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|Spanish to English translations [PRO]|
|Spanish term or phrase: Procuraduría|
|¿Alguno de ustedes conoce la diferencia entre "fiscal" y "procurador"? Aparecen los dos en un mismo texto. Les voy a copiar un comentario publicado por un colega en otra oportunidad...|
En Venezuela, la diferencia fundamental de las funciones de dichos funcionarios es que:
El Fiscal General es el garante del cumplimiento de las leyes, de la protección de los derechos de los ciudadanos, y de dirigir las investigaciones penales. Es un poder autónomo y lo nombra la Asamblea Nacional.
El Procurador General es como el abogado de la República, a la cual representa en juicios civiles por disputas contractuales. Es un funcionario ejecutivo y lo nombra el Presidente de la República.
El Contralor, por su parte, cumple las funciones de auditor de los gastos públicos.
Te transcribo fragmentos de algunos artículos pertinentes de las leyes que rigen sus respectivas funciones:
LEY ORGÁNICA DEL MINISTERIO PÚBLICO
Artículo 11. Son deberes y atribuciones del Ministerio Público:
1. Velar por la observancia de la Constitución, de las leyes y de las libertades fundamentales en todo el territorio nacional. (…);
4. Ejercer la acción penal en los términos establecidos en la Constitución, el Código Orgánico Procesal Penal y en las leyes;
5. Intentar las acciones a que hubiere lugar para hacer efectiva la responsabilidad civil, penal, administrativa o disciplinaria en que hubieren incurrido los funcionarios públicos, con motivo del ejercicio de sus funciones (…)
6. Ejercer la dirección funcional de las investigaciones penales de los órganos de policía correspondientes (…)
DECRETO CON FUERZA DE LEY ORGÁNICA DE LA PROCURADURÍA GENERAL DE LA REPÚBLICA
Artículo 9°. Es competencia de la Procuraduría General de la República:
1. Representar y defender judicial y extrajudicialmente los intereses patrimoniales de la República;
2. Representar y defender a la República en los juicios que se susciten entre ésta y personas públicas y privadas, por nulidad, caducidad, resolución, alcance, interpretación y cumplimiento de contratos (…)
Espero que esto ayude a clarificar las diferencias de funciones.
|Public Prosecutor; Attorney General|
Te propongo traducir
Fiscal = Public Prosecutor y Procurador = Attorney General,
y luego incluir una Nota de Traductor.
Me parece que en la mayoría de los países el “Public Prosecutor” desempeña las mismas las funciones que tiene el Fiscal en Venezuela.
Sin embargo, en los Estados Unidos, en Irlanda y la mayoría de los países y/o dependencias de la Comunidad Británica esas funciones las desempeña el “Attorney General”, quien además tiene las atribuciones del Procurador.
Te anexo algunos enlaces útiles para aclarar el punto.
The position of the Public Prosecution
In the Netherlands the Public Prosecution has the monopoly of prosecution; only the public prosecutor can bring a case before a criminal court, police and citizens cannot.
The public prosecutor has a wide range of possibilities when dealing with a criminal case.
He can put the case aside for “technical” reasons (such as lack of evidence or lapse of time) or for reasons of “public interest” (for instance in the case of minor offences or if the damage is repaired by the offender). The public prosecutor can also settle the case out of court on condition that a certain amount of money is to be paid by the offender (sometimes there are more or other conditions such as repair of damage). If it is not appropriate to put a case aside or settle it out of court, the suspect is prosecuted.
The Special Prosecutor's Office is managed by a Special Prosecutor for suppression of organized crime (hereinafter the Special Prosecutor).
The Special Prosecutor is appointed by the Republic Public Prosecutor from among Public Prosecutors and Deputy Public Prosecutors meeting the requirements for appointment as
District Public Prosecutor, under written consent of the appointee.
The Special Prosecutor is appointed to a term of office of two years and may be re-appointed.
The Republic Public Prosecutor shall, prior to appointment of Special Prosecutor, first issue a decision on seconding such person to the Special Prosecutor's Office.
The Republic Public Prosecutor may dismiss the Special Prosecutor before expiry of his/her term of appointment.
Upon termination of his/her office the Special Prosecutor shall return to his/her previous post.
Any results of such a search cannot be used as evidence, and you are entitled to complain in writing, stating the facts, to the public prosecutor Procureur du Roi/Procureur des Konings, demanding that those responsible be prosecuted
Article 26. Rights of the Federal Anti-Monopoly Agency for State Control in the Area of Advertising
1. The federal anti-monopoly agency (its territorial agency) shall control, within the bounds of its competence, the observance of the legislation of the Russian Federation on advertising. This agency (its territorial agency):
(…) shall send to the public prosecutor's office and other authorities within its jurisdiction materials needed for a decision on whether to start a criminal proceeding on the basis of the violations in the area of advertising.
(…) forward to the public prosecutor's office materials and turn to the federal executive authorities in connection with violations of the legislation of the Russian Federation on advertising.
The government authorities submitted the said matter to the Public Prosecutor's Office of Vientiane Municipality on 9 November 2000 in order to charge them with criminal offenses, and the Public Prosecutor’s Office immediately issued an order to investigation/interrogation, and ordered the authorities concerned to undertake attachment of property in order to ensure there be no acts of hiding or disappearance of property; however the order could not be carried out because the representative and the guards of the said company did not cooperate. Therefore, whereas being forced by the situation, the Public Prosecutor's Office of Vientiane Municipality has had to issue an order of home search and undertook some necessary measures.
MINISTERS AND SECRETARIES ACT, 1924 SECTION 6
The Attorney General
6.—(1) There shall be vested in the Attorney-General of Saorstát Eireann (who shall be styled in Irish Príomh-Atúrnae Shaorstáit Eireann and shall be appointed by the Governor-General on the nomination of the Executive Council) the business, powers, authorities, duties and functions formerly vested in or exercised by the Attorney-General for Ireland, the Solicitor-General for Ireland, the Attorney-General for Southern Ireland, the Solicitor-General for Southern Ireland, the Law Adviser to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and any or all of them respectively, and the administration and control of the business, powers, authorities, duties and functions of the branches and officers of the public services specified in the Ninth Part of the Schedule to this Act and also the administration and business generally of public services in connection with the representation of the Government of Saorstát Eireann and of the public in all legal proceedings for the enforcement of law, the punishment of offenders and the assertion or protection of public rights and all powers, duties and functions connected with the same respectively, together with the duty of advising the Executive Council and the several Ministers in matters of law and of legal opinion.
The Attorney General is given his authority and obligations by the Georgia Constitution and the Official Code of Georgia. His duties include:
• Serving as the attorney and legal advisor for all state agencies, departments, authorities and the Governor.
• Providing opinions on legal questions concerning the state of Georgia or its agencies, which are binding on all state agencies and departments.
• Representing the state of Georgia in all capital felony appeals before the Supreme Court of Georgia.
• Representing the state of Georgia in all civil cases before any court.
• Representing the state of Georgia in all cases appearing before the Supreme Court of the United States.
• Prosecuting public corruption cases where criminal charges are filed against any person or business for illegal activity when dealing with the state of Georgia.
• Conducting special investigations into questionable activity concerning any state agency or department or a person or business that has done business with the state of Georgia.
• Initiating civil or criminal actions on behalf of the state of Georgia when requested to do so by the Governor.
• Preparing all contracts and agreements regarding any matter in which the state of Georgia is involved.
The Attorney General does not, and indeed by law cannot, provide legal advice to private citizens.
Section 1. Duties and Authorities of Agency Heads. Consistent with applicable law,
(a)(i) The Attorney General may maintain custody, at any location he deems appropriate, of any undocumented aliens he has reason to believe are seeking to enter the United States and who are interdicted or intercepted in the Caribbean region. In this regard, the Attorney General shall provide and operate a facility, or facilities, to house and provide for the needs of any such aliens. Such a facility may be located at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base or any other appropriate location.
(ii) The Attorney General may conduct any screening of such aliens that he deems appropriate, including screening to determine whether such aliens should be returned to their country of origin or transit, or whether they are persons in need of protection who should not be returned without their consent. If the Attorney General institutes such screening, then until a determination is made, the Attorney General shall provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of the aliens. The Attorney General shall continue to provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of aliens who are determined not to be persons in need of protection until such time as they are returned to their country of origin or transit.
Legal Authority to Issue Opinions
Section 22 of Article IV of the Texas Constitution gives the Attorney General the authority to issue advisory opinions. That authorization has been more specifically defined in Sections 402.041 through 402.045 of the Government Code, which provide as follows:
Sec. 402.041. Definition
In this subchapter "opinion" means advice or a judgment or decision and the legal reasons and principles on which it is based.
Director of Public Prosecutions
4 There shall be a Director of Public Prosecutions who
(a) is the head of the public prosecutions service and is responsible for all prosecutions within the jurisdiction of the Attorney General conducted on behalf of the Crown;
(b) may conduct all prosecutions independently of the Attorney General except that the Director of Public Prosecutions shall comply with all instructions or guidelines issued by the Attorney General in writing and published pursuant to this Act;
(c) is, for the purpose of the Criminal Code (Canada) and the Summary Proceedings Act, the Attorney Generals lawful deputy in respect of prosecutions;
(d) shall advise police officers in respect of prosecutions generally or in respect of a particular investigation that may lead to a prosecution when the police request such assistance;
(e) may issue general instructions or guidelines to a chief crown attorney, a regional crown attorney or a crown attorney in respect of all prosecutions or a class of prosecutions, and shall cause such instructions or guidelines to be published;
(f) may issue instructions or guidelines to a chief crown attorney, a regional crown attorney or a crown attorney in a particular prosecution. 1990, c. 21, s. 4.
5.8.1 Each of the Islands has an Attorney General who acts as public prosecutor. In Guernsey, the Attorney General is known as HM Procureur and is responsible for all prosecutions in all Courts of the Bailiwick.
5.8.2 In Jersey and Guernsey the Attorney Generals are supported by Deputies known as the Solicitor General and HM Comptroller, respectively, and Crown Advocates. In the Isle of Man, the Attorney General is supported by the Government Advocate.
5.8.3 The Attorney Generals, and in Jersey and Guernsey their Deputies as well, are appointed by the British Crown, after due consultation. They do not undertake any private work.
5.8.4 The Attorney Generals combine their public prosecution role with the further roles of:
• advising the Crown on legal matters;
• advising the Island Parliaments and Governments on legal matters (including in Guernsey and the Isle of Man, but not Jersey, responsibility for drafting as well as advising on legislation); and
• authorising various actions by the police and others under fraud, money laundering and other criminal legislation.
5.8.5 In Guernsey they also have to give their approval before any application can be made to the Royal Court for permission to register a company.
5.8.6 For any international finance centre, independent public prosecutors committed to prosecuting crime wherever there is a reasonable prospect of obtaining convictions are as important as independent judges.
5.8.7 A few of my correspondents in one of the Islands argued that the role of public prosecutor should not be combined with that of adviser to an Island's Parliament. They thought it wrong, for example, that the same person should both advise the Parliament or the Executive on legal aspects of their relations with someone and be responsible for the decision whether to prosecute him.
5.8.8 I suspect that any such conflicts of interest are likely to be rare. The Islands' Attorney Generals all recognise that, if conflicts should arise, their first duty would be to the Crown and their right course would be to advise the Parliament or the Executive to seek advice from others. Alternatively, if the conflict should arise from some earlier advice they had given to the Parliament, they would delegate the decision on whether to prosecute, and the prosecution itself, to someone else.
In developing these Guidelines, the Working Group members took into account the views expressed and the information provided by members of the International Association of Prosecutors (IAP). Twenty-eight responses to a questionnaire developed and submitted to members of the IAP were received from a wide range of prosecution services, including:
the Office of the Director of Public Prosecution, New South Wales, Australia; Office of the Director of Public Prosecution, Denmark; Hungarian National Association of Prosecutors, Hungary; ECPAT International (End Child Prostitution Child Pornography & Trafficking of Children For Sexual Purpose), Thailand; Crown Prosecution Service, England and Wales; Office of the Director of Public Prosecution, Malawi; Supreme Prosecutor's Office of the Czech Republic; Office of the Prosecutor General, Finland;
Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, Northern Territory, Australia; Society of State Advocates of South Africa; Office of the Crown Counsel, Ontario, Canada;
Criminal Justice Branch, Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, Canada; Max Planck Institute, Germany; Crown Agent's Office, Crown Office, Scotland; Department of Justice, Prosecution Division, Hong Kong, China; Nova Scotia Public Prosecution Service, Canada; Office of the Director of Public Prosecution, Uganda; Office of the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Azerbaijan; Comision Ejecutiva del Ministerio Publico, Peru; National District Attorney's Association, USA; Department of Justice Canada, Criminal Law Section, Canada; National Union of Prosecutors of South Africa, South Africa; Office of the Prosecution, Romania; The Prosecution Service of Japan.
Note added at 2003-04-04 13:36:13 (GMT)
Creo que la NT se requiere y justifica no sólo porque es evidente la falta de correspondencia exacta entre las denominaciones de los cargos y las funciones respectivas en países de culturas diferentes, sino porque además dichas diferencias en las denominaciones y funciones de esos funcionarios existen también entre los diversos países que hablan español y tienen sistemas jurídicos basados en el derecho romano.
Selected response from:
Manuel Cedeño Berrueta
Local time: 17:06
|Gracias, Manuel, sobre todo por las referencias. La sugerencia de la nota del traductor me parece acertada, pero no en nuestro caso, porque estamos traduciendo notas periodísticas, por lo general cortas. Vamos a adoptar las traducciones que sugieres e intentar explicar las funciones dentro del texto, para evitar ambigüedad.|
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer
9 mins confidence: peer agreement (net): +7
Attorney General's Office
Note added at 2003-04-03 16:42:28 (GMT)
Procurador: Attorney; Counsel; (UK) solicitor; procurator;procurer. II de instrucción pública (Ec) Public Prosecutor. II Fiscal Prosecutor; prosecuting attorney. II general ATTORNEY GENERAL; chief law office r in a state
Note added at 2003-04-03 16:48:06 (GMT)
Fiscal: Prosecutor; state or government attorney; auditor
Ref. Bilingual Dictionary of Legal Terms, bossini & gleeson