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известный

English translation: established

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14:43 Feb 19, 2007
Russian to English translations [PRO]
Science - Science (general) / scientific writing
Russian term or phrase: известный
Коэффициент k вычисляется согласно с известным правилом [5].

Как бы вы перевели слово "известный", если [5] -- это ссылка на книгу, которая если и известна, то только очень узкому кругу специалистов?
Nik-On/Off
Ukraine
Local time: 05:04
English translation:established
Explanation:
May be an option.
Selected response from:

Mikhail Kropotov
Russian Federation
Local time: 05:04
Grading comment
I put it as "rule established in [5]."
Thank you all!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +2previously discovered
Jack Doughty
2 +3established
Mikhail Kropotov
4setKatia Kosovan
4(none needed)
Andrew Sabak
3adopted
Zamira*****
3pre-defined/known rule
Natalia Potashnik
2certain
Olga Sharpe


  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5 peer agreement (net): +3
established


Explanation:
May be an option.

Mikhail Kropotov
Russian Federation
Local time: 05:04
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in category: 200
Grading comment
I put it as "rule established in [5]."
Thank you all!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Vitaly Kisin: or standard
14 mins

agree  Karen Sughyan
17 mins

agree  Ann Nosova
1 hr
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8 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
previously discovered


Explanation:
Or already discovered

Jack Doughty
United Kingdom
Local time: 03:04
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 466

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Dorene Cornwell
2 hrs
  -> Thank you.

agree  Olga Cartlidge: Previously discovered or perhaps "determined", a term which appears to be favoured by academics.
5 hrs
  -> Thank you. Yes.
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9 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
set


Explanation:
according to the set rule

Katia Kosovan
Local time: 05:04
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
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21 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
certain


Explanation:
or "know to a certain degree (extent)"
or "known in a certain setting"

sorry for my certain partiality to the word "certain"

Olga Sharpe
Canada
Local time: 22:04
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian, Native in UkrainianUkrainian
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35 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
pre-defined/known rule


Explanation:
--

Natalia Potashnik
United States
Local time: 20:04
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
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17 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
adopted


Explanation:
-

Zamira*****
Russian Federation
Local time: 05:04
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian, Native in UzbekUzbek
PRO pts in category: 36
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1 day1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
(none needed)


Explanation:
This is a word which can sometimes in this kind of context be simply omitted as adding nothing to the meaning. It doesn't seem from the one sentence quoted that there is anything more well-known / predetermined about reference [5] than any other. Maybe more context would help.

Andrew Sabak
United States
Local time: 22:04
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
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