Translation - English 9 Die at Teikyo University Hospital, 46 Confirmed Infection Cases; a Hospital-Acquired Infection Suspected
September 3rd, 2010
(September 3rd, 2010): It was announced today by the Faculty of Medicine, Teikyo University that, at a hospital attached to the university (located in Tokyo’s Itabashi Ward), there has been a hospital-acquired infectious outbreak involving multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter, a difficult-to-treat bacterial infection, with some 46 confirmed cases recorded at the hospital as of September 1st, 2010. Of the patients identified as being infected, almost all suffered from serious hematic and renal disorders, etc. Of these, 27 have subsequently died, with Acinetobacter being unable to be dismissed as a contributory mortality factor in some 9 of these cases. Based on information forthcoming from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), this event represents the largest-ever hospital-acquired infectious outbreak involving Acinetobacter.
Based on the similarity of the bacteria present among infected patients, there seems little doubt that the outbreak represents a hospital-acquired infection, it afflicting some 27 male and 19 female patients, these people ranging in age from 35 to 92 years old. Of the patients, more than 70% were aged 60 years old or more, many exhibiting reduced levels of immunity due to the impact of serious conditions such as hematic and cardiovascular disorders. According to the hospital’s internal research, in addition to the 9 deaths for which Acinetobacter cannot be dismissed as contributory factor, in a further 12 deaths contributory mortality factors including illness have been identified. Meanwhile, the cause of death in the other 6 cases remains unclear.
According to the hospital’s explanations, from April to May of this year, Acinetobacter was identified as being present among approximately 10 inpatients admitted to the hospital’s internal medicine wards. By way of response, these inpatients were subsequently shifted to private treatment rooms while the aforementioned wards were temporarily closed. The hospital’s Infections Control Committee was also abreast of the situation and had commenced its own investigations.
When reexaminations of both patient records and collected cultures were conducted by the hospital, it was understood that between August of last year and September of the current year, some 46 patients had been infected by Acinetobacter, with 11 locations within the hospital being identified.
The first death was recorded in October of last year. Moreover, while the source of infection in that case was not identified, it seems to confirm the thesis that multiple routes of infection are possible.
Of the patients infected, 2 individuals were transferred to neighboring healthcare institutions, with 1 of these subsequently being identified as suffering from a hospital-acquired infection.
In fact, around February of this year, a bacterial pathogen was detected among random hospital patients, this leading the Infections Control Department of the hospital to issue a formal written warning as to “the possibility of a hospital-acquired infection.” However, due to a lack of reporting from different departments within the hospital as to their detection of bacterial pathogens, there was a lack of awareness vis-à-vis the possibility of the hospital being confronted by such an outbreak. Moreover, as a result of investigations conducted since May, it is now understood that, due to a degree of treatment efficacy being noted when combating infection cases with certain antibiotic agents, there were instances of infection-incidence reports not being submitted by attending doctors.
Meanwhile, in responding to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter hospital-acquired infections, in January of last year the MHLW requested that all prefectural governments notify it of any such events. Accordingly, the MHLW was advised of the current instance on the 2nd of this month.
With regard to why the hospital was so late in its reporting of this event, Dr. Shigeho Morita, the medical director of the hospital, gave the following comment: “At the time of the outbreak, we had our hands full in devoting 100% of our energies to the treatment of our patients.”
Assistant Professor Kazuhiro Tateda of the Faculty of Medicine, Toyo University (Microbiology/Infectious Diseases), offered the following comment: “In both North America and Europe, from the perspective of policy-formulation in response to hospital-acquired infections, there is an understanding that due consideration needs to be given to this pathogen. Moreover, here in Japan the dangers of such infections are also well understood. This being said, it needs to be asked as to why this infection was allowed to spread to the extent that it did.”
Concerning Acinetobacter hospital-acquired infections, Fukuoka University Hospital (Fukuoka City) experienced an outbreak that lasted from the autumn of 2008 through to January of 2009. In that case 26 patients contracted the infection and 4 subsequently died. The presence of the pathogen was first detected in a patient who had previously undergone a surgical procedure in South Korea, with the possibility being that the pathogen subsequently spread to others.
Japanese to English: Sample Translation 2 - Receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry – Wanting to Link the Joy of Current Success to Future Endeavors General field: Science Detailed field: Science (general)
Translation - English Receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry – Wanting to Link the Joy of Current Success to Future Endeavors
For Japan, confronted by a stagnating economy and foreign policy woes, the awarding of this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry to two Japanese nationals comes as very welcome news.
It has been decided that this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry shall be awarded to 3 individuals, including Professor Emeritus Akira Suzuki of Hokkaido University and Distinguished Professor Ei-ichi Negishi of Purdue University in the United States. An American researcher shall also be likewise honored.
With this year’s prizes, Japan now boasts some 18 Nobel laureates, a number that clearly sets the nation apart from others in the Asia region. Some 7 of Japan’s laureates have received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
This year’s prize was awarded for the development of chemical-reaction processes that allow for the efficient combining of substances including pharmaceuticals and liquid-crystalline compounds, etc.
Prior to these developments, it was very difficult to combine together organic compounds that featured complex chains of carbon atoms. However, the work of Professors Suzuki and Negishi, etc., developed new processes by which such reactions could be more readily achieved.
The processes developed have already become invaluable in numerous industrial sectors including those involved in the manufacture of high blood-pressure and anti-cancer pharmaceuticals, as well as in the manufacture of light-emitting organic compounds, etc.
Chemistry represents the basis by which substances are combined and analyzed, etc., it being a discipline that has supported Japan’s manufacturing of industrial materials. Indeed, the awarding of this year’s prize demonstrates the strength of the discipline in Japan. Thus, the nation should thoroughly rejoice in the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to Professors Suzuki and Negishi.
However, how long will Japan’s strength in chemistry endure, with there being some symptoms of uneasiness already apparent?
One such symptom is the “inward-looking mentality” of younger researchers in Japan. Very few venture overseas; with more and more proceeding along a research career path that is purely domestic.
Concerning the United States, a destination described as lying at the heart of research endeavors, only a small number of young Japanese researchers venture to that country. Of foreign-born students enrolled in doctorate programs at U.S universities, approximately 30% are Chinese, while South Korea accounts for approximately 10% of the total. By contrast, Japanese nationals only account for roughly 2% of non-American doctoral students.
Does this mean that Japan will be left behind in the fierce competition of global research?
With regard to Professor Suzuki who will receive this year’s Nobel Prize for Chemistry, after graduating from Hokkaido University he commenced his research career working under the guidance of distinguished American chemist. Meanwhile, after graduating from the University of Tokyo, Professor Negishi also moved to the United States in order to pursue his research, remaining there to this day.
Indeed, it could be said that the hard work of both individuals while overseas contributed to their receiving the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
Concern has also arisen regarding the declining international reputations of Japan’s tertiary institutions. Alarm bells have been set off regarding Japanese university education and research standards, etc., such being expressed in the “World University Rankings” published by an English education magazine last month.
Of Japan’s universities, the top-ranked was the University of Tokyo, which ranked at No. 26 worldwide, it losing its previous position as the best university in Asia to the University of Hong Kong (ranked No. 21 in this year’s survey). Furthermore, compared to the 11 Japanese universities ranked in the Top 200 institutions last year, this year there were only 5 in the Top 200.
Moreover, faced with harsh fiscal conditions, the national government has also cut science and technology research budgets. Contrastingly, public funding for science and technology research in Europe and America has increased.
It is necessary that the government and research institutions in Japan remain conscious of such dangers.
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I am a Tokyo-based graduate of Australia’s top university (the Australian National University). I also possess an MBA in marketing and international business; as well as all the top Japanese-language qualifications (Level 1 of the Japanese-Language Proficiency Test, etc.). I have worked in Japan for more than 20 years, both as a translator and as a marketing consultant. Prior to becoming a freelance translator, I worked extensively in the Japanese marketing-research industry.
My translation background in quantitative and qualitative marketing-research includes documentation and materials related to the following product/service categories: fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), business services, automobiles & automotive products, health & hygiene (OTC products), prescription pharmaceuticals & medicines, banking & insurance, fast-food, and brand/fashion products, etc.
I also have extensive experience in the following translation categories: marketing, advertising, general business, corporate communications, law (contracts & evidence), finance, public policy, and various academic disciplines.
Past and current clients include numerous Fortune 500/Nikkei 200 companies, the Japanese government (both central & regional), non-Japanese governments & embassies, as well as various legal jurisdictions. I have also worked extensively for tertiary-education institutions and academic clients.
Additionally, I also have extensive experience in the simultaneous transcription (into English) of Japanese-language audio files. In addition to simultaneously transcribing numerous marketing-research interviews into English, I have also used these skills as a volunteer for developing English transcriptions of Japanese-language interviews and oral histories.
Keywords: Japanese to English translation, marketing translation, business translation, marketing research translation, report translation, transcript translation, government policy, politics, history, native English speaker, Japan-based, legal translation, evidence, contracts
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