoid of misleading ambiguity.

Natalie
Poland
Local time: 20:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 1968

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  DR. RICHARD BAVRY: Well, I thank you and all who participated...we all deserve to be rewarded!
3 hrs
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2 days 4 hrs
Vote for Vlasovite


Explanation:
My understanding is that, as a general rule, an "-ist" is a follower of a person or doctrine, while an "-ite" is
a member of an organization or community. So perhaps both terms are correct, and the writer's actual intent should be the clincher.

Yuri Geifman
Canada
Local time: 14:30
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian, Native in EnglishEnglish
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