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French to English - Rates: 0.06 - 0.08 EUR per word / 30 - 35 EUR per hour Italian to English - Rates: 0.06 - 0.08 EUR per word / 30 - 35 EUR per hour Spanish to English - Rates: 0.06 - 0.08 EUR per word / 30 - 35 EUR per hour
Spanish to English: Lavapies Metro General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Journalism
Source text - Spanish Puerto Lavapies
Sea la hora que sea, Luisa e Ivan -pareja, espanoles, treintaneros- se asoman a la ventana-faro de su cuarto piso en la madrileha calle de Argumosa -barrio de Embajadores, distrito Centro, a diez minutos de la Puerta del Sol- y lo que ven bajo su edificio es un puerto gigantesco. Lo indica un cartel: metro de Lavapies. Contemplan una boca subterranea, que escupe y engulle sin descanso gentes de aqui y. de alia; con o sin papeles; blancos, negros y amarillos; jovenes y no tanto; de estetico buen ver o de fisico danado por la penuria y la droga; de vestir clasico o look alternativo; de chandal y deportiva para correr o de uniforme policial para lo mismo; trabajadores, parados, estudiantes, turistas o mirones que vienen y van, de o hacia las calles de Jesus y Maria, Valencia, Tribulete.... -Increible toda la energla que se mueve a nuestros pies-, comentan Luisa e Ivan desde lo alto, habituados, pero aun asombrados de ese cocido multietnico del que ellos tambien forman parte.
Translation - English Lavapies Metro
No matter what the time of day Luisa and Ivan lean out of the window of their fourth-floor flat in Madrid’s Argumosa Street, they can see a gigantic archway. A Spanish thirtysomething couple, they live in the central Embajadores district, ten minutes away from the Puerta del Sol. A sign points out the portal below their building - “Lavapies Metro”. They contemplate the subterranean mouth, incessantly coughing up and gobbling down people from all over; legal and illegal immigrants, white, black, yellow, young and not so young. Attractive people, or people physically damaged by poverty and drugs, dressed classically or alternatively, or in a tracksuit and trainers for running or in police uniform for the same reason, workers, jobseekers, students, tourists or loiterers coming and going to and from the Jesus y Maria, Valencia and Tribulete streets.
“It’s incredible, all the energy moving at our feet”, remark Luisa and Ivan from up above, accustomed to, but still surprised by this multiethnic stew of which they are also part.
“Did you know that they call Argumosa the seaside walk? Posh people go to the terraces there. To see and be seen,” one of them says. And yes, different classes, castes, generations, areas and worlds can indeed be found within the Lavapies area. They aren’t officially recognised as such, just popularly. Experts say that there are four groups of inhabitants who live here together. There are the Spanish migrants, known as ‘lifelong neighbours’, who arrived after the war or in the sixties and seventies. Then there are the internationals, the last wave of whom landed en masse in the nineties, and the various activists associated with the so-called Lavapies Collectives Network who, in exile or like nomads have spent years trying to turn the area into a ‘laboratory for participative democracy’. Finally there are the ‘new colonists’: middle-class bohemian thirtysomethings who are more or less politically and socially progressive, artists attracted by the trendy, multicultural atmosphere.
French to English: What to do if you need to make a claim General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Insurance
Source text - French Que faire en cas de sinistre ? Dans l'immédiat ...
•Limitez les dégâts par tous les moyens (couper l'eau, mettre les objets de valeur à l'abri ou dans un endroit sain ...)
•Relisez votre contrat d'assurance. •Prévenez votre assureur dans les cinq jours ouvrés (48 H en cas de vol) par
lettre recommandée avec avis de réception. •Précisez dans votre courrier votre nom et votre n° de contrat, la date et la
nature du sinistre, et la description des dommages. •Précisez aussi l'existence éventuelle de dégâts chez vos voisins ou dans
l'immeuble. •En cas de dégâts des eaux, il est préférable de remplir un constat amiable de
dégât des eaux (procurez-vous un formulaire chez votre assureur) avec les voisins victimes ou auteurs des dégâts : la procédure par constat amiable accélère et facilité le remboursement des petits sinistres.
•Envoyez une copie de ce courrier à votre agent d'assurances et/ou votre courtier.
•Adressez aussi à la société d'assurance: o une copie des lettres ou assignations de vos voisins, de votre
propriétaire ou du syndic de la copropriété, o dans le délai précisé par votre contrat, un état estimatif des
meubles et objets détruits ou détériorés. •Si vous êtes copropriétaire, prévenez immédiatement le syndic. •En cas de dégât des eaux, vous pouvez remplir un constat amiable spécial. •Pour évaluer le montant des dommages:
o ne jetez aucun objet endommagé, détrempé ou brûlé, o rassemblez ce qui peut justifier l'existence et la valeur des biens abîmés: factures, bons de garantie, les photographies d'objets
de valeur avec leur description.
•La société d'assurances va nommer un expert si le sinistre est relativement important. Cet expert va vérifier les circonstances du sinistre et évaluer les dommages que vous avez subis.
•Vous pouvez charger un autre expert (appelé « expert d'assuré ») de défendre vos droits. Beaucoup de contrats prévoient la garantie « honoraires d'expert » qui vous rembourse les frais d'expertise dans la limite prévue par le contrat.
Translation - English What do I do if I need to make a claim?
Limit any damage as much as possible - turn off the water supply and place valuable objects in a safe place;
Re-read your insurance policy;
Inform your insurance company within five working days by recorded, signed for delivery, or within 48 hours in the case of theft;
In the letter note your name and policy number, the date and type of claim with a description of the damage;
Note also any possible damage which might occur in neighbouring properties or in your building;
If there is water damage, you should fill out an agreed statement of facts with your neighbours if they suffered or caused any damage. This speeds up small claims reimbursement and makes the process easier;
Send a copy of this document to your insurance company and/or your underwriter;
Also send to the insurance company:
copies of any letters or statements written by your neighbours, landlord or property management company;
an estimate of the value of destroyed or damaged furniture and other objects, within the deadline specified in your policy;
If you are the owner of a property within a larger building, you should immediately inform the property management company;
If there is water damage you should fill out a purpose-written agreed statement of facts;
To enable the value of the damage to be calculated:
do not throw away any damaged, soaked or burned objects;
gather anything that could prove the existence and the value of damaged belongings: receipts, guarantees or photographs of valuable objects with a description.
Your insurance company will appoint an assessor if the claim is reasonably serious. This assessor will go over the circumstances which led to the claim and will value the damage caused;
You can ask another assessor, an “insurance assessor”, to defend your rights. Many policies cover “consultation costs” which means that any lawyer’s fees will be reimbursed up to the amount stated in the policy.
Spanish to English: Mudflows on the Azufral River General field: Science Detailed field: Geology
Source text - Spanish Original pdf file available on request.
Translation - English INTRODUCTION
Two mudflows occurred in the Municipality of Consaca (Narino) on the 13th and 18th of April this year. They travelled along the Azufral river valley to its mouth at the Guatira River, meaning this river was dammed for a short period of time. The mudflow caused erosion along the length of the river bed, at a variable height of 15 metres maximum. Because this river originates in Galeras, the impact of the mudflow registered on the seismological volcano monitoring network.
The evaluation of the possible causes of the mudflow was the responsibility of a civil engineer, a geotechnician and a geologist. The first expert was tasked with analysing the data registered by seismological stations and the two remaining experts with the geological aspects. Field trips to the exact location of the landslides were not possible due to difficulty of access and the state of activity of the Galeras volcano. For this reason observations were made from a distance or by flying over the area by helicopter. In the same way, estimates of displaced volume were not able to be properly calculated due to the high distance from which they were obtained.
The Azufral river valley originates on the western side of the Galeras Volcano, at 4000 metres above sea level and has its mouth at 1260 metres above sea level in the Guatira River, at the following coordinates:
concurrent with sheet 429 of the IGAC, 1977, scale 1:100.000 (Figure 1).
It covers a distance of approximately 15km, crossing rough topography of extremely narrow valleys, in places valleys with vertical slopes. This river is juvenile in nature, and is characterised by its erosive effect on the valley.
The mudflow took place during a severe rainstorm in the area, and was initiated by landslides from high, steep slopes. For this reason the material moved at great speed towards the riverbed and then along the whole River Azufral (figure 2). Initially it was registered by the sensors on the volcano monitoring network, and then a visit to the valley was made in which erosion with a maximum height of 15 metres was observed. This was caused by the sudden movement of the flow underwater in its journey towards the river mouth. The material is principally dark grey in colour, of volcanic composition, predominately clasts of andesitic lava, smaller than 0.5cm and very compact. The material formed small terraces on the sides of the riverbed, at varying heights from a few centimetres up to 1 or 2 metres (figure 3). These terraces are located in areas after where the river changes direction.
In the headwaters and in the medium-high area of this valley, two planar landslides were produced, in two gullies which form part of the origin of the Azufral River. The combination of the two was the main source of the material which made up the body of the mudflow.
The highest of the gullies is located at around 2km to the northwest of the main crater, at 3800 metres above sea level. Its composition is that of greatly modified lava older than 159,000 years, yellow ochre in colour, and which makes up one extremity of the crater which contains the active cone. The gradient of the slope exceeds 45°, and the material which slid from it was not fully removed from the base of the incline. Only 40% of this material travelled underwater, which caused deep erosion of the small stream (figure 4). Near to the confluence of this stream with the other tributary which contributed material to the mudflow, at around 2400 metres above sea level, multiple planar landslides are found, located laterally on the southern side of the incline and made up of recently modified lavas. These erosive processes extend over a distance of approximately 130m, and an average vertical longitude of 50m (“B” in figure 1).
A second important landslide which contributed material is located on the southern side of the microbasin of the Azufral River ( “C” in figure 1), at 2600 metres above sea level, with a length of 200m and a width of 30 to 40m. Its constituent material includes crushed grey lava, older than 560,000 years, and different from the previous type in that none remains at the base of the landslide. The slope where the erosion gully is located has an incline of more than 50°. The erosion caused by this landslide is much greater than that caused by the landslide near the active crater.
Approximately 4 other landslides along the length of the Azufral River were an additional source of material in the mudflow which crossed this area, which varied in length between 20 and 40m and were less than 20m in width (figure 5).
Spanish to English: Technical Report of Visit to Loma del Medio, on the Azufral River Canyon General field: Science Detailed field: Geology
Source text - Spanish Original pdf file available on request.
Translation - English LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Digital seismogram of the activity associated with the landslide on 6 December 2001, recorded on short period (CP) and broad band (BB) instruments on the Galeras network. The horizontal scale represents time in seconds and the vertical scales represents normalised amplitudes of the signals.
Figure 2: Geographical location of the inspection sites and landslide areas in the western sector of the Galeras Volcano. Point A corresponds to the Churupamba sector, point B to the Quebrada Blanca sector, point C an area on the Loma del Medio and point D represents a site located on the 1866 lava flow in blocks near the Laguna Verde. The arrow near points B and C represents the site of the recent landslide contained in this report. The continuous line represents the Azufral River basin. The map shows some of the instruments on the Galeras seismology network using triangles and diamonds: short period instruments [Olga (1), Crater (2), Urcunina (3), Cobanegra (4), Narino (5), and Calabozo (6)], broad band instruments [Anganoy (b1), Crater (b2), Achalay (b3) and Obonuco (b4)]. The Galeras Volcano crater also appears in Figure 2.
Figure 3: Digital seismogram of the activity associated with the landslide on 6 December 2001, recorded on short period (CP) and broad band (BB) instruments on the Galeras network. The horizontal scale represents time in seconds and the vertical scales represents normalised amplitudes of the signals.
Figure 4: Rockfall in the Loma de Medio sector, with boulders up to a metre in diameter. Note that in the background of the image, looking up towards the volcano, another small landslide can be seen, detailed in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Rockfall further uphill than that shown in Figure 4.
Figure 6: Panoramic of a sector of Loma del Medio, where the instability of its slopes can be seen. In the upper part of the photograph (the active cone of the Galeras volcano is found in this direction), part of the lava flow in blocks which occurred in 1866.
The Azufral river basin covers a relatively large area and the higher section is made up of various channels. Along its course, clearly unstable slope areas are found, with altered and poorly consolidated material, as is the case in the Loma del Medio sector. Numerous mudflows have occurred in the Azufral river basin, both historically and recently with the events of 18 April 1990 and 18 April 1995. Additionally, deposits caused by large lahares affecting this area can be found in the form of terraces at under 2000m elevation. These were not covered over by more recent deposits caused by volcanic eruptions, and are used for cultivation. They demonstrate past instability within the basin.
A fact-finding visit which took place on 27 December 2001 noted a recent landslide of rocky material at the top of the Loma del Medio, on its northern slope at around 5km to the west of the Galeras active crater, at a height of around 2400 metres above sea level. This landslide was catalogued as a rockfall and its dimensions were estimated at 30m x 20m x 5m in area and 3000m3 in volume. The tracks left by the loosened rocks show that the material was initially displaced vertically and then towards one of the branches of the Azufral river. The displaced material was mainly composed of large blocks of lava, along with smaller solid particles. According to forest rangers in the National Park, this landslide could have happened at the beginning of December 2001, which could be associated with seismic activity that occurred on 6 December at 1512 hours local time. The region where this loosening of material is located shows clear evidence of slope instability.
Among the hydrometeorological phenomena present in the Galeras Volcano region, intense rain is one of the most important threat factors which can cause increased currents of water and eventual mudflows associated with mass wasting of material caused by slope instability.
The topographical and geological conditions in Galeras bring about drainage characterised by the formation of channels or torrential streams. In longitudinal cross-section these can be identified by a steep slope, which means that time of concentration is very short. In humid regions, as is the case in Galeras, these channels or streams flow moderately for most of the year, but a heavy downpour can cause the flow to increase dangerously, along with mass movements on the banks which in turn contribute to increasing the sediment load. Therefore these channels present considerable flow variation, and when heavy, can transport heterometrical materials which can measure up to a few metres in diameter.
The western region of the Anfiteatro of the Galeras Volcano Complex, and the basin corresponding to the Azufral river canyon, also to the west of the volcano, are found in the areas which are most susceptible to slope instability and relatively small to medium-sized mudflows, taking into account aspects such as geomorphology, geology, topography and hydrography in the region. Historically, and recently, these zones have already experienced rockfalls or landslides of varying magnitudes. Some of these were helped by moderate magnitude tremors, and when these were combined with solid material released by the eruptive activity of the volcano and in rainy periods, mudflows were caused by gravity, following the course of the Azufral river. Although this zone does not contain permanent human settlements, many local farmers and peasants use it to reach their place of work or study etc.
This is the technical report of a fact-finding visit to the western sector of the Galeras Volcano, to the Azufral river canyon, on the site known as Loma del Medio. The text refers the main observations made to possible mass wasting which occurred recently within a relatively unstable slope area.
2. PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION
To carry out a technical evaluation of a possible landslide towards the west of the Galeras edifice, in accordance with the report by the Office of National Parks. To corroborate the relationship between a particular seismic activity which occurred on 6 December 2001 with this type of phenomenon.
3. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE VISIT
a. The aim of the visit was to verify information supplied by the Office of National Parks, to carry out an assessment of the phenomena which had occurred, as well as the likelihood of future instances of mass wasting which would endanger lives and property within the region under scrutiny.
b. Cartography with scale 1:25,000 from the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi - IGAC was used, as well as aerial photography of the area. To determine the location of various reference points, a GARMIN handheld GPS receiver was used, as well as a compass and an altimeter.
c. This report should be taken as a guide to enable continued examination of the problem presented, but this should be undertaken along with detailed studies which show a more complete picture of the situation and allow preliminary zonification of the region to establish high risk areas which could be affected by mass wasting phenomena. This would help the authorities and the community in general in their decision-making.
4. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
The Azufral river canyon, the Loma del Medio, is found at approximately 5km from the active cone of the western sector of the Galeras volcano. This is an area of relatively unstable slopes and a relatively recent rockfall, which could be associated with seismic activity recorded on 6 December 2000. The site is located at 1°12,801 latitude north, 77°24,433 longitude west and at a height of around 2400 metres above sea level.
On 6 December 2000 at 1512 hours local time, the seismological network monitoring the Galeras Volcano recorded seismic activity (Figure 1) which lasted some 120 seconds at the Crater station located 1.6km from the active cone (seismograms N° 9523). After analysis and discussion, this was connected with possible mass wasting located in a sector to the west of the CVG.
This situation, together with a concurrent period of rain in the area, and with the history of mudflows in this sector, led to a visit the following day to the summit of the Galeras Volcano, to search for evidence of this type of activity and to complete a statement. With members of the Narino Regional Committee for Emergencies, the aim was also to report back on the events and to attempt to prevent tragic incidents, particularly in view of the continuing winter season.
On 17 December Dr Nancy de Viles, coordinator of the Office of National Parks, telephoned the Regional Director and related the Consaca sector rangers’ report about a recent landslide, and about the presence of a considerably unstable zone in the sector knows as Loma del Medio, located on the Azufral river canyon at approximately 5 km to the west of the active cone of Galeras. (Figure 2).
Past events caused enough interest that members of this Regional Operating Centre travelled to the area in order to verify the situation on the ground. Once the formalities had been carried out, the visit took place on 27 December with the participation of members of IINGEOMINAS Marta Lucia Calvache Velasco, Roberto Armando Torres Corredor, Diego Mauricio Gomes Martinex and Ricardo Efrain Villota Chamorro.
It is important to note that the seismic recordings have proven to be useful tools for identifying this type of activity, since for years of continued monitoring on Galeras, various landslides and mudflows have been recorded which have come to be associated with specific types of seismic activity. The following are past references made in a committee report in April 1995:
“From 1610 hours to 1930 hours approximately, on 18 April 1990, a tremor was recorded (seismograms N° 876 and 877). This tremor accompanied an eruption of ash, according to reports by personnel stationed in the Galeras Military Base. At the same time, the volcano experienced a large storm which, when mixed with the solid particles from the eruption, formed a mass which travelled down the Azufral river canyon. The river flow increased until the water level was 7m higher than that in the Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo bridge sector on the road between Pasto and Consaca.”
“At 1120 hours on 15 April 1993, another seismic event was recorded (seismogram 3166) over 22 minutes. On this occasion, the amplitude was lower. A report was made by the committee from the Regional Operating Centre, which is located at the seismic post in Condor, on the caldera rim some 4.8 km to the southwest of the active crater. This stated that apparently the seismic activity was caused by an avalanche into the Azufral river canyon, but unfortunately the prevailing cloudy conditions in the region prevented personnel from corroborating this visually. Furthermore, although it was definitely not raining at the time in the area of the seismic post, there was noticeable thunder.”
“On 28 September at 1547 hours and on 29 September at 1506 hours in 1993, another seismic event was recorded, (seismograms 3519 and 3512) with durations of 29 and 9 minutes respectively. These coincided with periods of heavy rain.”
“On 30 March 1994 at 1240 hours seismic activity was recorded for a duration of 13 minutes (seismograms 3881 and 3882) also in a period of heavy rain.”
“At 1542 hours on 27 May 1994 a 30-minute-long seismic event was recorded (seismogram 3998A) with considerable amplitude. On this occasion torrential rain with hail was noted on the higher sections of the volcano. The same day, a committee from the Regional Operating Centre was dispatched to the summit of the volcano to make a video recording. It was not possible to identify the presence of a mudflow from the heights of the volcano.”
“On 4 November at 1942 hours seismic activity was recorded (seismogram 4322) for a duration of 43 minutes, which was also accompanied by heavy rain in the region. Afterwards, the Regional Operating Centre was able to establish that the same day, towards 2000 hours, the inhabitants of the Consaca municipality noticed that the Azufral river water level had risen.”
As a consequence of the heavy rain in April 1995, on 13 and 15 April increased water levels and mudflows were noted in the Azufral river canyon up to a height of 5 and 15 metres respectively above the average water level in areas where the canyon narrowed or where the water travelled round a bend. These two events were recorded by the Galeras monitoring network in the following manner: “At 1723 hours on 13 April, the seismic post Cono, located 200m to the east of the Galeras active crater, started to record a continuous signal with low amplitude and high frenquency. Until 1748 hours, the staff at the Regional operating Centre noticed that the signal continued in all posts on the monitoring network, but with higher amplitude and lower frequency. Taking into account the cloudy conditions at the summit of the volcano and previous similar signals, an initial diagnostic was made associating this recording with increased water levels in the Azufral river canyon…”
According to a report made in March 1995, reference is made to another type of seismic activity which was recorded in the winter season and when observations were being made of an unstable area located in the northern sector of the Galeras Anfiteatro: “Another aspect to take note of in the seismological report is the occurrence, from 6 March 1995 onwards, of specific events which were characterised by high frequency, with a gentle start for a few seconds which changes rapidly, starting at the Olga post, located 900m to the east of the active cone. It appears to reach Olga first, then Cono, then Crater, Urcunina etc and could even be observed further away still. The clearest events of this type happened on 6,11 and 19 March and strangely they were recorded after 4 March, when the seismic spring to the northeast of Galeras. This type of activity was seen again on 31 March. As far as these events are concerned there are at least two possibilities: one relating to landslides or a collapse of a certain magnitude in the vincinity of the Olga post…”
Following the recording made on 6 December 2001, the most recent activity of this type was noted on 5 January 2002 at 0905 hours with an approximate duration of 105 seconds (seismogram 9589). This was accurately recorded by the Galeras Volcano monitoring network. In accordance with the experience to date of this type of activity, a link can be made to mass wasting phenomena, which because of instability in the region, generally occur towards the west and northwest sectors of the CVG.
6. DESCRIPTION OF THE INSPECTION
The journey was made by car to the village of Consaca, using the Galeras ringroad. From there a smaller, local road was used to reach the sector known as Churupamba, 8.7km to the west of the active crater and at a height of 1980 metres above sea level. From there, the journey took place on foot through various sectors of the Azufral river canyon to the Loma del Medio zone located 5km from the crater, at an approximate height of 2400 metres above sea level. Finally, the group ascended to the Verde de Galeras lake at 4.2km from the crater with an approximate height of 2600 metres above sea level. It is known that landslides have been recorded in the past in the Loma del Medio area. The visit allowed the group to identify that there had recently been several landslides in sectors bordering the Lomas del Medio region and that this area shows a gradual process of deterioration. This led the group to conclude that the erosion process would continue and that at some point in the future the region would undergo important morphological changes as a consequence.
7. ERUPTIVE HISTORY AND GEOLOGY
The CVG is made up of various small calderas towards the southwest, ash cones and a Holocenic stratovolcano (Cepeda 1985), located on the eastern side of the Complex. The eruptive history of the CVG has been characterised by calderas formed by eruptions, followed by the formation of new cones. The Galeras Volcano is the most recent active cone within the CVG (Complejo Volcanico Galeras), according to Cepeda (1985).
The CVG has passed through various stages in its geological history. Lava emitted from a volcanic centre previous to the existing one (pre-caldera), covered the glacial morphology and older formations and makes up the majority of the structure which can be seen from the city of Pasto. The most recent eruptive age corresponds to some 4500 years ago, dated using a pyroclastic flow deposit. This activity occurred in the youngest cone, known as the Galeras Volcano.
According to Calvache (1990), the material emitted by Galeras is geographically distributed according to the type of deposit, therefore lava is found in the western depression of the Azufral river and not on the eastern flank, although there are areas on the eastern slope with evidence of fissure eruptions of lava which occurred in the recent past. Deposits of pyroclastic flows are found in the majority on the northern and eastern sides. Along the Azufral river canyon, along the western bank, small traces of pyroclastic flows can be found, due to the presence of steep cliffs and slopes which prevent material being deposited as well as frequent landslides and mud flows which hide or wash the deposits away. Despite this, deposit maps of Galeras always show pyroclastic flows towards the west, even though these have never been observed. In studies that have been carried out it has been assumed that for an eruption of any size, a fraction of the flow would move downwards following the Azufral river canyon.
From a stratigraphic point of view, in the last 4500 years on Galeras’ activity, six major eruptive episodes have been identified. 4500 years ago, 4000, 2900, 2300, 1100 years ago and then again in the year 1866.
According to Calvache, the eruption of 1866 is the best example of an eruptive sequence in the youngest stratigraph of Galeras, which expanded along the western summit, towards the east, northeast and west of the volcano. It gave rise to a highly altered pyroclastic flow, dispersed, and yellow in colour. Various lava flows can be seen in the Azufral river canyon, both on the ground and in aerial photography. These flows leave the crater, move around the central cone and descend through the canyon for some 5km in the direction of the Consaca village. The lava flows in this sector are deposits in blocks, forming rounded barriers and borders which are well preserved at a height of 10m. The average thickness of each flow is around 20m.
Additionally, on the western side of the volcano above the Azufral river canyon, various lava flows can be seen which were deposited on the open caldera. This lava is described as a non-differentiated group (with the exception of the 1866 flow). In general, the flows are irregular in thickness and can be described as aa lava. It is distributed in blocks and the total thickness varies between 100 and 200m and the total area covered by this lava is some 5km2.
Along the Azufral river there are various lahare deposits underneath the aforementioned lava flows, as well as small deposits above a pyroclastic flow dated 170 years old. The rock fragments vary in size from a few centimetres to a few metres, with highly variable composition, many of which contain different types of porphyritic lava affected by hydrothermal alteration. (Calvache 1990).
In the lower section of the Azufral river, there are other deposits which form terraces on three different levels: the average thickness of the entire deposit is of some 200m. The majority of the deposits are disordered, large and rich in lithics. Some blocks making up the flows reach 1 to 2 metres in diameter. (Calvache, 1990).
Alongside this geological information, and according to Plate 429 (Ingeominas, 1991) three main types of deposits have been identified towards the western sector of the Galeras volcano. These are TQcl, Tqva and TQvsd which correspond to formations from the Cenozoic Era, specifically Vulcanites, which are deposits related to volcanic activity from the Tertiary - Quarternary periods. These cover some 75% of the geological plate and are associated with different eruptive centres located on the Narina Plateau and in the Western and Centre-West Coordilleras. The Lithological description of the deposits found towards the western sector of the Galeras Volcano correspond, according to Ingeominas (Murcia and Cepeda, 1991) to:
- Lavas (TQvl): occur especially in the area of the Galeras Volcano Complex (CVG). These are mainly massive flows in tabular form and with some scoria, aa lava and block lava. Generally these are found alternating with other volcanic material - poryphiritic rocks, with phenocrystals which rarely exceed 2mm in diameter and which show evidence of flow textures. These are mainly andesites of two pyroxenes and calcic plagioclase and dacites with amphibole and sodium plagioclase. Also present are microcrystalline quartz, olivine and biotite or xenocrysts.
- Burning Avalanches and Rubble Avalanches (Tqva): are mainly present in the valleys of the Guaitara and Azufral rivers and in the Cerro Caballo Rucio. These are rocks composed mainly of fragments of material formed at the time of explosion or of gragments of a dome or lava that collapses. The reddish colour is due to the sineruptive iron oxides. The deposits are chaotic, due to the turbulent and violent nature of the flow, and may or may not be welded, depending on the thickness. Immediately to the east of Sandona flows from the Galeras Volcano can be found, welded and with a thickness above 100m.
- Undifferentiated Volcanic Deposits (TQvsd): Due to the continually changing facies and the scale of the geological cartography (1:1000000), there are areas where the volcanic deposits have not been differentiated. These areas include the upper part of the CVG, the La Guaca Volcano Sector and the La Horqueta - Rio Curiaco sector, between Tangua and Funes. The deposits include lavas, burning clouds, rubble avalanches, lahares and ash, and fluvioglacial deposits.
As regards Structural Geology, the zone is characterised mainly by faults which determine the contact between the main lithological traits: the Romeral Fault System (RFS) is one of the main structural elements in Colombia. Based on data on velocities of seismic waves and gravimetric waves, Kellog et al (1985) suggest that the RFS is an active system with a dip of 12° towards the northwest. Around Galeras, the RFS is oriented in a north northeasterly direction and its limit is to the west with the Cordillera Central (Ingeominas, 1991).
8. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
The area under investigation is relatively extensive, located in the immediate vicinity of the Loma del Medio. This region is characterised by the presence of various landslides of material both on the Loma del Medio and on its north and south sides. The majority of these landslides occurred over a number of years, encouraged amongst other things by the geological and topographical conditions, slopes, winter periods, seismic activity and so on.
During the visit, two important facts were noted. The first has to do with the observation of a recent landslide of rocky material at the front of the Loma del Medio, on its north slope at coordinates 1° 12.801 north and 77° 24,422 west and at a height of 2397 - 37 metres above sea level (data obtained using GPS receiver). This landslide has estimated dimensions of 30m x 20m x 5m with an approximate volume of 3000m3. The tracks left by the loosened rocks show that the material was initially displaced vertically and then towards one of the branches of the Azufral river. The displaced material was mainly composed of large blocks of lava, belonging to the Galeras lava flow of 1866, along with smaller solid particles from the same lava. A few metres higher than this site another rockfall area can be found, also relatively recent but of smaller size.
The second notable aspect is the highly erosive process which has been seen in recent years in the Loma del Medio, with various landslides and apparent collapse of some sectors (Figure 6). The bridle path used by local inhabitants to climb up to western sites like the Laguna Verde or Licamancha is almost unusable in the Loma del Medio area, because of frequent collapses of varying size, making some areas dangerous or impassable. There still exist relatively unstable areas encouraged by weather or external phenomena, which means that this sector’s morphology continues to change considerably.
It was observed that despite the landslides that had occurred, the streams continued to flow, but it is important to mention that if landslides continue, or if the rainy season intensifies, it is possible that a great quantity of this material will be washed and dragged underwater, which will increase the normal flow of these streams. Also possible are impoundments of water in some areas of the stream with the consequent mudslides, as had happened in the past.
The region under scrutiny, whose soil is made up of volcanic materials of different types (see geological description), is characterised by the presence of steep slopes and various streams whose flows fluctuate depending mainly on the season (winter and summer). From an ecological point of view, the zone is situated within the Galeras Flora and Fauna Sanctuary.
As has been mentioned, there are no permanent human settlements in the most severely affected region. However, the area is used daily for different reasons and the local inhabitants use it to access other destinations.
9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The area observed in Loma del Medio presents clear indications of slope instability. In the winter season, rain is a considerable destabilising factor which reduces the resistance to shear and increases pore pressure especially in cracked material. Rain also is an element which facilitates and sustains mud flows which in turn erode and undermine the banks of the stream.
The fact that there is a history of landslides and mudflows in the region corroborates the severity of the phenomenon.
The seismological posts showed a positive response to some mass wasting phenomena, making them a valuable tool for monitoring this type of activity, both for landslides and mudflows.
During the inspection, no water damming or impoundment was noted, however this observation is not sufficient to make predictions. It is recommended that a mud flow detecting system be installed, especially in the area of the Azufral river canyon which is crossed quite frequently in some parts by local travellers who collect leaves to use as wrappings or by children who travel between the Bombona and Churupamba villages. This type of system would help to save lives, property and settlements which could otherwise find themselves underwater.
It is also recomended that education campaigns be carried out in the neighbouring areas around the Azufral river and for those who travel through the area, with regard to the danger that could be presented by a mud flow. Warning signs that a mud flow is about to occur should be communicated, for example abnormal reduction of river flow, or reports of landslides and so on.
ANNEX 1 - COPY OF THE OFFICIAL COMMUNIQUE BY INGEOMINAS PASTO WITH REGARD TO SEISMIC ACTIVITY RECORDED 6 DECEMBER 2001.
ALEJANDRO ERASO PAZ
The INGEOMINAS Volcano and Seismological Observatory in Pasto observed that yesterday, 6 December 2001, at around 1512 hours local time, the seismic monitoring network on the Galeras volcano recorded seismic activity that, after analysis and processing, correlated with mass wasting phenomena (landslides) in the north western area of the volcano caldera. This situation is a consequence of various factors: physical instability of the volcanic structure in this sector, rainfall during this period, seismic activity near the unstable area etc.
At approximated 1530 hours yesterday, the Pasto firement and mayor Guillermo Cortes of the Pasto Civil Defence were contacted by telephone, to inform them of the vents. Discussion was taken by these parties with the relevant figures concerned with the Azufral river canyon, and the possibility of mud flows was raised (mix of rocks and fine material, water and other types of material dragged along during the journey), if the heavy rains were to continue.
The Observatory recalls that a similar event to that reported occured in March-April 1995 during the winter season, where the material flow reached variable heights of between 5 and 15 metres, causing vegetation displacement and destruction of the small bridges built by local populations to cross the river.
The Observatory recommends that the inhabitants of the Azufral river area be informed about the possibility of mud flows while the winter season lasts, to allow them as far as possible to move away from the area. They should also be aware that any change in the river level could be an indication of water damming or increased flow. Another recommendation is that radio communication is increased with the Observatory, to inform of any change in this type of activity.
Furthermore, the Observatory reports that activity in Galeras has been maintained at low levels, similar to those reported in the last few months.
MARTA LUCIA CALVACHE VELASCO
Director Regional INGEOMINAS Pasto
Master's degree - University of Bath
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