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Translation - English Phase equilibrium of systems containing electrolytes
In chemical thermodynamic engineering, formula of phase equilibrium is usually encountered, and it is also one of the basic questions in chemical thermodynamics. What is called “phase” means the portion of system that physical and chemical properties are completely even. Adjacent two phases can interchange substance between them, and when the substance transition has stopped in a macro-view, namely, the composition of each phase has no longer changed and become a constant, then we call that they reach phase equilibrium. The composition of two equilibrium phases may have large difference which varies by different kinds of substance. Because of this difference, some phase contacts can be manipulated for separation among substances.
Phase equilibrium calculation is frequently encountered in chemical engineering, which is indispensible for optimization design in engineering process of the separation and refinery of chemical products.
There has been a large quantity of research papers and some monographs referring to phase equilibrium, such as gas-liquid equilibrium in systems containing electrolytes, liquid-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium and the like. The gas-liquid equilibrium includes gas-liquid equilibrium and vapour-liquid equilibrium in which the former majorly discusses the solubility of gas in electrolyte solutions and the latter majorly discusses vapour pressures of electrolyte solutions, which is called vapour-liquid equilibrium. Liquid-liquid equilibrium majorly discusses the solubility of electrolytes in solutions. Those equilibrium has closely correlation with gas absorption, saline distillation, extractive distillation with salt, mixed solution extraction with salt, two aqueous phases extraction with salt, metal solvent extraction, solution and crystallization of electrolytes and the like processes, which have already widely applied in chemical engineering, petrochemical engineering, environmental chemistry, light industry, food, medicine and hydrometallurgy.
Chinese to English: Sample 2 (about construction) General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Construction / Civil Engineering
Translation - English 1） Order of refractory material must be placed according to technical conditions given by this design institute; order contract should clear each sort of refractory material standard respectively.
2） Refractory material must have qualification certificate from supplier, physic-chemical qualification (short for PCQ) laboratory report per batch, shipping list with wagon (all should label brick code, quantity, plate number, wagon number and date of shipping).
3） EACH heteromorphours brick should respectively mark clear brick code before coming out from factory.
4） Each type of refractory products and heat prevention material must be wrapped by straw rope or paper box before shipping. Heteromorphours products and fragile heat prevention material are better to wrapped by special made container. Refractory mud, pouring material and the other unshaped refractory material must be wrapped by thick paper with lining plastic bag or fabric bag.
5） Before loading refractory material to ship, the transportation vehicles(truck, train, and ship) must clean up to prevent oil pollution and the other impurities; meanwhile, must take rainproof, snow-proof, and evaporation measures, be sure no rain or water in.
6） Should carefully carry the refractory material during loading or unloading; obtrusive measure is forbidden. Tight arrangement prevents falling and collision to damage product edges.
7） Each type of refractory products, heat prevention material and fire mud, pouring material and the other unshaped refractory material should store in customized warehouse and pile in arrangement according to different types and codes or brick. All those bricks must be marked clear, and mix pilling is forbidden. Preserve wide enough paths between brick piles in order to let truck carry them out. If conditions limited, standard refractory clay material can be stored in open place, but must be covered by shed or canvas, and dig a water groove around foundation to avoid rain and water going in.
Bachelor's degree - University of Western Ontario
Years of translation experience: 10. Registered at ProZ.com: May 2011.
Professional translator in research-level chemical and biological related fields with solid education background; experienced interpreter in Tech-business conference; 10 years Canadian study and work experience in engineering science; highly interested in elaborating translation between Chinese and English in various disciplines and enthusiastic for further linguistic skills and art.