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Sample translations submitted: 2
English to Chinese: Skeletal myoblasts and cardiac repair General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Cardiology
Source text - English Review article
Skeletal myoblasts and cardiac repair
The seminal experiments showing that cells transplanted in infarcted hearts could effect myocardial tissue repair have provided the proof of concept that cell therapy might be an effective means of improving the outcome of patients with severe heart failure.
Because of their appealing characteristics (autologous origin, in vitro scalability, high resistance to ischemia), skeletal myoblasts have undergone extensive preclinical testing that has consistently demonstrated their ability to preserve postinfarct left ventricular function and to limit remodelling.
As this functional efficacy occurs despite a poor long-term engraftment rate and the inability of myoblasts to convert into cardiomyocytes, the hypothesis has been raised that the predominant mechanism of action could involve paracrine signalling rather than a direct contractile effect of the graft.
These preclinical data have paved the way for the early human trials which have confirmed the feasibility and safety of this approach. The mixed results in terms of efficacy should not be discouraging; they only reflect that the field is still in infancy and have yet been helpful in identifying some key issues like the limited efficiency of current cell transfer techniques and the high rate of early posttransplantation cell death.
It is clear, however, that myoblasts and, more generally, adult stem cells cannot truly repair infarcted myocardium through the generation of new cardiomyocytes. This first wave of clinical studies thus delineates the research pathways that need to be followed for overcoming these hurdles and consequently allow myoblast transplantation to become a potentially effective adjunct to current heart failure therapies.
1. Skeletal myoblasts
2. Cardiac repair
3. Skeletal myoblasts and cardiac repair
3.1. Experimental studies
3.2. Clinical studies
3.3. The issue of arrhythmias
3.4. Mechanisms of action: improved function versus cardiac repair
4. Limitations and remaining hurdles
4.1. Lineage-restriction of skeletal myoblasts
4.2. Complexity to autologous cell products
4.3. Low engraftment rate
1. Skeletal myoblasts
Skeletal muscular fibers harbour an endogenous reservoir of tissue-committed precursor cells (named satellite cells) that normally lie in a quiescent state under the basal membrane. Following injury, these cells are rapidly mobilized, proliferate (and then take the name of myoblasts) and ultimately fuse to effect muscle fiber regeneration.
Historically, their use for attempting to achieve postinfarction cardiac repair has been motivated by their clinically relevant attractive characteristics: (1) an autologous origin which makes accessibility easy and avoids any form of immune rejection or ethical concern, (2) a high degree of scalability in culture (one billion cells can be yielded from an initial small biopsy over a 2–3-week time frame), and (3) a relatively high resistance to ischemia, which is a major advantage given the poor vascularization of the target injection sites.
Another major characteristic of skeletal myoblasts is their lineage restriction which is a double-edge sword in that it provides a reassuring safeguard
against tumor formation but at the same time prevents these myogenic cells to differentiate into cardiomyocytes .
However, two experimental studies have reported that mouse skeletal muscle harboured a population of cells which, despite their different denomination (skeletal precursors of cardiomyocytes  and muscle-derived stem cells ) shared in common the capacity to acquire some key phenotypic features of cardiac cells. In animal models of myocardial infarction,
these cardiac progenitor cells yielded greater engraftment rates and better functional outcomes than unpurified skeletal myoblasts. Using flow cytometry, we have identified in human skeletal muscle biopsies, cells that may be considered roughly equivalent to these murine progenitors and express in vitro both cardiac and skeletal muscle genes, as assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (unpublished observations).
Whether this subpopulation of myoblasts can be upscaled without loosing its cardiac differentiation potential and to what extent it would improve postinfarct heart function beyond that seen after transplantation of unfractionated myoblasts remain yet unsettled questions that are currently under investigation.
2. Cardiac repair
From a surgical viewpoint, cardiac “repair” suggests the occurrence of a defect that can be fixed intraoperatively. Patch replacement of a left ventricular (LV) aneurysm or patch reinforcement of a postinfarct oozing free wall prone to rupture are illustrative examples of cardiac repair.
The concept underlying cell therapy is somewhat different in that it entails replacement of a pool of dead cardiomyocytes by a new pool of functional cells regardless of whether the graft derives from an endogenous reservoir of tissue-resident cardiac stem cells  or an exogenous supply of cells acting as precursors or surrogates of cardiomyocytes.
Skeletal myoblasts fall in the latter category since their contractile and paracrine properties raise the possibility that they could improve heart function, even though their myogenic lineage restriction makes it unlikely that such a benefit could be mediated by the generation of new myocardium. As such, skeletal myoblasts should not be expected to really “repair” the infarcted myocardium, but rather to alleviate some of the adverse effects of postinfarction LV dysfunction.
Translation - Chinese 综述
1. Work in SDL China (SDL) as a medical translator. Mainly do medical and chemical translation and proofreading. Have joined many big projects.
2. Work in Glossa Group (Glossa), mainly take charge of medical devices, lab instruments and biochemical reagents Projects.
Work in Bright Translation (Bright Translation) as a biomedical engineering scientific paper translator.
Work in ISO Translations (ISO Translation) as a part time freelance translator.
Work as a International Purchasing Engineer in ET solar.
Work in Biomedical Conference Organization as a Medical Secretary,
helped to successfully host the 9th World Biomaterial Congress (9 WBC) in China.
SDLX, SDL Trados Studio 2009 & 2011, SDL Passolo 2009 & 2011, Xbench, Trados 7, memoQ 6, Transit NXT, Indiom, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF professional, Windows 8, etc.
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