English to Chinese: The Competitive Nature of Man General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Philosophy
Source text - English There are those with collectivist notions of social organization (the ideologues and visionaries among us) who assert we should all love one another and share our stuff and not be competitive. As splendid as the ideal might be, the reality is, that the great mass of people out there do not give a fig about ideals; they, as it should be, go about doing what is necessary to take care of themselves and their families. It does no good to appeal to reason: the world runs on passion.
Man has come to be all that he is (without the conscious intervention of man) on account of millions of years of evolutionary "progress"; it can hardly be expected that man in a few generations can remake himself. Man has come to be, and continues to maintain himself, as the result of the operation of natural laws, one of which is an egocentric mechanism driving an extended order of collaboration. (Such a law is not to be confused with the laws that govern intimate relationships such as exist between family members.) This egocentric mechanism to which I refer is one on which the lives of millions of human beings depend: -- it is called the free market. I can do no better than to quote Friedrich A. Hayek (the 1974 Nobel Prize winner in Economics):
"We are led - for example by the pricing system in market exchange - to do things by circumstances of which we are largely unaware and which produce results that we do not intend. In our economic activities we do not know the needs which we satisfy or the sources of the things which we get. Almost all of us serve people whom we do not know, and even of whose existence we are ignorant, and we in turn constantly live on the services of other people of whom we know nothing. All this is possible because we stand in a great framework of institutions and traditions - economic, legal, and moral - into which we fit ourselves by obeying certain rules of conduct that we never made, and which we have never understood in the sense in which we understand how the things that we manufacture function." (The Fatal Conceit.)
Man is not of divine origins, nor is he headed that way; he is not perfect, nor is he perfectible. He is what he is; by nature formed. One thing is for sure -- without first determining the nature of man, it is not possible to proceed to questions of a political and economic nature, such as, "what is the best social arrangement under which people might work and live?" We can let our hopes and imaginations run free, as have done a myriad of speculators down through the ages, but much misery will come about if we try to fit people into a scheme which takes into account the way we would like humans to be, rather than the way, by nature, they are.
Translation - Chinese 有些理论家和幻想家认为，人类社会组织中应实行集体主义；他们总是劝大家相互热爱，共享所有，而不要相互竞争。这种理想听起来冠冕堂皇，然而在现实中，绝大多数人是不在乎什么主义不主义的，他们只埋头为自己、为家庭努力奋斗，这是天经地义的。呼吁理性是没用的――让这个世界运转的，是感性的激情。
人类经历了几百万年的进化发展，达成了如今的状况，而这种发展并非人类有意为之；也不能奢望人类用区区几代人的时间去改造自己。支配人类发展的自然规律是利己主义机制，在该机制的基础上，才进一步产生了协作的秩序（不能将该规律与调整家人之间等亲密关系的规律相混淆）；人类就是在这种规律的作用下进化到今天这种状况的，并将继续遵循该规律生存发展下去。我所说的利己主义机制，正是指自由市场，是成千上万人生存的基础。在此引用Friedrich A. Hayek（1974年诺贝尔经济学奖得主）的话来说明问题，是再好不过的了：
Chinese to English: An extracted article General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - Chinese 在第3.1條所訂的各項先決條件（或甲方絶對有权酌情处理的其他先決條件）完全被滿足後10個營業日內（但不會遲於2011年6月30日）（以下簡稱“完成日期”），甲方會在基於乙方在本協議作出的聲明，保證及承諾的基礎上向乙方購買80股股份。而在完成日期甲方、乙方及該公司應在甲方的辦事處分別盡速完成如下事項:
Translation - English In 10 business days after the date the preconditions specified in 3.1(or any other preconditions at the free disposal of Party A) are fully fulfilled (hereinafter referred to as “Fulfillment Date”), but in no case later than June 30, 2011, Party A shall purchase 80 shares of stock from Party B based upon the undertaking, warranty and representation of Party B. On Fulfillment Date Party A, Party B and the Company shall, at the branch office of Party A, respectively perform the following as expeditiously as practicable:
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