English to Japanese: from 'Studies in Fossil Botany' by Dukinfield Henry Scott (1909; public domain) General field: Science Detailed field: Botany
Source text - English CHAPTER I
It is a general rule, applying to knowledge of every kind, that we cannot hope to understand any group of phenomena without a study of its antecedents. In political inquiries, no student would attempt to make himself acquainted with the existing constitution of a country, without seeking to gain a knowledge of the historical events by which it has been built up. In like manner, we cannot obtain any adequate idea of the present state of an art, such as sculpture or painting, unless we are prepared to study the history and development of the art in past times. Again, to come nearer to our own subject, scientific geography is impossible without geology, that is to say, without a knowledge of the past changes, to which the surface of the earth owes its present configuration. Vere scire est per causas scire, and causation is only known to us by the succession of events.
The same principle holds good for the special case of biology, the science of which botany is a part. Botany, on its morphological side, consists in the application of the comparative method to the study of plants, with a view to the determination of their relationships. In these days, most of us, when we speak of relationship among organisms, mean to imply a real affinity, that is to say, a blood-relationship, so that, on this view, the ultimate object of morphological inquiry is to build up the genealogical tree of the organic world. Many attempts at the construction of genealogical trees have been failures, but still this is the object, however remote, which we have ultimately before us when we devote ourselves to morphological studies.
Translation - Japanese 第１章
いかなる現象の一群であっても、それに先立つものの研究なくしては我々が理解することを見込めないということは普遍的に定まっていることであり、あらゆる類の知識に当てはまる。政治学の探求において、背景となる歴史的事象に関する知識を得ようとすることなしに一国の現存の構造について知ろうとする研究者はいないであろう。これと同じく、彫刻や絵画など、我々がある芸術の現在のありさまについての適切な見識を得ることは、その芸術の過去の歴史や成り立ちを学ぶ心構えができているのでなければ不可能である。かさねて、我々自身の題目である自然科学的地理学に近付くことは、地質学の知識なくしては、つまり現在の地球の表面の状態を作り上げた過去における変遷の知識なくしては、不可能なことである。Vere scire est per causas scire （「本当に知るということは原因を知るということである」の意）であり、原因を知ることは連続した事象によってはじめて我々に齎されるのである。
I am a translator who is a native speaker of Japanese and fluent in English (British and American). I can also check grammar and punctuation of texts in Japanese and British/American English. I know some German as well, though I would need more practice.
I have been interested for years in linguistics, biology, music, food/cooking, a bit of photography, and many others. Having been grown up in Japan, I have a certain amount of knowledge of the Japanese culture, which often is incorrectly or stereotypically referred to in other regions.