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21:05 Dec 31, 2010
Russian to English translations [PRO] Social Sciences - Law (general)
Russian term or phrase:откуп (here)
Представляется, что основная цель введения патента – это авансовая уплата налога государству (иными словами – некая официальная форма «откупа» от проверяющих структур).
From an article discussing the recent law that foreign workers in Russia can be issued a "patent" that permits them to work if they are highly qualified specialists.
Explanation: Do you think it's being put in quotation marks means a non-standard application of the traditional sense? In tax-farming, the state (e.g., the Roman Empire) collected a tax from somebody for a given area, and simultaneously "farmed out" to that party the right to collect taxes from the population in that area. Here, the relevant agencies are getting the payment, no matter what, and leaving it to the parties involved, to work out the details regarding that particular specialist. Something like that seems plausible, though I could be all wrong.
Deborah, why are you posting all these tricky questions as "non-pro"?
Rachel Douglas United States Local time: 09:38 Works in field Native speaker of: English PRO pts in category: 227
5 hrs confidence:
Explanation: I may try to explain the meaning so far as I see it.
Usually an amount of a tax due depends on the results of activities. For example, for a Russian free-lance translator registered as individual business it may be either some percent of his revenue or it may be some (higher) percent of revenue less expenditures.
In the first case the tax authorities will take care for the revenues to be accounted for properly (not understated). In the second case it is also important for the expenditures to be accounted for properly and to be directly attributed to the necessities of the business (not overstated). In both cases a taxpayer is obliged to file some supporting documents to be able to prove to the tax body, that his tax returns are prepared properly.
If it is a “patent” system, a taxpayer pays a lump sum in exchange for a permission to be involved in some kind of activity. If his business is prosperous and this lump sum is less, than the amount of tax, calculated as explained in the previous paragraph, the system is favourable for a taxpayer. If his business is just developing, his revenue is small and expenditures high, the patent system is not favourable for him.
But anyway the patent system means a person just “pays off” once a year to the tax authority (and the government) for the right to do particular kind of business and not to care much about calculating his profits and losses.
Sanych_Msk Russian Federation Local time: 16:38 Native speaker of: Russian PRO pts in category: 4