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Definitive extreme treatment is another name for radical therapy. According to the wiki dictionary, http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/radical ther...
radical therapy is a treatment intended to cure, not palliate. This is also the context provided by the asker - радикальное not паллиативное. Another definition is definitive extreme treatment, not a conservative treatment, such as radical mastectomy rather than simple or partial mastectomy. I wish it always resulted in a cure.