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A CASE OF POSSESSION AND MODERN EXORCISM
CONFERENCE HELD BY DR. PIERRE JANET
CONDUCTED IN THE UNIVERISTY FUNCTION ROOM
Sunday, 23rd September 1894
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,
The Society of Friends at Lyon University have done me a great honour in inviting me to present to you some of the research recently conducted within the discipline of moral and psychological sciences. I am happy and keen to come to any questions of great interest to me in a town which has contributed so much to the progress of medical and philosophical sciences.
You know that psychological studies have for some years adopted an appearance, a method and an importance, all three very particular to it. Previously, we confined ourselves to observing ourselves and analysing our own minds, which is evidently fundamental but remains insufficient. For some time, the psychologist turned to other people: based on their attitudes, their acts, their spoken words, their writings, he sought to determine their feelings and character of the people surrounding him. A psychology which can be called objective came to be added to the subjective psychology of our ancestors. This new study, already significant is subdivided into different branches. You have previously heard of mathematical studies of phenomena of the mind, of the Germans’ psycho-physicality which measures the relationship between external phenomena and feelings. The physiological psychology (psychophysiology) seeks also to determine the relationship between the body and the mind, between our organs and our thoughts. Comparative psychology tries hard to establish a comparison between the different human races and even compares human intelligence to that of animals. In short, it is one of the latest branches of this objective psychology to undergo in the last few years an undeniably huge development in our country, it is the psychology which may be called pathological, abnormal psychology, as foreign authors call it when discussing French studies of it, which consists of the study of the malfunctioning human mind. The mind, in effect, has its diseases, its numerous diseases and, like those of the body, they are no less real and no less cruel. They are not only interesting in themselves, but they provide study material for the psychologist who deals with normal people; for the illness enlarges moral phenomena and operates like the microscope for physical objects; it gives insight into the activities within given conditions; or is that which we call a patient’s “experiences”; the disease fulfils the function of natural experiences useful to our teaching.
In brief, this psychology presents a new character: it is practical, it is useful, it can serve us, which is not to be despised. Presumably, the majority of sciences are not exclusively practical; but their sanction, their mission, their demonstration, remains within the practical. When a science has provided the useful notions which can administer the happiness of people and reduce their suffering, it has a definitive demonstration and justification. For moral sciences, the same applies: psychology will not take its place within positive sciences; when the day arrives that it gains the characteristics of practical sciences, thus enabling it to offer substantial services, this will be of no value to the discipline. Abnormal psychology (psychopathology), it seems, offers in expectations a large harvest; I am not going to speak of here of the study of criminal psychology ahead of the correct results of the anthropology laboratory of your faculty, medicine. From this will come a serious and not only literary education, an education which will teach us to predict crimes and vices and to rectify perverse instincts which, knowing the predispositions of all involved, will draw in the best party with the best talents and virtues possible and lead reasoned use of intelligence and personal attributes which form the supply of a nation’s strength.
In short, this psychology will perhaps teach us to relieve and to cure the unhappy who suffer in their hearts and minds and to improve the mental suffering considered incurable. It is the role of abnormal psychological (psycho-pathological) studies which I would like to impress upon in this short discussion. However, as the character of this study is the disregard for indistinct theories, the needles abstractions and the concerns of real events, I should take a precise fact as the object of this study, describe to you a particular disease, for it is impossible to conduct pathology without analysing a disease. It is easy for me to choose from the large number of patients I could study in a small experimental psychology laboratory only my excellent and much missed teacher Charcot who had helped me to settle in his service at the Salpêtrière Hospital and under whose supervision my distinguished teacher Monsieur Professor Raymond very much wanted me to remain. It seems to me that one here studies the preferred example; a curious case which I had the opportunity to observe some years ago: it concerned, in effect, the phenomena which everybody had knowledge of, of which everyone had heard mentioned, at least as historical events. It concerned possession by the devil.
Possessions are not recent events, but very ancient ones; previously, in the Middle Ages, there were numerous possessions. Who has not heard of the epidemic of the nuns of Kintrop Monastery in 1550? Who did not learn the awful and shameful tale of the Ursulines of Loudun? Moreover, these possessions were nothing original; we did nothing on the subject but adapt to our new beliefs some ancient facts existing even before the Christian era: before those possessed by the devil, existed those possessed by Apollo and by Dionysus. Some recent studies, those conducted by one of my friends, Dr. Henri Meige, have shown possession in savage countries, and introduced us to possession among black people. All enlightened minds are today very much convinced that the possessions were nothing but simple nervous diseases and that, when practised, exorcisms produced the same results as those suggested today. However, this demonstration remains vague because it concerns historical facts; we prefer to see before our eyes the facts as they happen, and we will today observe a person possessed.
The patient of which I will speak is a man of thirty-three years who, four years ago, was brought to Salpêtrière in Charcot’s service. I can tell you his story, I will describe it under a conventional name, I will change his country, his social position, and any relations he may have; he himself, were he in the room, would not recognise himself. The psychological and medical figures alone will remain accurate, but these are abstract and anonymous Achilles (let us call him Achilles, if you will) was a peasant from central France, he belonged to a humble and ordinary family. This confirms Esquirol’s age-old remark that possession today only occurs within the lower social classes. Outside of our subject’s village was much superstition; there were local legends about Achilles’ father who, it was said, had dealings with the devil at the foot of a tree trunk. The father of our subject laughed at this and contented himself with acquiring a small fortune; moreover, he did not display a single trace of any nervous nor mental disease.
In this respect, he was not the same as Achilles’ mother; she had strong physical strength, except for one defect, almost a disease, drunkenness to an astronomical level. In this, she took after her own mother, Achilles’ grandmother, who was rarely clear-minded. We may therefore say that, on this side, we are dealing with a family of alcoholics. Therefore, in examining this side of the family, we will say that it concerned a disease that, by heredity, one is predisposed to nervous diseases and therefore to becoming a degenerate. Do not be mistaken about this word, it is a vague designation which explains nothing: the descendants of alcoholics may have all manner of diseases- Achilles’ sister had a breast cancer without feeling any discomfort, but other illnesses may be far more evident. Do not allow this word degenerate prevent us from conducting precise studies of secondary causes, sometimes more important than the initial ones, nor from trying to cure the diseases. Let us therefore investigate how this figure entered the delirium in which we now see him.
His childhood was normal; pupil at a small school, quite intelligent and hardworking, he had a good memory and read a lot, without choice; however, it must be noted that he had frequent migraines and that, despite his soft and affectionate nature, he remained extremely isolated, derided by his classmates; I do not have a great faith in children who are punch bags for their classmates; they must have some mental malfunction which prepares them for this role, and this situation is far from favourable in their moral development.
In any case, Achilles did not seem to suffer much. When he left school, he began with some success cultural and commercial work; at the age of twenty-two, he married a devoted woman who bore him a child seemingly completely normal. All was well for ten years, until he reached thirty-three and had some accidents which led to his admittance to Salpêtrière.
I will describe to you these accidents completely truthfully, in the very same way that his family and wife would recount the events and quoting from the patient verbatim his attempts at accurately explaining his situation.
In springtime, he made a short journey on business. On his return, although he made an effort to appear in a good humour, his wife found him sombre and preoccupied and barely got a few words out of him; his family tried in vain to amuse him. This silence became unusual, his nature changed; at first, Achilles kept himself to himself of his own accord, then it ceased to be a choice; he could no longer talk and became completely mute. They consulted the doctor; he was embarrassed, he declared it was general weakening…, that the patient had had discomforts in his whole body, a case of dyscrasia, perhaps of diabetes. The patient was terror-stricken and regained his ability to speak in order to tell of all kinds of suffering and to display the exact signs of diabetes the doctor told him about. After a month, the illness had made no progress, and they consulted another doctor; the practitioner naturally ridiculed the other doctor’s diagnosis. He insisted that it was a case of breathlessness; he asked whether the patient had felt pains in his side left of the chest, etc. and Achilles, after hesitating, confirmed having suffered all the symptoms. It was beyond doubt angina pectoris. All the necessary precautions were taken, our patient slept, remained sombrely in his bed, barely responding to questions, sleeping seemingly without interruption but his mouth mumbled inarticulate words and he cried without knowing why. He said: “I do not know what I am despairing, so what (illness) do I have?” one day, his premonitions seemed to ring true, the poor man put a stop to his business, said a final goodbye to his family and then stretched out in his bed and remained motionless. They thought he was going to die. They monitored him for an hour, a day, two days. Then, all of a sudden, Achilles got back on his feet, skipped to the end of the bed, let out a huge burst of laughter; it was a hellish laugh which shook his whole body and lasted for two hours. After the laugh, he regained speech to say entirely horrible things: his bedroom was full of demons, he saw Hell, Satan and his heart. The devils tourtured him; certain demons burned him, pricked him; others stuck nails in his eyes; the devil entered his head and his heart to do him terrible damage; he forced him to say all things blasphemous and made him say abominable things. They believed it a passing frenzy, they restrained him, they held him down in his bed. Nothing changed. He murmured constantly and was occasionally immobile, blaspheming and insulting religion, declaring that the devil possessed him. When he went out he went into the woods and lived a day or two buried in a hole and he was found trembling with delirium and exhaustion. One day he tied his feet together and threw himself into the pond. When he was pulled out, he said “I did what religion asked to verify possession; I threw myself into water and I live again, therefore I am possessed!” One day he was found sleeping on the cemetery graves; six months of this later, a doctor recommended taking him to Salpêtrière as the best place to exorcise possessed people and to chase off demons.
When Achilles arrived and once Charcot and my friend Monsieur Dutil, now head of the service clinic, had entrusted me with the patient, I examined him with precision. I found all the classic signs of possession. In order to verify it, let us remind ourselves of the description of a possessed person as specified by medieval exorcists.
Here is an extract from Eginhard on this subject: “It was a most extraordinary sight for us who were there present to see vicious spirit be given expression by the mouth of this poor woman, and to hear the sound of a voice, sometimes male, sometimes female, but both equally distinct that we could not believe that this woman spoke by herself as we imagined two people having a lively dispute and inflicting overpowering injuries on one another; and in effect there were two people; one next to the devil who wanted to destroy the body of which it was in possession and the other, the woman, who wanted to see herself free of the enemy about which she obsessed.”
Wow! Our poor man (Achilles) was in this state, a haggard face and claw marks which he gave himself. Sometimes he roared blasphemous things, he said: “cursed be God, cursed be his trinity,” this is classical blasphemy. Then, from another voice, in an apologetic tone, he said: “By all means, do not accuse me, it is the devil who forces me to speak, and he speaks through me when I grit my teeth to stop his words leaving my mouth;” and then this mouth adopted a serious tone and said blasphemous things. He argued with his devil; this devil had a habit of constantly contradicting. The devil said: “You lie!” and Achilles responded “Certainly not! I do not lie!” Other things besides this had also been observed in other delirious patients of this type. He would have been able to speak like a famous person possessed, Father Surin… “It is as if I have two souls, of which one is deprived of a body and the use of its organs and holds on to the heart, the means by which it entered the body.” The heroine of the Loundun case, Madame de Belfield, also said “that she sensed within herself a devil who spoke to her”. The possessed previously were not limited to sensing the devil within themselves, but also heard and saw it; in the same way, Achilles heard demons talking around him and saw them as is traditionally pictured; completely black and a grimacing face with horns. Achilles had even made one particular comment; “Oh horror! The devil’s shape does not block objects! The devil’s figure is transparent!”
Exorcists previously sought particular traits of possession, signs which were proof; “the most convincing signs of sorcery and of possession, said a competent figure, like irreversible changes which cannot be attributed to untrue superstitions.” It is the devil’s claw mark. It seems that the devil puts his claw upon the individual he takes; at this point the possessed becomes impervious; all the possessed have displayed signs of being impervious; they were given injections which they did not feel. The possessed also hit themselves, injure themselves and do not seem to feel it. In the Kintrop epidemic of 1550, it was said: “In their elation they insisted on hitting themselves and bruising themselves, biting themselves and all this without a single sign of pain.” It was the same for Achilles, his left arm was impervious, certainly when he suffered agitated shaking and convulsions inflicted by the devil and the poor man clawed his body with his nails without feeling it. All the signs of possession seem to be united within this patient.
When I tried to speak to this poor possessed man in order to calm him down, he did not listen and insulted me overwhelmingly. Then I tried to take some command of him, to order him to do something, not one attempt was successful. I even sought to put him into a state of hypnotic slumber in order to have more control over him, he resisted everything; in ancient cases of possession the same event occurred: an exorcist silenced the possessed and the demon replied: I do not want to be silent, the devil does the same. A little in despair of these efforts, I asked the chaplain of Salpêtrière to kindly come and see the poor man. He complied to my request, he tried to console Achilles, to make him distinguish religion from satanic superstition, his message did not get through to Achilles and he forced me to conclude that the man was obviously mad and had needed medical as opposed to religious attention.
We had to get back to work. In order to resume our study, I approached the patient in a different manner; I had noticed that this man exercised many movements without noticing, being enormously absent-minded. You will be familiar with people who have been known to search everywhere for their umbrella when it is in their hand. Achilles was even more distracted; I let him be delirious and cry out as he wished and, assuming a position behind him, placed a pencil into his hand; he retained it without knowing. I took hold of this hand; I drew lines with it and made the patient write his name all without his notice. I saw then that we were having more success by not addressing the patient directly. After these first events, I wanted to go further with this approach so as to determine his hand movements without touching him, but by commanding him. While Achilles was holding his pencil, I ordered him to lift his arm; he did not perform the requested action but instead his hand set out to write “I do not want to”, it was a response. I continued by the same method without attracting Achilles’ attention and, placing myself behind him, I said: “Why do you not want to?”
“-Because I am stronger than you!” wrote the pencil. “So who are you?” “-I am the devil” “Oh! Very good, now we can talk about this.” Nobody had had the honour of discoursing with a demon and so we had to make the most of this. I asked the devil questions which were answered by the writing by the poor man oblivious to the fact he was doing it. Bit by bit, I exploited one of the devil’s emotions which we have always known him to have; the sin of attractiveness- his vanity. “You claim to be the devil, I will not believe in your power until you give me proof. -And what proof?- Lift the arm of this poor man without his knowledge.” Then I awoke Achilles. The arm, which had up to now had always resisted my orders, lifted itself immediately. I drew Achilles’ attention to this fact: “Behold!” he said, “my arm lifted itself! The devil is playing another round with me.” Presumably this was true but this time the devil had acted on my order. These events were curious. I could well develop them further by means of constantly putting demands on this demon without Achilles’ knowledge. I asked the devil to make Achilles dance, to make him tug at his tongue, even better to show him some roses and make him feel strong pricks in his fingers. And Achilles danced, tugged at his tongue, reached for the roses and cried at a painful prick in his fingertip. Therefore, everything succeeded when I made the most of the patient’s absent-mindedness and when I, as the mediator, commanded the devil. However, the same age-old events occurred; I had not invented anything, yet I ascertained the same description as those descriptions of medieval cases.
“Monsieur Midot, schoolmaster in Toul, describes an old tale from the sixteenth century, in which he told the devil to sit down, the devil replied “I do not want to sit down.” Monsieur Midot furthermore told him “sit on the floor and obey; but as the devil seemingly threw the victim in his possession on the floor with some force, he told him “do it softly”, which he did. He (the instructor) then added “make his knee quiver with cold”, his wife replied that she had previously sensed a great chill there.”
There is a difference between these tales and the events whereby I observed the exorcists claim to talk to the devil in more or less conventional Latin. When they spoke to the nuns, they seemed to understand sufficiently this basic Latin. However, when I spoke to the devil in imitation Latin, his understanding was not too bad, but it was evident that he preferred to communicate to me through French. Besides this minor difference, all the integral events remained identical. The resistance, the refusal to obey, the struggle to get him to obey, then the hallucinations and pains which he made his victim suffer, all seemed similar and we had before us an event like those which our ancient predecessors had described. The ancient exorcists, in their naivety, were excellent observers, their work was not in vain, they saw real things which they interpreted as best they could and we may not criticise them for ignoring in the twelfth century psychological theories which we only began to grasp with difficulty in the nineteenth century.
Given these facts, I was determined to find out from the devil and said to him “put the patient, against his resistance, to sleep”, an act which followed. Achilles sat on the armchair, for a while he fiercely resisted falling asleep. The devil did not know into which trap I had led him; the patient finally fell asleep and was now in my power. In this new state, he described his illness in a completely new manner, explained the events well, thereby providing us with the means we needed to cure him.
However, before describing these events to you, I must remind you of certain observations which you have already made well and often and which will help us to understand the tale of our individual patient.
French to English: EN>FR: GUIDE TO THE LONDON CANAL MUSEUM Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - French Original text was the English guide handed out to visitors to the London Canal Museum, near King's Cross. Famous for boats, ice and ice cream!
Translation - English Le Musée des canaux londoniens
Ces informations sont aussi disponibles en gros caractères.
Un guide en miniature du musée.
Ce bâtiment fut bâti en environ 1863 comme entrepôt industriel de verglas pour Monsieur Carlo Gatti, qui est devenu bien connu comme importateur de verglas, restaurateur et glacier. L’entrée par laquelle vous venez de passer pour entrer le bâtiment était autrefois passée par les charettes à verglas tractées par les chevaux en route pour la Londres victorienne. Elles y livraient des réserves de verglas à l’époque où la production de verglas dans les usines et à domicile était impossible. La façade du musée fut reconstruite en l’année 1904. Le musée raconte l’histoire des canaux, leurs personnes et commerce. La liaison entre les canaux et le verglas se trouve dans le transport de verglas par bateau à ce site ici- à l’arrière se trouve Battlebridge Basin sur Regent’s Canal. Nous espérons que vous allez apprécier votre visite- ce guide en miniature vise à vous aider à trouver votre chemin au musée.
La galerie au rez-de-chausée
En entrant la galerie au rez-de-chausée on voit à gauche une introduction aux canaux britanniques. N’oubliez pas de lever les yeux vers les objets sur les murs décorés en manière traditionnelle. En entrant au musée, on remarque certainement un “butty”. C’est une péniche connue sous le nom de Coronis. Elle fait partie d’une paire et est tractée par un bateau électrique. Faites attention où vous mettez les pieds en passant par l’espace de cargaison pour entrer la cabine reconstruite. Des familles entières habitaient dans les cabines étroites comme celle-ci.
Lorsque vous sortez de la cabine, allez vers l’arrière du bâtiment et faites attention à la demonstration picturesque encastrée dans les murs du pont; une exposition de l’art sur le canal dont “Les roses et les châteaux” est un thème artistique traditionnel et le plus célèbre. On utilisait cette forme artistique pour décorer les bateaux aussi bien que les objets domestiques.
Montez les escaliers à l’étage surélevé et essayez de faire des nœuds avant de regarder la démonstration des costumes traditionnels. Maintenant regardez au-dessus la grille et dans le puits immense en bas. Il fait partie d’une paire dont l’autre se trouve au-dessous de la façade du bâtiment. Les puits font 10 m de large et 13 m de profondeur. Le sol sur lequel vous êtes entrée à la galerie fut additionné après qu’on ait arrêté d’utiliser les puits . Les blocs de verglas immenses étaient importés par mer de Norvège en Regents Canal Dock (maintenant connu sous le nom de Limehouse Basin). On y transférait les blocs aux péniches et les transportait sur le canal, puis vers Battlebridge Basin situé directement en dehors. Les blocs de verglas étaient baissés dans les puits et on pouvait les conserver pour quelques mois- de copieux quantités en se gardaient au froid.
Vous êtes invités à aller en dehors de l’arrière du musée pour voir Battlebridge Basin et le remorqueur “Bantam” du musée (il se peut que ce soit occasionnellement absent). C’est un remorqueur “pusher” construit en 1949-50 qui propuse plutôt que tracte des autres bateaux. Il est toujours opérationnel. Regent’s Canal coule à droite et se jette dans l’extrémité de Battlebridge Basin. Beaucoup des bateaux mouillés sont habités et quelques en sont des bateaux à commerce convertis en leur forme actuelle. Le basin fluvial était autrefois encerclé par des quais et des usines.
Après être rentré au musée, descendez l’autre escalier et regardez de l’équipement utilisé pour la lourde tâche de manutention de chargement. Il y a une demonstration de plaques décoratives lacées ou lisérées. Ces plaques à dentelle et à ruban étaient des souvenirs de vacances ou journées de conge passées sur le canal. Elles étaient souvent suspendues aux murs de la cabine et lisérées. Elles sont devenues une tradition étroitement associée aux habitants sur le canal. Prenez note du “Toll Office”- le site pour payer le droit d’entrée des bateaux. Le percepteur ou “Toll Collector” vient de sortir.
Puis, notre exposition sur le thème de l’industrie de verglas et de glace- avec Monsieur Carlo Gatti lui-même! Touchez l’écran pour lui demander de sa vie et époque passionnantes. Cherchez à discerner le “périscope” pour voir une replique d’un puits à verglas. Voilà son apparence probable. Quelques clients qui achètaient du verglas étaient les glaciers, les bouchers, les hôpitaux, les poissonniers et ceux avec les moyens de payer “l’homme à verglas” qui le livrait aux domiciles. Il y a un modèle d’une charette à verglas victorienne et quelques exemples de la sorte de boite à verglas dans laquelle la nourriture était conservée. Des outils pour la manutention du verglas se suspendaient au-dessus. Voyez aussi les moules autrefois utilisés en l’enfance de la production de verglas dans les usines – un processus qui a méné à la destruction des puits à verglas ici.
Le premier étage est accessible par l’escalier près du magasin ou par les deux ascenseurs différents à l’arrière du bâtiment.
La galerie au premier étage
La première chose que vous remarquez, c’est notre grande carte des canaux londoniens, mais n’oubliez pas de levez les yeux vers le toit: joli, victorien et en bois. Les chevaux sont bien en évidence au premier étage. Ily a une réplique d’une stalle mise en place precise de celle d’originelle installée en 1906. Notre exposition au thème de cheval-vapeur raconte l’histoire des chevaux à Londres qui travaillaient sur les canaux et dans les rues. Les chevaux qui habitaient autrefois au premier étage tractaient les charettes à verglas . Ils y arrivaient au moyen de la rampe faite exprès pour eux. Cela se trouve en face de l’exposition de l’écurie: regardez au-dessus la grille pour la voir. La rampe fut construite en début du XXe siècle; à l’époque où la société de verglas aménagât le bâtiment en écurie et un hangar pour les charettes. À étage, il y a des expositions inconstantes et à durée déterminée.
Les fenêtres donnent sur Battlebridge Basin et le dernier fut construit en 1820 pour Monsieur William Horsfall et sous le nom de Horsfall basin. Battlebridge était le nom originel de cette zone londonienne.
Nous avons en vidéo quatre pellicules passionnantes qui viennent d’une cinémathèque. “Barging Through London” (“Fendre la foule londonienne”) est un exemple de cinéma muet, un film qui montre un voyage le long du Regents Canal de 1924 en passant d’est en ouest Londres. “The Barge Fellows” (Les habitants des cabines) date de la même ère et montre des images du remorqueur à Islington tunnel (Islington tunnel tug) et celui à Regents Canal Dock. Deux autres films ultérieurs montrent les chevaux à canal au travail et expliquent le fonctionnement des écluses d’une manière claire et pertinente encore aujourdh’ui. La vidéo dure environ vingt minutes. Elle se rejoue automatiquement, mais n’hesitez pas à demander de l’aide si nécessaire. Au centre se trouve notre exposition au thème de l’histoire du Regents Canal.
Quand vous avez fait votre tour du musée, n’oubliez pas de regarder les souvenirs et livres à notre magasin touristique. Les livres et marchandises sont toutes au thème nautique. Les visiteurs veulent souvent visiter le canal soi-même. À la site du musée, vous êtes de courte distance à pied de Islington Tunnel, le tunnel le plus longue à Londres. Quittez le musée et tournez à gauche, puis à droit pour prendre la rue All Saints Street. Suivez cette rue jusqu’à la grande rue Caledonian Road et y tournez à gauche pour continuer. Arrêtez au pont au-dessus du canal. Islington Tunnel se trouve à votre droite. Tournez à gauche pour un tour le long de chemin d’haulage vers Camden Locks et le marché célèbre.
Nous espérons que vous avez apprécié votre visite. Il y a souvent des présentations illustrées et d’autres événements spéciaux ici – nous demandez pour plus d’informations. Merci d’avoir visité le musée.
French vocabulary for map, etc.
- Ground floor- Rez-de-chausée
1- Shop & admission- Magasin & entrée
2- Coronis- Coronis (une péniche)
3- Roses & castles – Roses et châteaux
4- Canal life- La vie sur le canal
5- Door to basin & tug – Porte de basin fluvial & remorqueur
6- Ice well - Puit à verglas
7- Wheelchair lifts- Ascenseurs pour les fauteuils rolants
8- Handling & weighing - Manutention & passage
9- Toll Office - Toll Office (site pour payer le droit d’entrée des bateaux)
10- Ice trade/ice cream – Industrie de verglas/ la glace
11- Activity zone – Zone à activité
Way in & out - Entrée et sortie.
First floor – Premier étage.
1-Toilets – Toilettes (N.B: ALWAYS USE THE PLURAL OF THIS NOUN IN FRENCH)
2-Map - Carte
3-Stable & Horsepower – Écurie et cheval-vapeur
4-Video - Vidéo
5-Regent’s Canal - Regent’s Canal
6-Temp Exhibition – Exposition Temporaire
7- Lift - Ascenseur
8-Horse Ramp – Rampe pour les chevaux
9-Water/locks – Eau/ écluses
10-Canal boats - Péniches
Master's degree - University of Bangor, Wales, Uk
Years of translation experience: 9. Registered at ProZ.com: Jan 2010.
EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS
2010_2013: PhD Austrian Studies, University of Bangor
2008-2009: University of Bangor
Postgraduate MA in Translation;
Modules included translation theory,research studies, practical and product-aided translation and an induction on how to use Trados. I produced a translation portfolio of 5,000 words (German and Austrian German into English) Dissertation of 20,000 words: A 12,000-word translation (German and Austrian German into English) and the remaining 8,000 of commentary upon my translation.
2004-2008: University of St Andrews
MA Modern Languages: French and
Modules included translation, speaking and literature classes and a dissertation based upon independent study. Completed two English literature modules at sub-honours level.
1999-2004: The Cedars Upper School and Community College
A2 Levels: French B, German B, English Literature B
AS Levels: French A, German B, English Literature B,
General Studies C
2009-PRESENT: Relevant work experience:
Translation- To date, I have translated:
•German into English: Architecture and construction literature, divorce documents and legal work contracts.
•English into French: A guide to the London Canal Museum, published to the museum’s website
•French into English: Legal property documentation, a work agreement (3,000 words), a property survey, utility bills and an academic, theological text (7,000 words), marketing material.
•English into French and into German- extensive guidebook material
Interviewed German doctors; translated and transcribed the resulting interviews so as to compile reports
Hospital interpreting experience
Researched food companies in the German- speaking world.
- A German guidebook to London of 7,000 words,
- Financial, sociological, journalistic and scientific texts,
Added English subtitles to factual German and French films.
2007 and 2008- Completed two internships in as many translation offices.
Keywords: FR-EN, DE-EN, AT-EN;
Areas of specialisation;
EU; treaties, documentation, conferences, EEC, the Euro, EU in the press, Europhilia, Euroscepticism, etc.
Austria; history, politics, literature.
Music; theory, instruments, concert programmes, movements of music