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Japanese to English: NSAIDs General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese 1. はじめに
非ステロイド性抗炎症剤(nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs)はシクロオキシゲナーゼ(COX)阻害作用により,鎮痛作用および抗炎症効果を発揮する。そのため,NSAIDsは変形性関節症,関節リウマチ,腰痛症などの疼痛を伴う慢性疾患に疼痛緩和を目的としてしばしば用いられ,患者のQOLの向上に貢献している。しかし,COXには一過性に産生され炎症や疼痛に関与する誘導型のCOX-2と,恒常的に存在し消化 管の粘膜保護や血小板凝集などに関与するCOX-1があり,従来の非選択的NSAIDsはこの両者を阻害する。そのため,非選択的NSAIDsでは消化管傷害などのCOX-1阻害作用に起因する副作用が問題となる。わが国でのNSAIDs長期服用関節リウマチ患者での調査では,3ヶ月以上NSAIDsを投与されている患者の62.2%に何らかの上部消化管の異常を認め,そのうち胃潰瘍が15.5%,十二指 腸潰瘍が1.9%含まれていたと報告されており(塩川他,1991),長期NSAIDs服用患者では消化管傷害の頻度が高いといえる。NSAIDsによって 引き起こされる消化管傷害は,当該薬剤の服用中止によって多くの症例で回復するが,NSAIDsの中止によって変形性関節症,関節リウマチ,腰痛症などの基礎疾患による疼痛管理が通常通り行えなくなるため,患者のQOLに対する影響は大きい。また,重篤な消化管合併症(穿孔,閉塞,出血,潰瘍)では入院や止血手術に至る例も存在し, 最悪の場合死亡に至る場合もある。したがって, 患者の予後だけでなく医療経済的な観点からもNSAIDsによる消化管傷害の予防は重要である。
Translation - English Foreward
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) to exhibit pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects. Because of this, NSAIDs are commonly prescribed to increase quality of life (QOL) of patients with pain from chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lower back pain. COX can be split into two types: the transitory COX-2 which generates and proliferates pain and inflammation, and the constantly present COX-1 which acts upon the gastric mucosa and thrombocytes. Up until now NSAIDs have non-selectively inhibited both of these. As a result, the inhibition of COX-1 functions by nonselective NSAIDs will cause problematic side effects such as gastric ulcerations.
A survey of patients in Japan using NSAIDs long term to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis reported that 62.2% of patients who had been taking NSAIDs for more than three months exhibited some signs of abnormalities in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Within this sample of patients, 15.5% presented stomach ulcers, and 1.9% presented with duodenal ulcers (Shiokawa, 1991). In this data we can see that the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcers is high in those patients taking NSAIDs over a long period of time. In most cases of NSAIDs administration, the negative effects cease upon finishing the recommended dosage and the patient recovers, however when managing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lower back pain the continued administration of NSAIDs has a large effect upon QOL. Furthermore, in some cases patients may face hospitalisation and surgery to correct severe gastrointestinal complications (perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, ulceration), and in the worst cases patient death is a possibility. Therefore, in the prescription of NSAIDs, not only is it important to consider the patient’s prognosis, but also it is important to consider the prevention of gastrointestinal related side effects from NSAID administration from a health economics perspective.
Japanese to English: Four things you should know about Myanmar: the first new government in half a century. General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Journalism
Source text - Japanese 半世紀ぶりの新政権、注目すべきポイント（１）
Translation - English Four things you should know about Myanmar: the first new government in half a century.
Newly inaugurated president Htin Kyaw (left) and Aung San Suu Kyi (AP)
In Myanmar, on the 30th March 2016, after 55 years of military rule since the Coup d’etat of 1962, the democratically-elected Htin Kyaw was inaugurated as president. The Union Solidarity and Development Party (UDSP) which supported the Thein Sein administration was a successor organisation of the Union Solidarity and Development Association and held substantial control through the National Armed Forces. But, in November 2015, the National League for Democracy (NLD) had complete victory, guaranteeing them the majority of party seats, and the path for the NLD to guide in the start of a new administration opened.
1. “Power behind the throne” Aung San Suu Kyi’s grasp at real power.
Most remarked upon is the treatment of the NLD’s chairman, Aung San Suu Kyi; a substantial leader of the new administration. Namely; in spite of the fact that the NLD holds the majority seat in parliament, under the current constitution Ms. Suu Kyi was disqualified from the presidency as her children hold British nationality. Prior to the election, Ms. Suu Kyi declared as a part of her plan to gain power, even if she did not gain the Presidency she could become the “Power behind the throne”. The NLD had been pursuing the possibility to freeze the conditions of the constitution and implement the inauguration of Ms. Suu Kyi as president, however as the National Armed Forces opposition was strong, this plan was abandoned.
Japanese to English: Jury duty General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Law (general)
Translation - English An introduction to the lay-judge system.
On the 21st May 2004, the “Participation of civilian jurors in criminal trials law” was established, and in 2009 the lay-judge system came into effect.
The lay-judge system allows all citizens to participate in the criminal justice system, and work with the judge to determine if the defendant is guilty and what punishment should be applied if so.
More than just letting civilians participate in criminal trials, this system is intended to entrust the administration of justice to all citizens.
The following are examples of trials that will be brought before a lay-judge court.
• Injury or manslaughter as a result of a burglary.
• Injury or manslaughter
• Manslaughter as a result of driving under the influence
• Arson on private property
• Abducting a person with the intent to collect ransom
• Abandonment and starvation of a child
• Smuggling contraband stimulants with the intent to gain profit
If you are selected as a juror, you will be present in the courtroom at the public trial, and participate in the trial until the judicial decision. At the public trial, as well as the examination of documentary evidence, witnesses and the defendant(s) will be questioned. Jurors also have the ability to question the witnesses and defendant(s).
I am a student, commencing a study programme in a postgraduate degree. I have spent the past eighteen months since my undergraduate gaining practical work experience and professional skills in an entry-level position. In my current role I have developed my skills in team work, professional expertise, and willingness to achieve results. I am a reliable and able worker looking for a flexible position that will enhance my studies.
I like sports and kyudo and photography and languages and reading. I like being active and adventures and imagination. 日本語でどうぞ