mutilación

English translation: methylation

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:metilación
English translation:methylation
Entered by: liz askew

12:03 Oct 21, 2009
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Science - Genetics
Spanish term or phrase: mutilación
MUTACIONES MOLECULARES, CAUSAS Y CONSECUENCIAS
Las interacciones con agentes químicos (alteraciones químicas de la molécula de ADN como resultado de hidrolisis, oxidación o **mutilación**) o físicos (la luz ultravioleta es capaz de formar fotoproductos, como los dímeros de pirimidina entre bases de pirimidina adyacentes) pueden producir cambios en el ADN, pero la mayoría de ellos se producen de forma espontánea durante procesos celulares, tales como los que tienen lugar durante la replicación o la reparación del ADN

Do you think it is a typo for mutation? Anyone know about genetics that can help? Thanks in advance.
Martin Harvey
Argentina
mutation
Explanation:
From the findings only, not from any expertise re genetics.

http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&as_q=DNA damage hydroly...

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Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:38:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

aaarghhh

look here:

http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&as_q=ADN hidrolisis oxi...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:41:38 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Metabolismo del ADN
- [ Translate this page ]
La página de ADN se analiza la estructura, la síntesis, modificación y ... Durante la reparación del ADN dañado el 3'-OH puede presentarse de la hidrólisis del esqueleto ... reacciones de postreplicación que modifican el ADN es la mutilación. .... generados espontáneamente en el ambiente de oxidación de la célula. ...
themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/spanish/dna-sp.html - Cached - Similar

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:43:17 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Modificaciones de Postreplicación del ADN, Metilación

Una de las principales reacciones de postreplicación que modifican el ADN es la mutilación. Los sitios de metilación natural (es decir, no inducida químicamente) del ADN eucariótico siempre están en los residuos de citosina que están presentes en los dinucleotidos CpG. Sin embargo, debe observarse que no todos los dinucleotidos CpG están metilados en el residuo C. La citidina es metilada en la posición 5 del anillo de pirimidina generando 5-metilcitidina.

También ocurre metilación del ADN en células procarióticas. La función de esta metilación es prevenir la degradación del ADN del huésped en presencia de las actividades enzimáticas sintetizadas por las bacterias llamadas endonucleasas de restricción. Estas enzimas reconocen secuencias específicas de nucleótidos del ADN. El papel de este sistema en las células procarióticas (llamadas sistema de restricción de modificación) es degradar ADNs viral extraño. Puesto que los ADNs virales no están modificados por la metilación son degradados por las enzimas de restricción del huésped. El genoma del huésped metilado es resistente a la acción de estas enzimas.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:44:43 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

and yet
throughout the above context, they mention ...metilacion...not mutilacion!!

What is going on?

So, do they mean methylation

which is what I found earlier?

mutation/methylation

could be what you are looking for



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:48:04 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:TkCoLMZwQR8J:en.wikiped...


Types of damage

There are four main types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes:

1. oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species,
2. alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine
3. hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination and depyrimidination.
4. "bulky adduct formation" (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adduct)
5. mismatch of bases, due to errors in DNA replication, in which the wrong DNA base is stitched into place in a newly forming DNA strand, or a DNA base is skipped over or mistakenly inserted.

Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. Some examples are:

1. UV-B light causes crosslinking between adjacent cytosine and thymine bases creating pyrimidine dimers. This is called direct DNA damage.
2. UV-A light creates mostly free radicals. The damage caused by free radicals is called indirect DNA damage.
3. Ionizing radiation such as that created by radioactive decay or in cosmic rays causes breaks in DNA strands.
4. Thermal disruption at elevated temperature increases the rate of depurination (loss of purine bases from the DNA backbone) and single strand breaks. For example, hydrolytic depurination is seen in the thermophilic bacteria, which grow in hot springs at 85–250 °C.[4] The rate of depurination (300 purine residues per genome per generation) is too high in these species to be repaired by normal repair machinery, hence a possibility of an adaptive response cannot be ruled out.
5. Industrial chemicals such as vinyl chloride and hydrogen peroxide, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic hydrocarbons found in smoke, soot and tar create a huge diversity of DNA adducts- ethenobases, oxidized bases, alkylated phosphotriesters and Crosslinking of DNA just to name a few.

UV damage, alkylation/methylation, X-ray damage and oxidative damage are examples of induced damage. Spontaneous damage can include the loss of a base, deamination, sugar ring puckering and tautomeric shift. [5]

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 4 hrs (2009-10-21 16:43:53 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Martin

Don't feel frustrated (although I know the feeling well!)....medical translation is very, very difficult. None of us are experts really, unless we specialise in only one medical field, and there seems little demand for this, from my own perspective anyway. I translate all sorts of medical stuff, some stuff better than others! I did an orthodontic text once and I met my match! Never again:)

Saludos!
Selected response from:

liz askew
United Kingdom
Local time: 11:48
Grading comment
Thanks again liz. I was waiting for them to let me know but there is silence, so I take it's alright as I translated methylation... Thank you!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +3mutation
liz askew
5mutilation
Constantinos Faridis (X)
3 +1metilación
Sandra Constantino
Summary of reference entries provided
liz askew

  

Answers


1 min   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
mutilation


Explanation:
WikiAnswers - What are the cultural influence of genetic mutilation - [ Μετάφραση αυτής της σελίδας ]Science question: What are the cultural influence of genetic mutilation? Please help us answer this question.
wiki.answers.com/.../What_are_the_cultural_influence_of_genetic_mutilation - Προσωρινά αποθηκευμένη - Παρόμοιες
Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self ... - [ Μετάφραση αυτής της σελίδας ]Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self-mutilation in depressed patients. Authors: Peter R. Joyce a; Janice M. McKenzie a; Roger T. Mulder ...
www.informaworld.com/.../content~db=all~content=a769318992 - Παρόμοιες
Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self ... - [ Μετάφραση αυτής της σελίδας ]Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self-mutilation in depressed patients. Joyce PR, McKenzie JM, Mulder RT, Luty SE, Sullivan PF, ...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16476149 - Παρόμοιες
από PR Joyce - 2006 - Γίνεται αναφορά σε 9 - Σχετικά άρθρα - Όλες οι 6 εκδοχές
Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self ... - [ Μετάφραση αυτής της σελίδας ]Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self-mutilation in depressed patients. Peter R JOYCE, Janice M MCKENZIE, Roger T MULDER, Suzanne E LUTY ...
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17590769 - Παρόμοιες
από PR JOYCE - 2006 - Γίνεται αναφορά σε 9 - Σχετικά άρθρα - Όλες οι 6 εκδοχές
Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self ... - [ Μετάφραση αυτής της σελίδας ]METHOD: A history of self-mutilation was systematically inquired about when ... Genetic, developmental and personality correlates of self-mutilation in ...
www.labmeeting.com/.../joyce-2006-genetic-developmental-and...

Constantinos Faridis (X)
Greece
Local time: 13:48
Native speaker of: Greek

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  danadiana
19 mins

neutral  liz askew: Kindly provide scientific references, relating to genetics. Thank you!
1 hr

disagree  Dr. Andrew Frankland: I don't see how the references posted support your proposal at all.
3 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
mutation


Explanation:
From the findings only, not from any expertise re genetics.

http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&as_q=DNA damage hydroly...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:38:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

aaarghhh

look here:

http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&as_q=ADN hidrolisis oxi...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:41:38 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Metabolismo del ADN
- [ Translate this page ]
La página de ADN se analiza la estructura, la síntesis, modificación y ... Durante la reparación del ADN dañado el 3'-OH puede presentarse de la hidrólisis del esqueleto ... reacciones de postreplicación que modifican el ADN es la mutilación. .... generados espontáneamente en el ambiente de oxidación de la célula. ...
themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/spanish/dna-sp.html - Cached - Similar

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:43:17 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Modificaciones de Postreplicación del ADN, Metilación

Una de las principales reacciones de postreplicación que modifican el ADN es la mutilación. Los sitios de metilación natural (es decir, no inducida químicamente) del ADN eucariótico siempre están en los residuos de citosina que están presentes en los dinucleotidos CpG. Sin embargo, debe observarse que no todos los dinucleotidos CpG están metilados en el residuo C. La citidina es metilada en la posición 5 del anillo de pirimidina generando 5-metilcitidina.

También ocurre metilación del ADN en células procarióticas. La función de esta metilación es prevenir la degradación del ADN del huésped en presencia de las actividades enzimáticas sintetizadas por las bacterias llamadas endonucleasas de restricción. Estas enzimas reconocen secuencias específicas de nucleótidos del ADN. El papel de este sistema en las células procarióticas (llamadas sistema de restricción de modificación) es degradar ADNs viral extraño. Puesto que los ADNs virales no están modificados por la metilación son degradados por las enzimas de restricción del huésped. El genoma del huésped metilado es resistente a la acción de estas enzimas.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:44:43 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

and yet
throughout the above context, they mention ...metilacion...not mutilacion!!

What is going on?

So, do they mean methylation

which is what I found earlier?

mutation/methylation

could be what you are looking for



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-10-21 13:48:04 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:TkCoLMZwQR8J:en.wikiped...


Types of damage

There are four main types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes:

1. oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species,
2. alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine
3. hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination and depyrimidination.
4. "bulky adduct formation" (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adduct)
5. mismatch of bases, due to errors in DNA replication, in which the wrong DNA base is stitched into place in a newly forming DNA strand, or a DNA base is skipped over or mistakenly inserted.

Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. Some examples are:

1. UV-B light causes crosslinking between adjacent cytosine and thymine bases creating pyrimidine dimers. This is called direct DNA damage.
2. UV-A light creates mostly free radicals. The damage caused by free radicals is called indirect DNA damage.
3. Ionizing radiation such as that created by radioactive decay or in cosmic rays causes breaks in DNA strands.
4. Thermal disruption at elevated temperature increases the rate of depurination (loss of purine bases from the DNA backbone) and single strand breaks. For example, hydrolytic depurination is seen in the thermophilic bacteria, which grow in hot springs at 85–250 °C.[4] The rate of depurination (300 purine residues per genome per generation) is too high in these species to be repaired by normal repair machinery, hence a possibility of an adaptive response cannot be ruled out.
5. Industrial chemicals such as vinyl chloride and hydrogen peroxide, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic hydrocarbons found in smoke, soot and tar create a huge diversity of DNA adducts- ethenobases, oxidized bases, alkylated phosphotriesters and Crosslinking of DNA just to name a few.

UV damage, alkylation/methylation, X-ray damage and oxidative damage are examples of induced damage. Spontaneous damage can include the loss of a base, deamination, sugar ring puckering and tautomeric shift. [5]

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 4 hrs (2009-10-21 16:43:53 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Martin

Don't feel frustrated (although I know the feeling well!)....medical translation is very, very difficult. None of us are experts really, unless we specialise in only one medical field, and there seems little demand for this, from my own perspective anyway. I translate all sorts of medical stuff, some stuff better than others! I did an orthodontic text once and I met my match! Never again:)

Saludos!

liz askew
United Kingdom
Local time: 11:48
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
Thanks again liz. I was waiting for them to let me know but there is silence, so I take it's alright as I translated methylation... Thank you!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Dr. Andrew Frankland: But with methylation rather than mutation. Methylation would certainly fit the context of a chemically induced change.
2 hrs
  -> Thank you very much! I was definitely leaning towards "methylation" but was not 100% sure:)

agree  A Garrett Robertson: I would go with methylation here as well, for hydrolysis and oxidation are chemical processes, whereas mutation could be the result of a chemical process, but is not one itself, whereas methylation is.
4 hrs
  -> as the research indicates....thank you!

neutral  Sandra Constantino: Definitivamente es metilación, no mutilación (error de tipografía)
5 hrs
  -> as the research indicates...thank you!

agree  Wendy Petzall: Agree with Dr Frankland, with Garret and with Sandra: Methylation!
13 hrs
  -> as the research indicates...thank you!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
metilación


Explanation:
Revisa a ver si no es un error de tipografía del original, porque la metilación es un pequeño cambio químico muy común en el DNA y nunca jamás en mi vida había visto mutilación, que por la descripción, no tiene qué ver con mutación. Estoy completamente segura que en el original debería decir metilación (adición de grupos metilo).

Sandra Constantino
Colombia
Local time: 06:48
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Wendy Petzall
7 hrs

neutral  liz askew: already contributed.
18 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Reference comments


1 hr peer agreement (net): +1
Reference

Reference information:
Hello

I am hard put to find anything relating to your context in either English or Spanish to justify ++ mutilation ++ as the translation.

See here

It talks of mutation OR methylation

under DNA Damage and Mutation

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OZ0JCCoPEz4C&pg=PA116&lpg...

liz askew
United Kingdom
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
Note to reference poster
Asker: So am I... and when you try to understand this incredible thing that is genetics you're under pressure to meet your deadline... so what are, some linguistic jack of all trades? Thank you liz, you've always been so helpful...


Peer comments on this reference comment (and responses from the reference poster)
agree  A Garrett Robertson
4 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)



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