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Translation - English After more than 10 years of research and development in the U.S., the X-37B unmanned space fighter, its capabilities and intended role all classified as top secret, recently took its first test flight. Prior to this, U.S. President Obama announced a new space program, as the U.S. government puts the Bush administration’s plans to return to the moon on hold and shifts the focus of space exploration to more distant Mars.
Former U.S. President Kennedy once predicted: “Whoever controls the universe, will control our world; whoever controls space, will control initiative in war.”* As a leader in space exploration, America knows full well that whoever seizes control of the skies will win the power to control information, the seas and airspace, thereby guaranteeing victory in future wars. As keen as he is to emphasize change, President Obama has not actually made any real adjustments to space strategy, which is still, and has always been, to advance the supremacy of the U.S. in space and to remain the head of a space alliance. But Obama is most likely shouting about promoting U.S. supremacy in space in order to divert attention from his true intention: to bring about technological innovation and economic transformation.
A change can be seen in Obama’s tactics as he strives for U.S. supremacy in space; there is more emphasis on proactive, pragmatic and truly comprehensive strategies for seizing America’s future supremacy. Obama’s new space program stems from his scheme to integrate civilian and military space flight resources and to maintain America’s competitive edge in space flight. But beyond this, it stems, more importantly, from U.S. concerns for bringing about technological innovation and for being at the forefront of the world. The Obama administration will challenge America to its limits, both in space flight and in a series of key technological fields. The U.S. will no longer be content to tally up the commercial profits made through upgrading and distributing new technology, but will be ever more concerned with speeding up its technological innovation and renewal, leaving all its foreign competitors far behind.
America is not, as some have opined, in decline under the Obama administration; its soft strategies are getting softer and its hard strategies harder. On soft political issues, such as relations with the Islamic world, Obama can seek international cooperation. He can talk humbly when trying to restore America’s image. But Obama’s actions cannot be humble, and he sticks to his principles with regard to nuclear issues, which impact America’s dominance.
Therefore, Obama is not rallying his troops to “seize control of space,” as some commentators have feared, nor is he attempting to escalate an ever-worsening arms race in space. On the contrary, the Obama administration has other things in mind, having strategically decided that, hereafter, international competition will still be a question of technological competition and quality of labor. Especially at this critical time, when economic recovery is sluggish and a myriad of reforms are in the offing, an annual expenditure of $60 billion or more could leave holes in Obama’s plans for economic recovery. Therefore, we cannot discount the possibility that Obama will put some of the most advanced space flight development programs on hold and go ahead with his plan to integrate military and civilian space flight resources. But, when faced with divergent opposition at home, he will need to pull out a new “space program” in order to satisfy public opinion. This ostensibly more ambitious space program will be used to conceal his true intent, that is, the integration of resources to bring about technological innovation and economic transformation. The Obama administration may find itself facing a prickly problem from now on: how to resolve conflicts and grievances between all parties involved, and how best to allocate existing space flight resources in order to kill these two birds, namely the new space plan and technological innovation, with one stone.
Given that the goal of Obama’s new space program is to promote technological innovation and economic transformation in the post-recession era, there is no need for China to chase after this “trial balloon” which America is floating, nor is there any need to start an arms race with America in space. At the present time, China’s most pressing task is to seize the opportunity for economic recovery in the post-recession era, make changes to its patterns of development and upgrade its industrial structures in order to meet the new material foundations which will be firmly established by new technological innovation. Moreover, as for there being no government control of space, China and the U.S. together could actively seek to promote negotiations on the control of armaments in outer space, even concluding and signing an “International Treaty against Anti-Satellite Weaponry.” They could establish effective supervision of outer space and coordinate their respective organizations, leading the world toward peaceful use of space and gradually eliminating the arms race in outer space.
*Editor’s Note: This quotation, supposedly made by John F. Kennedy, is widespread among Chinese publications and speeches. However, the actual quotation, made by Lyndon B. Johnson is: “Control of space means control of the world.”
Chinese to English: Clinical Observations on 50 Cases of Early-stage Threatened Miscarriage with a Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese 中西医结合治疗早期先兆流产50例临床观察
2008 年10 月
Cuiding Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy
Translation - English Clinical Observations on 50 Cases of Early-stage Threatened Miscarriage with a Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine
(Zhentou Central Clinic, Yangming, Hubei Province 410319)
Cuiding Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Vol. 14, No. 10, October 2008.
Goal: To observe the clinical results of a combined treatment of Western and Chinese medicine in cases of early-stage threatened miscarriage.
Method: A group of 96 patients was divided randomly into a control group of 46 patients and a treatment group of 50 patients. The control group was treated exclusively with Western medicine, while the treatment group, in addition to the treatment given to control group, also took an oral preparation of “foetal preservation” pills, a complementary Chinese medicine.
Results: Overall rate of success for the contrast group was 87.1%, while for the treatment group it was 90%. A rank sum test shows that the difference in the overall treatment success rate between the two groups is statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: A combined treatment of Western and Chinese medicine in cases of early-stage threatened miscarriage is better than treatment exclusively with Western medicine.
Key words: Combined treatment of Western and Chinese medicine: Early-stage threatened miscarriage: Clinical observations.
Through a series of clinical observations, this author concludes that a combined treatment of Western and Chinese medicine is more effective in treating early-stage threatened miscarriage than treatment consisting exclusively of Western medicine. The findings are reported below.
1 Clinical Data
1.1 General Data
A total of 96 patients, both inpatients and outpatients, were recorded at this hospital between October 2006 and January 2008. They were divided into two groups using a random number table, with 50 patients in the treatment group and 46 in the control group. In the treatment group, the youngest patient was 19 and the oldest 36, with an average age of 26.2±3.6. 19 patients were primigravidae; eight patients had experience multiple (two or more) threatened miscarriages; and 24 patients had a history of problematic pregnancy (surgical abortion, medical abortion, ectopic pregnancy resulting in stillbirth). 31 patients had experienced vaginal bleeding for between one and five days; 11 patients for between six and 15 days; and eight patients in excess of 15 days. Ten patients were five weeks pregnant or less; 29 patients were between five and eight weeks pregnant; and 11 patients were between nine and 12 weeks pregnant. In the control group, the youngest patient 21 and the oldest 37, with an average age of 27.64-2.4. 17 patients were primigravidae; 18 patients had experience multiple (two or more) threatened miscarriages; and 11 patients had a history of problematic pregnancy (surgical abortion, medical abortion, ectopic pregnancy resulting in stillbirth). 26 patients had experienced vaginal bleeding for between one and five days; 12 patients for between six and 15 days; and eight patients in excess of 15 days. Ten patients were five weeks pregnant or less; 27 patients were between five and eight weeks pregnant; and nine patients were between nine and 12 weeks pregnant. The differences between the two groups in terms of age, history of miscarriage, duration of pregnancy and duration of vaginal bleeding, once processed statistically, were not deemed statistically significant (P>0.05), and are suitable for comparison.
1.2 Diagnostic Criteria
Taken from the relevant diagnostic criteria given in Guiding Principles for Clinical Research into New Medicines in Chinese Medicine , Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Western Medicine , and Gynaecology in Chinese Medicine . One of the following symptoms is present: Slight vaginal bleeding, with dull coloured, thin blood; bearing down pain in the lower abdomen; pain around the waist; aching and limp knees. A gynaecological examination reveals that the cervix is closed, and that the womb is soft and of a size consistent with the duration of the pregnancy. A B-mode ultrasound confirms hysterocyesis, and that the foetal cyst or embryo (foetus) is alive. A urine-based pregnancy test shows a positive result. A gynaecological examination rules out alternative sources for vaginal bleeding in the vagina or cervix, such as cervical polyps.
2.1 Control Group
100mg vitamin E capsule, to be taken orally once daily; 2.5 mg folic acid to be taken orally once daily; HCG 2000 U to be administered by intramuscular injection every other day. The time at which medications were taken was determined according to the patient’s condition. Bed rest was required throughout the period of treatment, and the patients were advised to refrain from sexual intercourse.
2.2 Treatment Group
In addition to the treatment prescribed to the control group, these patients were given a complementary Chinese herbal prescription to be taken orally, based on “foetal preservation” pills.
Prescription: 20g field dodder, 25g parasitic loranthus, 15g donkey hide glue (melted), 15g each of teasel root, steamed Chinese foxglove (rehmannia glutinosa), codonopsis root, and rhizoma atraoctylodis macrocephala, 10g liquorice root. Taking into account the progress of the illness, the following may be added or removed from the prescription: For patients with a severe deficiency of qi, add 30g milk vetch root (astragalus mongholicus); for patients with heavy vaginal bleeding, add 30g hairyvein agrimony (agrimonia pilosa); 15g charred rhizome of cyrtomium fortune and 30g of charred salad burnet (poterium sanguisorba); for patients with acute morning sickness, add 8g amomom (fructus amomi) and 9g basil stalk; for patients with internal heat and a yellow coating on the tongue, add 9g scutellaria baicalensis and 30g bulrush root (boehmeria); for patients with severe stomach pains, it is important to add 30g herbaceous peony root (paeonia lactflora); for patients who are distressed and having difficulty sleeping, add 8g sour date kernels (ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa).
Usage: One dose daily, consisting of two decoctions, taken warm, morning and night. Each course of treatment lasts one week. Once vaginal bleeding has stopped, one dose should be taken every other day for two weeks, to ensure that the course of treatment is effective.
Patients’ vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain and tenesmus, and pain around the waist should be monitored. Regular blood tests should be carried out for B-HCG and progesterone, as well as repeated ultrasounds to monitor foetal development.
2.4 Statistical Methods
SPSS 14.0 statistical analysis software was used, and the ranked data put through a rank sum test, with P
Bachelor's degree - University of Oxford
Years of translation experience: 8. Registered at ProZ.com: Jun 2010.
Matthew Hunter has been working as a professional freelancer for the last year. Matthew is a graduate in Oriental Studies at St. Anne’s College, Oxford University, where he studied Chinese and Korean. He has a passion for languages, having studied French, Latin and Ancient Greek, before looking further eastwards for university level study. He has also studied at Peking University in Beijing and Kyunghee University in Seoul.