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Homonímia, paronímia, sinonímia, denotação e conotação

English translation: homonymy, paronymy, synonymy, denotation, connotation

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Portuguese term or phrase:homonímia, paronímia, sinonímia, denotação, conotação
English translation:homonymy, paronymy, synonymy, denotation, connotation
Entered by: Brigitte Gendebien
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03:58 Apr 26, 2001
Portuguese to English translations [Non-PRO]
Art/Literary
Portuguese term or phrase: Homonímia, paronímia, sinonímia, denotação e conotação
Sêmantica/ Gramática da Língua Portuguesa.
Fernanda Silva Mendes
homonymy, paronymy, synonymy, denotation and connotation
Explanation:
homonymy





The relation between words whose forms are the same but whose meanings are different and cannot be connected: e.g. between pen 'writing instrument' and pen 'enclosure'.

Distinguished from polysemy in that the meanings cannot be connected: therefore the words are treated as different lexical units. Also distinguished from cases of conversion: e.g. for either of these homonyms, that of pen (noun) to pen (verb). Also from syncretism, which is between forms of the same paradigm. Further distinctions can be drawn between homonymy of words as lexical units (e.g. the two lexical units pen) and e.g. identity of roots or other morphemes. Also between forms identical in both sound and spelling (such as the two words pen) and those that are the same in spelling only (homographs) or in sound regardless of spelling (homophones).
For 'constructional homonymy' see grammatical ambiguity.
(http://www.xrefer.com/entry/571723)

synonymy





The relation between two lexical units with a shared meaning. 'Absolute' synonyms, if they exist, have meanings identical in all respects and in all contexts. 'Partial' synonyms have meanings identical in some contexts, or identical only e.g. in that replacing one with the other does not change the truth conditions of a sentence. Thus paper is a partial though not an absolute synonym of article: compare I got my paper published, I got my article published.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics, © Oxford University Press 1997

denotation and connotation





A distinction introduced by J. S. Mill. The denotation of a term, e.g. 'woman', is all the individuals to which it correctly applies, e.g. Mrs Smith, Princess Diana, etc. The connotation of the term consists in the attributes by which it is defined, e.g. being human, adult, female. A term's connotation determines its denotation. In Mill connotation is taken to be meaning. Terms like proper names, e.g. 'Diana', which have denotation, since there is someone so called, but no connotation, since no attributes define 'Diana', are taken to lack meaning.
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, © Oxford University Press 1995

But whereas those discussions seem to be concerned with the causal dependence of familiar sorts of symbolic representation upon meaning-bestowing acts, my claim is rather that there is not one but several notions of "meaning" to be had, and that the notions that are applicable to symbols are conceptually dependent upon the notion that is applicable to mental states in the fashion that Aristotle refered to as paronymy. That is, an analysis of the notions of "meaning" applicable to symbols reveals that they contain presuppositions about meaningful mental states, much as Aristotle's analysis of the sense of 'healthy' that is applied to foods reveals that it means "conducive to having a healthy body," and hence any attempt to explain "mental semantics" in terms of the semantics of symbols is doomed to circularity and regress. (http://shorst.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/ctmarticle.htm)
For we learn that the discovery of things means that Aristotle distinguished between accidental and essential predication, that he bestowed ontological primacy on particular substances, that he was the first philosopher to describe particular objects in terms of said-of and being-in relations, and that he did so against the background of preSocratic and Academic, specifically Platonic, philosophy. M.'s claim to originality lies in the novel and unusual interpretations he gives to several aspects of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy, specifically, the significance of homonymy, synonymy and paronymy for Aristotle's theory of predication, the influence of Anaxagorean homoiomeries on Plato's theory of Forms, and the importance of the Late-Learners in the Sophist.
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr-cgi-dev/2000/2000-08-11.html

Selected response from:

Brigitte Gendebien
Belgium
Local time: 19:53
Grading comment
It's me again, just to say THANK YOU !!!
You are nice!
Regards!
FSM
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
nahomonymy, paronymy, synonymy, denotation and connotation
Brigitte Gendebien


  

Answers


1 hr
homonymy, paronymy, synonymy, denotation and connotation


Explanation:
homonymy





The relation between words whose forms are the same but whose meanings are different and cannot be connected: e.g. between pen 'writing instrument' and pen 'enclosure'.

Distinguished from polysemy in that the meanings cannot be connected: therefore the words are treated as different lexical units. Also distinguished from cases of conversion: e.g. for either of these homonyms, that of pen (noun) to pen (verb). Also from syncretism, which is between forms of the same paradigm. Further distinctions can be drawn between homonymy of words as lexical units (e.g. the two lexical units pen) and e.g. identity of roots or other morphemes. Also between forms identical in both sound and spelling (such as the two words pen) and those that are the same in spelling only (homographs) or in sound regardless of spelling (homophones).
For 'constructional homonymy' see grammatical ambiguity.
(http://www.xrefer.com/entry/571723)

synonymy





The relation between two lexical units with a shared meaning. 'Absolute' synonyms, if they exist, have meanings identical in all respects and in all contexts. 'Partial' synonyms have meanings identical in some contexts, or identical only e.g. in that replacing one with the other does not change the truth conditions of a sentence. Thus paper is a partial though not an absolute synonym of article: compare I got my paper published, I got my article published.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics, © Oxford University Press 1997

denotation and connotation





A distinction introduced by J. S. Mill. The denotation of a term, e.g. 'woman', is all the individuals to which it correctly applies, e.g. Mrs Smith, Princess Diana, etc. The connotation of the term consists in the attributes by which it is defined, e.g. being human, adult, female. A term's connotation determines its denotation. In Mill connotation is taken to be meaning. Terms like proper names, e.g. 'Diana', which have denotation, since there is someone so called, but no connotation, since no attributes define 'Diana', are taken to lack meaning.
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, © Oxford University Press 1995

But whereas those discussions seem to be concerned with the causal dependence of familiar sorts of symbolic representation upon meaning-bestowing acts, my claim is rather that there is not one but several notions of "meaning" to be had, and that the notions that are applicable to symbols are conceptually dependent upon the notion that is applicable to mental states in the fashion that Aristotle refered to as paronymy. That is, an analysis of the notions of "meaning" applicable to symbols reveals that they contain presuppositions about meaningful mental states, much as Aristotle's analysis of the sense of 'healthy' that is applied to foods reveals that it means "conducive to having a healthy body," and hence any attempt to explain "mental semantics" in terms of the semantics of symbols is doomed to circularity and regress. (http://shorst.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/ctmarticle.htm)
For we learn that the discovery of things means that Aristotle distinguished between accidental and essential predication, that he bestowed ontological primacy on particular substances, that he was the first philosopher to describe particular objects in terms of said-of and being-in relations, and that he did so against the background of preSocratic and Academic, specifically Platonic, philosophy. M.'s claim to originality lies in the novel and unusual interpretations he gives to several aspects of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy, specifically, the significance of homonymy, synonymy and paronymy for Aristotle's theory of predication, the influence of Anaxagorean homoiomeries on Plato's theory of Forms, and the importance of the Late-Learners in the Sophist.
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr-cgi-dev/2000/2000-08-11.html



Brigitte Gendebien
Belgium
Local time: 19:53
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench
Grading comment
It's me again, just to say THANK YOU !!!
You are nice!
Regards!
FSM
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