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I did not mean to say this particular text might be about spectroscopy, but basically explained the same thoughts as you did at the same time you did. Will delete my post as it does not need to be up there twice.
Strictly speaking, not 'in all cases' would Resonancia Magnética be MRI as there are other techniques like MR spectroscopy (espectroscopia resonancia magnética) which rely on magnetic resonance. Hence, there may be situations where 'resonancia magnética' translates to 'magnetic resonance' only, or to MR spectroscopy etc. In all the examples of your text, however, MRI appears to be the intended meaning.
The words "magnetic resonance" on their own describe a phenomenon (the full term is actually "nuclear magnetic resonance"). In the phrase "magnetic resonance imaging", the same two words are used to form a compound adjective that describes a type of imaging test/study. My point being that, in English, "magnetic resonance" by itself has a very different meaning from "MRI", but as Cristina points out, in Spanish it is very typical for the "imaging" to go unmentioned.
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2 mins confidence: peer agreement (net): +11
Explanation: Yes, we do not say "image" in Spanish.
Cecilia Gowar United Kingdom Specializes in field Native speaker of: Spanish PRO pts in category: 136