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causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimient

English translation: retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimient
English translation:retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure
Entered by: Rebecca Jowers
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06:33 Feb 23, 2009
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general) / Criminal law
Spanish term or phrase: causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimient
El 8 de enero de 200x, la Sala Nº2 de la Corte de Apelaciones del Circuito Judicial Penal del Estado Zulia declaró sin lugar el recurso de apelación interpuesto por el abogado xxx, contra la decisión dictada, el 31 de octubre de 200x, por el Tribunal Segundo de Control del mismo Circuito Judicial Penal; parcialmente con lugar el recurso de apelación interpuesto por los abogados xxx e yyy, actuando con el carácter de defensores de los acusados aaa y bbb; y *repuso la causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimiento de admisión de los hechos.*
The last bit is troubling me...
Valeria Ines Lagos Terrizzano
Spain
Local time: 15:49
retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure
Explanation:
In my reading of this text

(la Corte) repuso la causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimiento de admisión de los hechos =

(the Court) ordered that the criminal case be retried commencing from the stage in the proceedings in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure (or, less wordy)

(the Court) ordered a retrial of the criminal case commencing at the stage in the proceedings...

You do not indicate the source of the text, but it would appear from the reference to Estado Zulia that this is from Venezuela. There are two concepts to translate here:

"Reposición de la causa penal al estado de..." and "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos". I have looked at several Venezuelan sources and comparing this with Spanish criminal appeal procedure, I can offer the following comments:

1) "reposición de la causa penal al estado de XXX..." (often worded "reposición de las actuaciónes al momento anterior de XXX" in criminal appeals in Spain) generally refers to the judge's vacating of part of the lower court's decision on procedural grounds and ordering the court to retry the case commencing at a specific stage or point in the proceeding in which procedural guarantees are deemed to have been violated.

2) In Venezuela "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" appears to be a type of "plea bargain procedure" in which the accused admits the facts (i.e., admits having commited the crime) in exchange for a lower sentence. Here is the pertinent article from the Venezuelan Code of Criminal Procedure ("Código Orgáncio Proceso Penal"):

Del Procedimiento por Admisión de los Hechos
Artículo 376. Solicitud.
En la audiencia preliminar, el imputado, admitidos los hechos objeto del proceso, podrá solicitar al tribunal la imposición inmediata de la pena. En estos casos, deberá el juez rebajar la pena aplicable al delito desde un tercio a la mitad de la pena que haya debido imponerse atendidas todas las circunstancias, tomando en consideración el bien jurídico afectado y el daño social causado. Sin embargo, si se trata de delitos en los cuales haya habido violencia contra las personas, el juez sólo podrá rebajar la pena aplicable hasta en un tercio.
http://www.tsj.gov.ve/legislacion/copp.html

I hope I am on the right track here, but you will know from the context of the rest of your text.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-23 13:59:11 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

A comment for Mike:

Hi Mike! Please read the explanation above. The quote from the Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code indicates that in Venezuela the "plea bargain procedure" is called "procedimiento por admisión de los hechos" . I don't think we can look here for the phrase "convenio de culpabilidad" or however "plea bargain" may be translated in the US, because this apparently is not the expression used in Venezuela, or at least not in the Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code. In Spain, for example, a plea bargain is called "conformidad", which if translated literally as "conformity" would be fairly meaningless. Each Spanish-speaking country has it's own terminology and for me the idea here is not to compare the Venezuelan text with what transpires in the US system and try to make the US terminology or procedure "fit", but rather to try to accurately reflect what the Venezuelan text says about Venezuelan criminal procedure.

The definition quoted is taken directly from the Venezuelan Code of Criminal Procedure. Having taken the time and effort to verify exactly what "procedimiento por admisión de los hechos" refers to in this context, I personally would not be satisfied translating this literally as "admission of the factual foundation". I agree that Valeria will have to verify this through her client or perhaps do a little extra research, and I have tried to provide her the wherewithall to do so. In my opinion, that's what Kudoz is about: providing the most useful answer, which may in the end not be exactly how the asker words it or even the one the answer ultimately uses, but rather the one that leads to the right answer for the asker's context. So I personally wouldn't prefer what may appear to be a more vague translation in order to avoid "getting my fingers pinched" (pillarme los dedos!). This is not necessarily Valeria's final answer, but it may be the one that leads to that answer.

In my reading, the appellate court is ordering the trial court to retry the case commencing at the moment that the accused were (or perhaps) should have been informed of how the plea bargain procedure works, that a plea bargain was available to them, etc. We can't know the details from the excerpt provided, but everything that I have read so far (I've read loads of Venezuelan legal theory this morning!) seems to point in that direction.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-23 14:17:47 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hello Valeria, I believe I have been able to confirm that "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" is the Venezuelan expression for "plea bargaining". The following is an excerpt from two Venezuelan court judgments explaining what the "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" and equating this with "plea bargaining."


REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA
PODER JUDICIAL
JUZGADO SEXTO DE PRIMERA INSTANCIA EN FUNCIONES
DE JUICIO DEL CIRCUITO JUDICIAL PENAL DEL ESTADO ZULIA.
TRIBUNAL MIXTO CON ESCABINOS
Maracaibo, 31 de mayo del 2.006
196º Y 147º
CAUSA: 6M-018-05
PUNTO PREVIO
El procedimiento de admisión de los hechos es una institución novedosa en nuestro procedimiento, cuyos antecedentes los encontramos en el sistema español, americano, entre otros como fórmula de simplificación de procesos, orientados hacia la celeridad y economía procesal, al respecto la autora PATRICIA ZIEFER en la obra LINEAMIENTOS DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DE LA PENA, págs 167 y ss,…expresa: “La evolución de la determinación de la pena en los Estados Unidos, se ha visto caracterizada fundamentalmente por dos particularidades: La legitimación de los acuerdos entre Fiscal, defensor y Juez acerca de la pena aplicar (plea bargaining) y la restricción posterior de estos acuerdos a través de lineamientos estrictos, acerca de la pena aplicar según los hechos (sentence guideline) y el consiguiente a un sistema de pena tasada”. La naturaleza de los hechos, consiste a juicio de esta Juzgadora en la sentencia dictada por el Juzgado de la Causa, cuando el imputado admite la participación en el hecho plenamente comprobado y además pide la imposición inmediata de la pena con la rebaja respectiva, atendiendo al bien jurídico afectado y al daño social causado; por lo que se presupone indefectiblemente la culpabilidad del acusado en los hechos imputados.
http://zulia.tsj.gov.ve/decisiones/2006/mayo/570-31-6M-018-0...


CORTE DE APELACIONES DEL CIRCUITO JUDICIAL PENAL
DEL AREA METROPOLITANA DE CARACAS
SALA 10
Caracas, 13 de Julio de 2007
197° y 148°
PONENTE: ALEGRÍA LILIAN BELILTY BENGUIGUI.
CAUSA: No. 10 As 2067-07
En este orden de ideas, se evidencia que el procedimiento de admisión de los hechos es una institución novedosa en nuestro sistema adjetivo penal, cuyos antecedentes los encontramos -entre otros- en los sistemas español y americano, como fórmula de simplificación de procesos, está orientado hacia la celeridad y economía procesal, al respecto, la autora Patricia Zieffer, expresa: “ La evolución de la determinación de la pena en Estados Unidos, se ha visto caracterizada fundamentalmente por dos particularidades: La legitimación de los acuerdos entre Fiscal, defensor y Juez acerca de la pena a aplicar (plea bargaining) y la restricción posterior de estos acuerdos a través de lineamientos estrictos, acerca de la pena a aplicar según el hecho (sentencing guidelines) y con el consiguiente acercamiento a un sistema de ´pena tasada´” (Lineamientos de la Determinación de la Pena, Ad-Hoc. Konrad- Adenauer Stiftung. Ciedla. 1996, P. 187)
http://jca.tsj.gov.ve/decisiones/2007/julio/1731-13-10As2067...

(These appear to be standard clauses that judges use in cases in which there is a plea bargain, but this would have to be verified.)

Later in the second judgment, the judge reiterates the definition of "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos", a definition that clearly reflects the characteristics of a plea bargain:

Institución definida por la Sala de Casación Penal del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia en sentencia No. 75, de fecha 8 de febrero de 2001, que expresa: "...admisión de los hechos", es un procedimiento especial que procede cuando el imputado consiente en ello, reconoce su participación en el hecho que se le atribuye, lo cual conlleva a la imposición inmediata de la pena con una rebaja desde un tercio de la mitad, atendidas todas las circunstancias y considerando el bien jurídico afectado y el daño social causado. La admisión de los hechos supone una renuncia voluntaria al derecho a un juicio, principio garantizado no sólo por el Código Orgánico Procesal Penal sino por instrumentos internacionales ratificados por la República; y al mismo tiempo, tal admisión evita al Estado el desarrollo de un proceso judicial que siempre resultará costoso...”

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 8 hrs (2009-02-23 14:48:18 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

From a US Department of Justice publication called "Datos Mundiales sobre los Sistemas de Justicia Criminal--Venezuela":

"Una de las múltiples innovaciones en el Código Orgánico Procesal Penal es la posibilidad que tiene el imputado de obtener una rebaja de la pena por la
admisión de los hechos (Artículo 376). Esta figura se basa explícitamente en legislaciones penales existentes en otros países, como el "regateo judicial", o plea bargaining, en Estados Unidos, y la "conformidad" en España."
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/wfcjsvz_sp.pdf


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day47 mins (2009-02-24 07:21:34 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Good Morning, Valeria. I'm glad this fit your text!
Selected response from:

Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 15:49
Grading comment
Wow, Rebeca, what an answer! Very impresive, and extremely helpful indeed. Many thanks
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedureRebecca Jowers
4retry the criminal prosecution at the that the accused are informed regarding the procedure for
Michael Powers (PhD)


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
retry the criminal prosecution at the that the accused are informed regarding the procedure for


Explanation:
the admission of the factual foundation

Rebecca's answer is fascinating as always. I really enjoy reading her logic and find her to be extremely accurate in legal translations. Furthermore, I agree with her totally as to the first part of this answer. As to the second section, even though it may ultimate end up in a plea bargain, since "convenio de culpabilidad" or an equivalent is not mentioned anywhere, but rather preliminary procedures such as the acceptance of responsibility of having committed a criminal act and what those acts or facts actually were, I would avoid the use of "plea agreement" and simply state it as a "procedure for the admission of a factual foundation." Of course it could be argued that plea agreement negotiations are being considered, and that argument would be correct. But by law, in the US system, at least, the defense lawyers must place all options on the table, including possible plea negotiations, which would include acceptance of the factual foundation, including the giving up of appellate rights under most circumstances, etc., and the other option of going to continuing with the trial and the possible defenses and possible outcomes, etc.

Nonetheless, I would feel more comfortable with the implication of a plea agreement, as in the original, but without actually stating it directly. For that reason I would translate it: "regarding ithe procedure for the admission of the factual foundation."



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 8 hrs (2009-02-23 14:40:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

A comment for Rebecca

Rebecca, I found what you wrote fascinating, and you may indeed be right in your assessment. Just for a quick note of clarification: the Venezuelan interpretation of the legal criminal laws of plea bargaining in the US are somewhat incorrect, even though this is not material for the translation. A plea bargain in the US is made between the prosecutor's office and the defendant (obviously with the input of the defense attorney). The judge is not party to this plea agreement and even though a plea agreement exists, and even though a certain sentence is recommended by the proscutor (US Attorneys Office in federal cases), the judge can accept the guity plea and ignore the plea agreement partially or totally. Likewise, since US v. Booker, the judge can ignore the guidelines entirely and give an upward or downward departure without the right of appeal, unless the amount of time exceeds the statutory limit.

Nonetheless, what you have provided definitely convinces me that what is being contemplated in this case is a possible plea bargain.

In summary, it could appear that I am focusing on the trees instead of the forest. Whereas your research indicates that it may indeed refer to the overall plea bargain itself, I can't help but think of more specific issues such as the right of the defendant to withdraw from negotiations without the information disclosed in the debriefing being used against him or her, etc., as long as he or she has the "queen for the day letter" immunity agreement, or and the fact that even worded conservatively the implication of the plea agreement is there. Really what it comes down to is if the phraseology as stated is an explicit plea agreement in Venezuela or only implied. I have just finished three criminal cases with Venezuelans here in Miami, and the word I used for plea agreement in two of the cases (the other is set for trial) was "convenio de culpabilidad" or "acuerdo para declararse culpable" and in one of the cases two Venzuelan lawyers were involved. Their specialty is civil law, not criminal, but still, this was the term that we used. On the other hand, I probably initiated using the term.

I still feel that the answer I have posted implies enough for the readers to understand what is at hand; however, your research is formidable as always, and I really enjoy reading and learning from what you write.

Mike :)

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 21 hrs (2009-02-24 04:19:17 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

You are quite welcome, Valeria, Rebecca is almost always "bang on." She is absolutely amazing and I am one of her biggest fans. I love to read her research.

Michael Powers (PhD)
United States
Local time: 09:49
Meets criteria
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 2034
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you very much Michael, your answer also helped me, but Rebeca's was bang on.


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Rebecca Jowers: Thanks for your comment. In addition to the two Venezuelan judgments, what ultimately convinced me was confirmation in a USDOJ document (my last post).
6 mins
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure


Explanation:
In my reading of this text

(la Corte) repuso la causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimiento de admisión de los hechos =

(the Court) ordered that the criminal case be retried commencing from the stage in the proceedings in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure (or, less wordy)

(the Court) ordered a retrial of the criminal case commencing at the stage in the proceedings...

You do not indicate the source of the text, but it would appear from the reference to Estado Zulia that this is from Venezuela. There are two concepts to translate here:

"Reposición de la causa penal al estado de..." and "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos". I have looked at several Venezuelan sources and comparing this with Spanish criminal appeal procedure, I can offer the following comments:

1) "reposición de la causa penal al estado de XXX..." (often worded "reposición de las actuaciónes al momento anterior de XXX" in criminal appeals in Spain) generally refers to the judge's vacating of part of the lower court's decision on procedural grounds and ordering the court to retry the case commencing at a specific stage or point in the proceeding in which procedural guarantees are deemed to have been violated.

2) In Venezuela "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" appears to be a type of "plea bargain procedure" in which the accused admits the facts (i.e., admits having commited the crime) in exchange for a lower sentence. Here is the pertinent article from the Venezuelan Code of Criminal Procedure ("Código Orgáncio Proceso Penal"):

Del Procedimiento por Admisión de los Hechos
Artículo 376. Solicitud.
En la audiencia preliminar, el imputado, admitidos los hechos objeto del proceso, podrá solicitar al tribunal la imposición inmediata de la pena. En estos casos, deberá el juez rebajar la pena aplicable al delito desde un tercio a la mitad de la pena que haya debido imponerse atendidas todas las circunstancias, tomando en consideración el bien jurídico afectado y el daño social causado. Sin embargo, si se trata de delitos en los cuales haya habido violencia contra las personas, el juez sólo podrá rebajar la pena aplicable hasta en un tercio.
http://www.tsj.gov.ve/legislacion/copp.html

I hope I am on the right track here, but you will know from the context of the rest of your text.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-23 13:59:11 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

A comment for Mike:

Hi Mike! Please read the explanation above. The quote from the Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code indicates that in Venezuela the "plea bargain procedure" is called "procedimiento por admisión de los hechos" . I don't think we can look here for the phrase "convenio de culpabilidad" or however "plea bargain" may be translated in the US, because this apparently is not the expression used in Venezuela, or at least not in the Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code. In Spain, for example, a plea bargain is called "conformidad", which if translated literally as "conformity" would be fairly meaningless. Each Spanish-speaking country has it's own terminology and for me the idea here is not to compare the Venezuelan text with what transpires in the US system and try to make the US terminology or procedure "fit", but rather to try to accurately reflect what the Venezuelan text says about Venezuelan criminal procedure.

The definition quoted is taken directly from the Venezuelan Code of Criminal Procedure. Having taken the time and effort to verify exactly what "procedimiento por admisión de los hechos" refers to in this context, I personally would not be satisfied translating this literally as "admission of the factual foundation". I agree that Valeria will have to verify this through her client or perhaps do a little extra research, and I have tried to provide her the wherewithall to do so. In my opinion, that's what Kudoz is about: providing the most useful answer, which may in the end not be exactly how the asker words it or even the one the answer ultimately uses, but rather the one that leads to the right answer for the asker's context. So I personally wouldn't prefer what may appear to be a more vague translation in order to avoid "getting my fingers pinched" (pillarme los dedos!). This is not necessarily Valeria's final answer, but it may be the one that leads to that answer.

In my reading, the appellate court is ordering the trial court to retry the case commencing at the moment that the accused were (or perhaps) should have been informed of how the plea bargain procedure works, that a plea bargain was available to them, etc. We can't know the details from the excerpt provided, but everything that I have read so far (I've read loads of Venezuelan legal theory this morning!) seems to point in that direction.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-23 14:17:47 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hello Valeria, I believe I have been able to confirm that "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" is the Venezuelan expression for "plea bargaining". The following is an excerpt from two Venezuelan court judgments explaining what the "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos" and equating this with "plea bargaining."


REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA
PODER JUDICIAL
JUZGADO SEXTO DE PRIMERA INSTANCIA EN FUNCIONES
DE JUICIO DEL CIRCUITO JUDICIAL PENAL DEL ESTADO ZULIA.
TRIBUNAL MIXTO CON ESCABINOS
Maracaibo, 31 de mayo del 2.006
196º Y 147º
CAUSA: 6M-018-05
PUNTO PREVIO
El procedimiento de admisión de los hechos es una institución novedosa en nuestro procedimiento, cuyos antecedentes los encontramos en el sistema español, americano, entre otros como fórmula de simplificación de procesos, orientados hacia la celeridad y economía procesal, al respecto la autora PATRICIA ZIEFER en la obra LINEAMIENTOS DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DE LA PENA, págs 167 y ss,…expresa: “La evolución de la determinación de la pena en los Estados Unidos, se ha visto caracterizada fundamentalmente por dos particularidades: La legitimación de los acuerdos entre Fiscal, defensor y Juez acerca de la pena aplicar (plea bargaining) y la restricción posterior de estos acuerdos a través de lineamientos estrictos, acerca de la pena aplicar según los hechos (sentence guideline) y el consiguiente a un sistema de pena tasada”. La naturaleza de los hechos, consiste a juicio de esta Juzgadora en la sentencia dictada por el Juzgado de la Causa, cuando el imputado admite la participación en el hecho plenamente comprobado y además pide la imposición inmediata de la pena con la rebaja respectiva, atendiendo al bien jurídico afectado y al daño social causado; por lo que se presupone indefectiblemente la culpabilidad del acusado en los hechos imputados.
http://zulia.tsj.gov.ve/decisiones/2006/mayo/570-31-6M-018-0...


CORTE DE APELACIONES DEL CIRCUITO JUDICIAL PENAL
DEL AREA METROPOLITANA DE CARACAS
SALA 10
Caracas, 13 de Julio de 2007
197° y 148°
PONENTE: ALEGRÍA LILIAN BELILTY BENGUIGUI.
CAUSA: No. 10 As 2067-07
En este orden de ideas, se evidencia que el procedimiento de admisión de los hechos es una institución novedosa en nuestro sistema adjetivo penal, cuyos antecedentes los encontramos -entre otros- en los sistemas español y americano, como fórmula de simplificación de procesos, está orientado hacia la celeridad y economía procesal, al respecto, la autora Patricia Zieffer, expresa: “ La evolución de la determinación de la pena en Estados Unidos, se ha visto caracterizada fundamentalmente por dos particularidades: La legitimación de los acuerdos entre Fiscal, defensor y Juez acerca de la pena a aplicar (plea bargaining) y la restricción posterior de estos acuerdos a través de lineamientos estrictos, acerca de la pena a aplicar según el hecho (sentencing guidelines) y con el consiguiente acercamiento a un sistema de ´pena tasada´” (Lineamientos de la Determinación de la Pena, Ad-Hoc. Konrad- Adenauer Stiftung. Ciedla. 1996, P. 187)
http://jca.tsj.gov.ve/decisiones/2007/julio/1731-13-10As2067...

(These appear to be standard clauses that judges use in cases in which there is a plea bargain, but this would have to be verified.)

Later in the second judgment, the judge reiterates the definition of "procedimiento de admisión de los hechos", a definition that clearly reflects the characteristics of a plea bargain:

Institución definida por la Sala de Casación Penal del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia en sentencia No. 75, de fecha 8 de febrero de 2001, que expresa: "...admisión de los hechos", es un procedimiento especial que procede cuando el imputado consiente en ello, reconoce su participación en el hecho que se le atribuye, lo cual conlleva a la imposición inmediata de la pena con una rebaja desde un tercio de la mitad, atendidas todas las circunstancias y considerando el bien jurídico afectado y el daño social causado. La admisión de los hechos supone una renuncia voluntaria al derecho a un juicio, principio garantizado no sólo por el Código Orgánico Procesal Penal sino por instrumentos internacionales ratificados por la República; y al mismo tiempo, tal admisión evita al Estado el desarrollo de un proceso judicial que siempre resultará costoso...”

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 8 hrs (2009-02-23 14:48:18 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

From a US Department of Justice publication called "Datos Mundiales sobre los Sistemas de Justicia Criminal--Venezuela":

"Una de las múltiples innovaciones en el Código Orgánico Procesal Penal es la posibilidad que tiene el imputado de obtener una rebaja de la pena por la
admisión de los hechos (Artículo 376). Esta figura se basa explícitamente en legislaciones penales existentes en otros países, como el "regateo judicial", o plea bargaining, en Estados Unidos, y la "conformidad" en España."
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/wfcjsvz_sp.pdf


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day47 mins (2009-02-24 07:21:34 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Good Morning, Valeria. I'm glad this fit your text!

Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 15:49
Meets criteria
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 2054
Grading comment
Wow, Rebeca, what an answer! Very impresive, and extremely helpful indeed. Many thanks
Notes to answerer
Asker: Yes, Rebecca, it is from Venezuela, and I think that you are on the right track too, but I'd like to see other answers... Thanks anyway!

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Changes made by editors
Feb 24, 2009 - Changes made by Rebecca Jowers:
Edited KOG entry<a href="/profile/8100">Rebecca Jowers's</a> old entry - "causa penal al estado de que los imputados sean instruidos sobre el procedimient" » "retrial of the case from the stage in which the accused were informed of the plea bargain procedure"
Feb 24, 2009 - Changes made by Rebecca Jowers:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


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