estado de perigo

English translation: unfair exploitation

15:58 Sep 15, 2018
Portuguese to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law: Contract(s)
Portuguese term or phrase: estado de perigo
As partes declaram que a presente avença é entabulada sem qualquer vício social, de consentimento ou ainda estado de perigo que possa tornar as presentes disposições nulas ou anuláveis

See my other question, does this mean 'under duress'

https://jus.com.br/artigos/21572/defeitos-do-negocio-juridic...
Richard Purdom
Portugal
Local time: 09:26
English translation:unfair exploitation
Explanation:
Explanation:
I'm not sure, but I think this might be it.
"Estado de perigo" is a defect of consent:

"No estado de perigo, há temor de grave dano moral ou material à própria pessoa, ou a parente seu, que compele o declarante a concluir contrato, mediante prestação exorbitante. A pessoa natural premida pela necessidade de salvar-se a si própria, ou a familiar seu, de algum mal conhecido pelo outro contratante, vem a assumir obrigação demasiadamente onerosa."

Defects in Consent: Mistake, Fraud, Threats, Unfair Exploitation

The definition of these "defects of consent" varies according to each country's legal framework, as far as I can see, and there's some discussion around the subject, but here goes a possible definition of what this might include:

"3) At last, in some circumstances, a party is aware when concluding the contract that he should not do so there is no mistake as to the content of the contract. But at the same time, it is not possible for this party to refuse to enter into the contract because of a threat, or even because of the circumstances. This last category is the most difficult to name because of the various terminology used by different European legal systems.

UNIDROIT principles divide this category into two distinct defects of consent: threat (Art. 3.9) and gross disparity (Art. 3.10), which may for instance arise due to unfair advantage taken 'of another party's dependance, economic distress or urgent needs, or of its improvidence, ignorance, inexperience or lack or bargaining skill."

https://www.trans-lex.org/131800/_/fabre-magnan-muriel-defec...

http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/978019967...

https://books.google.pt/books?id=8MloAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA391&lpg=P...


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Note added at 58 mins (2018-09-15 16:56:10 GMT)
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Please check the links provided fo more info and to see if this makes sense to you. Hope I managed to help, somehow. If not, good luck with this!
Selected response from:

Alcinda Marinho
Portugal
Local time: 09:26
Grading comment
Thanks, i used a combination of this and your db suggestion
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +1extreme need
Martin Riordan
4state of peril
Charles R. Castleberry
4riskiness; peril; state of danger
Oliveira Simões
4perilous situation
R-i-c-h-a-r-d
3 +1unfair exploitation
Alcinda Marinho
4potential risk of...
Mario Freitas
Summary of reference entries provided
Hope this helps somehow
Alcinda Marinho

Discussion entries: 5





  

Answers


57 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
potential risk of...


Explanation:
Sugestão

Mario Freitas
Brazil
Local time: 05:26
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in PortuguesePortuguese, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 257
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

56 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
unfair exploitation


Explanation:
Explanation:
I'm not sure, but I think this might be it.
"Estado de perigo" is a defect of consent:

"No estado de perigo, há temor de grave dano moral ou material à própria pessoa, ou a parente seu, que compele o declarante a concluir contrato, mediante prestação exorbitante. A pessoa natural premida pela necessidade de salvar-se a si própria, ou a familiar seu, de algum mal conhecido pelo outro contratante, vem a assumir obrigação demasiadamente onerosa."

Defects in Consent: Mistake, Fraud, Threats, Unfair Exploitation

The definition of these "defects of consent" varies according to each country's legal framework, as far as I can see, and there's some discussion around the subject, but here goes a possible definition of what this might include:

"3) At last, in some circumstances, a party is aware when concluding the contract that he should not do so there is no mistake as to the content of the contract. But at the same time, it is not possible for this party to refuse to enter into the contract because of a threat, or even because of the circumstances. This last category is the most difficult to name because of the various terminology used by different European legal systems.

UNIDROIT principles divide this category into two distinct defects of consent: threat (Art. 3.9) and gross disparity (Art. 3.10), which may for instance arise due to unfair advantage taken 'of another party's dependance, economic distress or urgent needs, or of its improvidence, ignorance, inexperience or lack or bargaining skill."

https://www.trans-lex.org/131800/_/fabre-magnan-muriel-defec...

http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/978019967...

https://books.google.pt/books?id=8MloAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA391&lpg=P...


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 58 mins (2018-09-15 16:56:10 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please check the links provided fo more info and to see if this makes sense to you. Hope I managed to help, somehow. If not, good luck with this!


    Reference: http://https://paulobyron.jusbrasil.com.br/artigos/469519985...
    Reference: http://https://advocaciaaranega.jusbrasil.com.br/artigos/587...
Alcinda Marinho
Portugal
Local time: 09:26
Works in field
Native speaker of: Portuguese
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
Thanks, i used a combination of this and your db suggestion

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Vivian Saboia
3 hrs
  -> Obrigada, Vivian!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
perilous situation


Explanation:
This doesn't mean "under duress", Richard, no offence.

In continuation to your previous question "...without any fraudulent intent, consent or perilous situation that could potentially make the current dispositions null or void".

I think Mario has the gist of it, but is essentially skipping the "estado de perigo" part of the question.

All The Best,
Richard

R-i-c-h-a-r-d
Brazil
Local time: 05:26
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 75
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
riskiness; peril; state of danger


Explanation:
According to Brazil's Civil Code:
"O estado de perigo, é uma das modalidades de defeito no negócio jurídico, guarda características semelhantes ao estado de necessidade, que é uma causa de exclusão de ilicitude no Direito Penal. Configura-se estado de perigo quando alguém, assume obrigação excessivamente onerosa." https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estado_de_perigo

I'm unaware of an legal term for this in English. My suggestion is based on this definition:

"riskiness, peril - a state of danger involving risk"
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/danger



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Note added at 1 hr (2018-09-15 17:25:49 GMT)
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Note: The above definition is incomplete.

"Art.156. Configura-se o estado de perigo quando alguém, premido da necessidade de salvar-se, ou a pessoa de sua família, de grave dano conhecido pela outra parte, assume obrigação excessivamente onerosa."

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Note added at 1 hr (2018-09-15 17:36:26 GMT)
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Legal definition of peril:
The designated contingency, risk, or hazard against which an insured seeks to protect himself or herself when purchasing a policy of insurance.
https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/peril

Oliveira Simões
United States
Local time: 01:26
Native speaker of: Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in category: 28
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
state of peril


Explanation:
https://www.google.com.br/search?ei=NFedW4CIOvXA0PEPjvSGsAU&...



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Note added at 3 hrs (2018-09-15 19:10:05 GMT)
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https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/peril


Charles R. Castleberry
United States
Local time: 03:26
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 59
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20 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
extreme need


Explanation:
In Brazilian law, the concept of "estado de perigo" was introduced by art. 156 of the Civil Code/2002.

"Art. 156. Configura-se o estado de perigo quando alguém, premido da necessidade de salvar-se, ou a pessoa de sua família, de grave dano conhecido pela outra parte, assume obrigação excessivamente onerosa."

The same article quotes GONÇALVES on the concept in a corporate or legal context:

"É, portanto, “a situação de extrema necessidade que conduz uma pessoa a celebrar negócio jurídico em que assume obrigação desproporcional e excessiva” (GONÇALVES, 2005, p. 392)."

In other words, when the company will sign just about anything to try to save itself. (I know, I've been there!) This would be a "defect of consent" that makes the contract annulable.

Example sentence(s):
  • ocorre o estado de perigo quando o agente, diante de situação de grave perigo conhecido pela outra parte, emite declaração de vontade para salvar-se ou pessoa próxima, assumindo obrigação excessivamente onerosa.
  • A anulabilidade do negócio jurídico em razão do estado de perigo encontra fundamento na inexigibilidade de conduta diversa, ante a comparação dos dois males irremediáveis.

    https://jus.com.br/artigos/21572/defeitos-do-negocio-juridico-da-lesao-e-do-estado-de-perigo
Martin Riordan
Brazil
Local time: 05:26
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 218

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  T o b i a s
4 hrs
  -> Thanks, Tobias.
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Reference comments


15 mins
Reference: Hope this helps somehow

Reference information:
https://lfg.jusbrasil.com.br/noticias/2600913/com-relacao-ao...

https://paulobyron.jusbrasil.com.br/artigos/469519985/dos-de...

Alcinda Marinho
Portugal
Works in field
Native speaker of: Portuguese
PRO pts in category: 8
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)



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