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Korean to English: A History of Daegu Teahouses General field: Other Detailed field: Journalism
Source text - Korean 1936년 화가 이인성이 아카데미극장 옆에서 미도리 다방을 열었다. 대구 사람으로서는 처음으로 개업한 다방인데, 생맥주집 ‘혹톨’의 2층에 있었다. 그는 일찍이 일본의 제전(帝展)과 한국인을 대상으로 한 선전(鮮展)에도 입상한 주목받던 화가였고, 남산병원 3층에 ‘양화연구소’를 열었다. 화실을 찾아오는 사람들이 늘어나자 사랑방이 필요해서 따로 다방을 마련했다.
북성로와 향촌동 일대에 이름난 다방이 많이 있었다. 모나미·꽃자리·청포도·백조·백록·호수 같은 다방이었다. 그 가운데 모나미 다방은 문인들이 즐겨 찾던 곳으로, 해방직후 ‘죽순문학회’ 주관으로 이효상 시인의 출판기념회가 두 번이나 열렸던 곳이자, 공초 오상순을 비롯한 피란 문인들의 사랑방이기도 했다. 꽃자리 다방은 구상 시인의 시집 ‘초토의 시’ 출판기념회가 열렸던 곳이며, 청포도 다방의 이름은 육사의 ‘청포도’에서 비롯되었다.
백조 다방(1935년경 일본 사람이 운영하던 ‘아오이 찻집’)은 음악인들의 사교장이었다. ‘백조’라는 이름은 생상스의 ‘동물의 사육제’에 나오는 백조에서 따왔다고 하는데 이삼근이 주인이었다. 그는 지팡이`베레모`빨간 스카프로 치장하고 다니던 화제의 인물이었고, 다방 또한 상업적인 다방과는 거리가 멀었다. 당시로서는 명물이었던 그랜드 피아노가 있어서 향토 음악인들의 사교장으로 이용되었다.
1950, 60년대를 다방의 전성기라 할 수 있다. 아카데미극장 골목에 아담 다방이 있었다. 6`25전쟁 피란시절인 1951년 5월 어느 날 정비석, 박인환, 양명문, 그리고 출판관계 인사들과 만화가까지 합세한 가운데 육군종군작가단이 발족한 곳이다. 또한 향토의 작가 이호우, 박훈산, 최인욱이 자주 드나들던 곳이기도 하다.
그 시절, 다방은 피란 내려온 문인들과 예술인들이 눌러 앉아서 시름을 달래던 곳이었다. 김윤성, 김이석, 김팔봉, 마해송, 박두진, 방기환, 성기원, 양명문, 오상순, 유주현, 이덕진, 이상로, 장만영, 전숙희, 정비석, 최인욱, 최정희, 최태응, 그리고 작곡가 김동진도 대구에서 피난살이를 했다. 그들은 구석 자리에 앉아서 원고를 썼고, 몇 푼의 원고료를 받으면 밀린 외상값을 갚거나 대폿집으로 달려가 울울한 심정을 삭이기도 했었다.
1970년대에 들어 다방 풍속도가 조금씩 달라지기 시작했다. 고풍스런 다방이 뒷전으로 밀려나고, 젊은 사람들의 취향에 맞게 고급스런 시설을 갖춘 다방이 하나둘 등장했다. 코리아백화점 자리에 있던 ‘커피숍 왕비’도 그 가운데 하나였는데, 김옥주(64)가 도산 직전에 있던 호 다방을 인수해 개업하였다.
그녀는 여성들을 깎듯이 대우하는 파격적인 영업전략을 폈다. 비슷한 또래의 손님들이 들어오면, 여성들에게 먼저 주문을 받고 커피도 먼저 주었으며, 여성들에게는 찻잔도 최고급품을 사용했다. 그런가 하면 종업원에게 손님이 불러도 자리에 앉지 못하도록 하는 한편, 짧은 치마를 입지 못하도록 하였다.
1980, 90년대는 음악 다방의 전성기였다. 뮤직 박스와 전문 DJ가 등장했다. 레코드를 골라 음악을 들려주면서 차를 팔았다. 젊은 사람들이 음악과 이야기를 즐기며 커피를 마셨고, 연인들이 다정하게 붙어 앉아서 사랑을 꽃 피우기도 했었다. 그 시절 심지`티파니`유경`은하`맥향 같은 곳이 높은 인기를 누렸으나, 숱한 사연과 향수를 남긴 채 하나 둘 문을 닫았다.
흔히들 프랑스 문학을 이야기할 때면 카페가 등장한다. 그 가운데서도 파리의 카페 ‘되 마고’와 ‘드 플로르’가 빠지지 않는다. 1885년 문을 연 ‘되 마고’에서 피카소와 브라크는 입체주의를 탄생시켰고, 1890년 개업한 ‘드 플로르’는 사르트르, 보봐르, 알베르 까뮈가 즐겨 찾던 곳이다. 이들 카페는 지금도 선대 작가들의 숨결을 느끼려는 사람들의 발길이 끊이지 않는다.
대구에도 이인성이 처음으로 다방을 연 지 70년의 세월이 흘렀다. 뒤이어 문을 연 이름난 다방들이 숱하게 많았고, 그 가운데는 이 땅의 문화 예술인들이 피난살이의 고단함을 달래던 쉼터가 있었다. 그때 그 시절의 빛바랜 추억과 향수가 깃들인 다방 한두 곳쯤은 온전하게 남아 있었으면, 하는 게 뜻 있는 사람들의 바람이다.
Translation - English In 1936 an artist by the name of Inseong Lee started his own teahouse, Midori, next to the Academy theatre. As a Daegu native, this was the first privately owned teahouse, and it was situated on the second floor of the pub Hoktol. Lee was recognized in the Japanese art exhibition Jejeon (Jp. Teiten) and Korea’s own Seonjeon, and opened his own Yanghwa Research center on the third floor of Namsan Hospital. As the number of people in search of studios expanded, Lee began preparing teahouses based on their needs.
There were many well known teahouses along Bukseong road and Hyangchon-Dong. Mon Ami was a popular spot for the literati immediately after Korean liberation as Lee held two publication parties for poets there, and was a beloved place for refugee artists, including Sangsun Oh.
Baekjo (The Swan) was a social place for musicians. The name was a tribute to Camille Saint-Saens work “The Carnival of the Animals”, owned by a well known man at the time, Samgeun Lee. This teahouse was the place to be for musicians, replete with a grand piano for native musicians to come and enjoy.
The 50’s and 60’s were the heyday of the teahouse. Adam teahouse, located near the Academy Theatre, was actually the starting place for the Army Artisan Campaigners, led by Piseok Jeong, Inhwan Park, Myeongmun Yang, and other artisans related with publication.
The teahouse in those days was a location for refugee artists and literati to come and soothe their worries. Many artists took refuge in Daegu, writing pieces and receiving small payments used in turn pay off their debts or feed their sad hearts with alcohol.
The popularity of the teahouse waned, however, as the seventies approached. The antiquated teahouse was suddenly replaced with more luxurious locations and younger styles for the upcoming generation. One such place was “The Coffee Shop Queen”, replaced later with Korea Department Store, owned by Okju Kim (64), who before had operated a teahouse just before going bankrupt.
She had spread a rather irregular business practice. If two similarly aged guests came in, she would always serve the woman first, even giving her the more expensive dishes to drink out of. In addition, waiters would not answer when a customer called to them, and she never allowed short skirts in the store.
The 80’s and 90’s introduced the popularity of the musical teahouse, where a music box and DJ were present. Customers selected records and played music in these places, and youths could gather and talk while listening to music. Celebrities even plopped themselves down in these stores, engaging in animated conversation. In those days, Tiffany, Yugyeong, Eunha, and Maekhyang were the well known places, but even while enjoying the rich prosperity of these teahouses, they closed their doors one by one.
Cafés, inspired by French culture, became the new rage, and is still in full effect today. Even Paris Café Lex Deux Magots, where Picasso and Braque gave birth to cubism and Café de Flore where Sartre, de Beauvoir, and Albert Camus frequented, are still standing. The artistic remnants of such artists in those cafés still draw people in.
Daegu teahouses have been open for seventy years since Inseong Lee first opened them. There have been many well known teahouses that followed, where Korea’s cultural artists could relax their weary hearts from the refugee life. Much like the cafés in Paris, those artists memories are still alive in the remaining teahouses, and a visit to them will certainly bring about the nostalgia of that time.
Years of experience: 16. Registered at ProZ.com: Dec 2009.
A United States citizen, I grew up in Lexington, KY, basically the center of the US, but had a very strong desire after high school to develop a little more knowledge of the world. The way people communicated in my own town was different, with a college town bringing various people from all over the country and world and an agricultural society holding tight to their culture. This laid the foundational groundwork for understanding how to communicate with people from each group individually, as well as how to communicate with both parties present.
University life started with a focus solely on mathematics, but eventually the international culture caught my attention, and I found myself growing fascinated with different languages, namely the writing systems. Throughout university, I picked up several language books, including Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Russian, Thai, Greek, and Arabic. Eventually my time and available resources restricted me to focus solely on the Far East languages. After adding Linguistics to my list of specialization (mathematics still has a place in my heart), I realized that to truly understand a language, we have to immerse ourselves in the culture itself. I made friends in a medium sized Korean community, and eventually decided to move to Korea for a year, planning to travel to Japan and China in one year intervals.
Submersion in a culture cannot truly give you the full experience in only one year. I decided to stay an extra year in Korea, then another, and then another. All the while I developed my Korean skills with the natives, honed my Japanese skills with private tutors and occasional interpretation work, and focused on the history of Asian culture. Although I never made it to Japan, I still would like to grasp at least a year of experience in the country to gain a clearer understanding of the cultural foundations of Japan that have made it so financially successful. China is also a dream of mine, as it is the cultural basis for much of the Asian world's art, literature, and even writing systems.
In terms of language, there seems to be a great divide between how people translate utterances of an Asian into English. More often than not a sense of eastern mysticism accompanies an otherwise mundane statement, which is in a sense unfair to both the recipient of the message and the original speaker. Speak to a Korean or a Japanese in their native tongue, and what they say is not some oddly poetic and concise statement encompassing Zen principles, but normal conversation. This is my drive when translating. Businesses have an idea of what they want to convey, and their business partner wants to feel that the culture they are connecting with has some neutral ground.
Always a fan of learning and improving, I would like within 5 years to develop my Chinese ability further to include it in my professional profile, and within 10 include Italian (one of the first languages I ever studied). In the meantime, even when not working on assignments, I keep my skills honed with newspaper articles and technical documents as practice. School may be over, but the lessons should never stop.
I hope that you appreciate a prompt, efficient, and well voiced translator, because quality is my main focus when trading the most important commodity in business: your word.