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Sample translations submitted: 9
English to Chinese: Securities I General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Investment / Securities
Source text - English The Fund is offering for subscription during the Subscription Period pursuant to the provisions of this Offering Memorandum Class A Participating Shares (the “Class A Shares”) and Class B Participating Shares (the “Class B Shares”). Unless otherwise indicated, references in this Offering Memorandum to “Participating Shares” shall include the Class A Shares and the Class B Shares. The required minimum subscription is US$500,000 for Class A Shares and US$50,000 for Class B Shares. The Fund will not issue any Class A Shares or Class B Shares until it has received subscriptions in the aggregate amount of at least US$30,000,000 in respect of the Class A Shares or such lower amount as may be determined by the Directors. There is no minimum aggregate subscription in respect of Class B Shares. Further, the Class A Shares must be subscribed for in increments of US$100,000 and the Class B Shares must be subscribed for in increments of US$25,000. Applicants may subscribe for Class B Shares in addition to Class A Shares, but may not subscribe for Class B Shares unless such applicant has also applied for Class A Shares or already holds Class A Shares. An applicant may not subscribe for Class B Shares in an amount equal to more than 25% of the aggregate subscription amount subscribed by such applicant for Class A Shares. Such minimum amounts are subject to waiver, reduction or change, either generally or on a case-by-case basis, at the discretion of the Directors of the Fund and subject to applicable law.
The Directors of the Fund, whose names appear under the section headed "Directors and Other Parties", accept responsibility for the information contained in this Offering Memorandum. To the best of the knowledge and belief of the Directors (who have taken all reasonable care to ensure that such is the case) the information contained in this Offering Memorandum is in accordance with the facts and does not omit anything likely to affect the import of such information.
No action has been taken to permit the distribution of this Offering Memorandum in any jurisdiction where action would be required for such purpose. Accordingly, no person receiving a copy of this Offering Memorandum and/or a Subscription Agreement in any territory may treat it as constituting an invitation to him to purchase or subscribe for Participating Shares nor should he in any event use such a Subscription Agreement unless in the relevant territory such an invitation could lawfully be used without compliance with any registration or other legal requirement.
Translation - Chinese 根据本《发行备忘录》的规定，基金将在认购期内发行A类参与分配的股份（以下简称“A类股份”）和B类参与分配的股份（以下简称“B类股份”）。除非另有说明，本《发行备忘录》中所提及的“参与分配的股份”均应包括A类股份和B类股份。A类股份的最低认购额为500,000美元，B类股份的最低认购额为50,000美元。在收到的A类股份总认购额达到30,000,000美元或董事会可能决定的较低金额之前，基金不会发行任何A类股份或B类股份。B类股份无最低总认购额要求。此外，A类股份的认购应以100,000美元为单位递增，B类股份的认购应以25,000美元为单位递增。申请人除A类股份外，还可认购B类股份，但申请人必须同时申请认购A类股份或已持有A类股份才能申请认购B类股份。申请认购B类股份者，其认购额不得超出其所认购A类股份总额的25%。最低认购金额的要求可根据基金董事会的决定和适用法律，全部或酌情予以免除、减少或变更。
English to Chinese: Securities II General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Investment / Securities
Source text - English If the Subscriber is subscribing for Shares as trustee, custodian, nominee or otherwise on behalf of another person or persons, the Subscriber further represents and warrants that it has carried out reasonable verification checks on, and obtained sufficient evidence as to, the identity of such person or persons so as to satisfy the Subscriber of the provenance and legitimacy of the source of funds used to subscribe for the Shares and has otherwise complied with the laws and regulations relating to anti-money laundering procedures that are applicable in the jurisdiction where such Shares are offered or distributed and the Subscriber acknowledges that in applying to be the registered owner of the Shares on such person's or persons' behalf the Subscriber is confirming that it is satisfied as to the identity of the underlying beneficial holder(s) and the provenance and legitimacy of the funds being used to subscribe for the Shares.
The Subscriber acknowledges that where this Subscription Agreement is sent by facsimile, the Subscriber must also send the original signed Subscription Agreement to the address as specified above. None of the Manager, the Sub-Adviser, the Fund, the Administrator, the Distributor or their respective duly appointed agents or delegates will be responsible to the Subscriber for any loss resulting from the non-receipt or illegibility of any Subscription Agreement sent by facsimile or for any loss caused in respect of any action taken as a consequence of such instructions believed in good faith to be signed by properly authorised persons.
The Subscriber further acknowledges that although Shares will not be issued until the Business Day immediately following the close of the Subscription Period, subscription monies received prior to the Business Day immediately following the close of the Subscription Period will be deposited into the Fund’s bank account and kept in custody without interest.
Translation - Chinese 若认购人以受托人、保管人或代理人等身份代表他人认购本基金股份，认购人应声明和保证已通过合理途径核实并获得充分证据证实其委托人的身份，从而确保认购基金股份资金的来源及其合法性。此外，认购人还应声明和保证其遵守发行和分销基金股份地司法管辖区适用的相关反洗钱法律法规。认购人同意，在代表委托人申请登记为基金股份持有人时，认购人应确认已核实基金股份实际受益人的身份，以及委托人购买基金股份资金的来源及其合法性。
English to Chinese: Technology - WallNet Setup & Operation (WallNet设置和操作) General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Computers (general)
Source text - English WallNet
IMPORTANT: You must contact your network administrator for help to install WallNet. If you are not a network administrator, read this manual first, but do not proceed with connecting WallNet to the network without the assistance of the local network administrator.
DO NOT APPLY POWER to the WallNet device server yet!
What WallNet Is
WallNet is a system of hardware (a small box) and software that displays information about a wall of Planar displays via a web browser. WallNet is used primarily for monitoring, reporting and some control (for example, manually powering the displays on and off ). The connection between the computer and the WallNet device server is typically through a LAN (local area network).
With WallNet you can check the status of any display, receive periodic reports or automatic alerts about the displays, turn the lamps on or off interactively or at scheduled times, set up custom command buttons, perform automatic color balancing (ACB) and control dual lamp systems.
The WallNet software includes a web server. To configure and operate WallNet, you use a browser that looks at web pages delivered by the WallNet web server. When WallNet communicates with the Planar displays, it does so with RS232 commands through its serial port.
Also included in the WallNet software are other programs that work with the web server to implement your requests, such as status monitoring, and email reports and alerts.
What WallNet is Not
WallNet is not designed to help with setting up and making adjustments to the displays or the wall, although you can use it to control displays at a distance.
What ACB Is
Color balancing is a process that makes all the displays (or cubes) in a wall show the same color and brightness. It compensates for differences in lamps and other optical components of the system. In some products, color balancing needs to be done manually.
ACB (Auto Color Balance) is a feature enabled for certain Planar displays that include an integrated color sensor, such as the c50SP, c67SP and c70SPw. For these displays, WallNet can measure the colors on the wall and make adjustments to each cube to match color and brightness over the whole wall.
Auto color balancing eliminates the need to learn how to color balance manually. It is much faster and more accurate, giving much better results.
What SiFi (Set it and Forget it™) Is
SiFi is a term for advanced features that make configuring and maintaining a wall even easier. SiFi includes Auto Color Balance and Dual Lamp control.
English to Chinese: Marketing I - Pamphlet General field: Marketing Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - English PDF page 5
Modern Feedlot Technologies
Raised walkways let visitors watch daily farm operations
Area of 10,680 m2
This agricultural complex is a thoroughly modern feedlot - a farm where beef cattle are raised from young calfs to market-weight animals.
The complex includes two silos for grain, a barn, a machine storage shed and a service building.
The demonstration complex on the 7 Colors Park site is complemented by another farm off-site, substantially increasing the total productivity.
Visitors can tour the farm, learning about modern beef cattle and the technologies used to keep them well-fed and healthy.
This site will also become an attraction for school groups eager to learn about the way animals are raised for food production in a modern farm.
PDF page 6
Principles: Water Systems
Creating Sustainable Cycles
The sustainable management of water was one of the principal challenges in the development of the 7 Colors Park, and is indeed one of the major global issues of our times. The Technopark requires a substantial amount of water both for human consumption and for the different industrial processes found on site. It also generates a considerable amount of waste water of various kinds.
The Park uses the Bai Chong Lake as the central storage point for drinking water as well as water for industrial purposes. Water is taken from the lake, filtered and treated if required, used, then treated once again as required before being returned to the environment, forming a closed loop with no negative environmental impact.
This innovative, forward-looking approach called for a carefully devised Integrated Water Management (IWM) strategy. This is a holistic approach that integrates all facets of the water cycle, including points of consumption and discharge, water supply (drinking and other), sewage management and stormwater management.
The watershed, climate conditions, state of the lake and surrounding area, existing and future demands were carefully analyzed in order to develop the Park’s water infrastructure, which includes water treatment and ﬁltration, engineered wetlands, a stormwater system, a sewage system and more.
Principles used in developing the water management strategy included:
Calculate and foresee rates and quantities
Control erosion and sedimentation
Reduce water consumption at source
Do not use drinking water for irrigation
Use a variety of wastewater technologies
PDF page 7
Best Building Practices
A sustainable approach to architecture is one that controls the impact of buildings on the exterior environment while creating healthy, comfortable interiors.
Some of the key principles used in developing the 7 Colors Park include the following:
Buildings are positioned and orientated to benefit from the dominant winds and the sun’s position;
Buildings density is optimized to create compact, efficient volumes;
Sunshields, roof extensions on the south side, and green roofing or white membranes are used to help manage thermal absorption;
Green roofs, insulation and thermally efficient glass help maintain constant building temperature;
Buildings are designed to promote natural ventilation through managed air flows;
Use of natural lighting is optimized;
Rainwater is collected and used whenever possible.
Certain cutting-edge technological solutions are also part of the architectural design for the Park, including:
Installation of photovoltaic cells onlarge roofs
Reutilization of energy produced by industrial activity;
English to Chinese: Marketing II - Pamphlet General field: Marketing Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - English Page 6:
Infrastructure for Future Generations
The 7 Colors Park is an exemplary example of modern environmental management and sustainable development.
Project planners, engineers, architects, landscape architects and exhibit developers worked in close collaboration to ensure that the project addressed all levels of sustainability.
The site infrastructure, buildings, landscaping and educational exhibits were all designed in the spirit of sustainable development - thinking globally while acting locally.
From on-site composting and recycling facilities to water treatment plants and educational activities looking at the environmental impact of agri-food production, the Park was designed as a thoroughly green facility.
Promote organic and high-value-added crops
Provide tools to help Yunnan products compete in a global marketplace
Promote international business development
Show that farming can be a technological and scientific profession
Encourage farmers to remain in the countryside
Improve quality control in food production and processing
Promote agricultural techniques that reduce environmental impact
Demonstrate that waste can be dealt with in a responsible manner
Build for maximum energy efficiency
Access and Transportation
A Park for People
The 7 Colors Park is designed for school groups, tourists and members of the Qujing community as well as for administrators, scientists, agri-food specialists and workers.
On foot or by electric shuttlebus, visitors can tour the Technopark’s gardens, visit its ultra-modern scientiﬁc installations, learn about different ways food is processed, understand how food quality and safety are monitored and controlled, and see how soils can be improved and agricultural yields increased without contaminating water supplies.
In order to properly separate the industrial and administrative functions and to reduce conﬂicts with pedestrian and shuttle routes, it was decided that the southern access would be mainly used for heavy trafﬁc and transport, while the northern entrance would be restricted to lighter trafﬁc, such as visitor access and light delivery services.
This circulation pattern was designed to minimize motorized trafﬁc on the site, allowing the pedestrian paths and shuttle route to run unobstructed most of the time. This improves the quality of the air, ensures visitor safety and increases their enjoyment of the landscape and scenic spots.
Respect for the Land
The landscape design for the site took as its starting point the desire to respect and enhance the existing topography, for example by creating winding roads through the hills rather than leveling the site.
This allowed the team to integrate slopes, valleys, streams and escarpments as special attractions, and to create and enhance interesting viewpoints.
To celebrate the beauty of Yunnan, a maximum of vegetation was used. Streets were lined with trees, and buildings surrounded by green spaces and gardens.
Sustainable principles used in the site design included the following:
- Minimize water consumption.
- Clean greywater using natural methods, such as ﬁlter ponds
- Create habitats for wildlife
- Use local material as much as possible in the landscape design.
- Reduce light pollution to enhance «Dark skies» and allow observation of the stars.
- Encourage public transportation
- Provide «green», non-polluting transportation methods, such as electric vehicles.
- Encourage walking and cycling instead of driving.
English to Chinese: UN - ME430_COFO_2012_6_3 General field: Other Detailed field: International Org/Dev/Coop
Source text - English COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY
Rome, Italy, 24-28 September 2012
BROADENING THE FINANCIAL BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT
1. Forests are recognised for the many goods and services that they provide to society and the Rio 20 deliberations have confirmed that forests play a critical role in our journey towards a safer, greener, more equitable and prosperous world. However, financing for sustainable forest management (SFM) continues to be challenging, as the sector struggles to broaden and diversify sources of revenue and to improve the economic viability of forestry.
2. Conceptually, the financial basis for SFM can be broadened in two ways: by supporting or subsidising some of the costs of forest management (e.g. because of the public benefits derived from forests), or by ensuring appropriate and adequate remuneration for forest products and services. Investments in forests come mainly from government budget allocations, private sector finance and international assistance. Private sector finance includes corporate and institutional funds, but is dominated in most countries by small-scale investments by forest owners.
II. OPPORTUNITIES TO STRENGTHEN FINANCING FOR SFM
3. Sustained public sector support: With the majority of the world’s forests being publicly owned, public-sector finance plays an important role and is often the only source of funding for forestry activities, especially when they are focused on social and environmental benefits. Public sector funding for forestry can be increased when the benefits from such investments are promoted and made clear to policymakers. In the international arena, the amount of money currently flowing into Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a clear example of this. However, at a national level, many countries still fail to make an adequate case for higher levels of public investment in the forest sector.
4. The public sector can also help to broaden the financial basis for SFM by simply removing barriers and improving the enabling environment for private sector investment. This can include, for example, lowering transaction and compliance costs (e.g. by simplifying or removing rules and regulations) and promoting resource rights and tenure security so that returns on investments are more secure. The public sector can also be more proactive and provide targeted incentives such as subsidized credit, import subsidies, tax breaks, insurance support and price and purchase guarantees (e.g. the PINPEP incentives programme for forest small holders in Guatemala). It can also help improve access to financial and market services and information (e.g. organized market services for Shea butter trade in Burkina Faso). Measures such as these are usually directed towards specific areas (e.g. degraded or ecologically sensitive areas) or population groups (e.g. small farmers, marginalized communities).
5. Proactive private sector involvement: Despite the predominance of public forest ownership in many countries, there is a strong and continuing trend towards greater private sector participation in forest management. Evidence of this includes, for example, the growth in public-private and private-private partnerships in forestry in recent years (e.g. out-grower schemes). In agriculture, the private sector now plays a big role in extension activities and there are indications that this is starting to occur in forestry (e.g. with the provision of technical and other material inputs by the forest industry to small-scale forest owners). These initiatives can help reduce management costs, assure supply for the industry, provide liquidity and mitigate risk and uncertainty for small forest owners and they should be promoted and supported where appropriate.
6. Enhanced remuneration for forest products and services: Efforts to increase incomes or revenues from forest management are often aimed at increasing and diversifying the range of goods and services produced from forests, ensuring that the trade in forest products and services represents their true values and making sure that the forest managers/owners receive appropriate compensation/ reward for their efforts. Examples of some approaches employed by countries on this front include:
• ensuring that the true contribution of forests to national economies is reflected, for example, by modifying traditional accounting systems, appropriately classifying and taking into consideration forests’ contribution to the informal sector;
• improving the efficiency of existing forest revenue collection through market based price determination, reducing leakages, improving regulation and institutional capacities, privatizing selected commercial functions and similar measures;
• establishing dedicated “forest funds” to facilitate financing from voluntary or mandatory contributions or markets (e.g. payment systems for forest ecosystem services or PES) retaining tax and forest-based income for re-investment in forestry; and
• promoting value-addition and diversification into new forest products and services such as ecotourism and bio-prospecting or increasing the value-added in wood product manufacturing through the development of new and innovative wood products.
7. International forest financing mechanisms: With the growing importance of forests as a vital means of addressing several global challenges, significant resources are also being made available to support SFM through various international conventions and mechanisms (e.g. CBD and UNCCD ). International payments to protect watersheds and biodiversity and combating land degradation and desertification are becoming more widespread. Forests are now at the centre of efforts to address climate change due to their capability to deliver relatively cheap reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and to sequester carbon (e.g. UNFCCC and Green Climate Fund).
REDD has particularly gained prominence as a significant source of international funding for forestry. REDD aims at creating financial value for carbon stored in forests by offering incentives to developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands. While around USD 4 billion were pledged for the period 2010–2012, it is predicted that this could go up to USD30 billion per annum by 2020. Global institutions such as FAO, UNEP and UNDP (also through the UN-REDD Programme), GEF and the World Bank are actively engaged in REDD and REDD-Readiness activities besides several bilateral agencies and private, non-profit organizations. There is also a strong hope that emerging carbon markets (voluntary and mandatory) could offer new sources of revenue to forest landowners and carbon rights-holders, and additional employment opportunities for those involved in carbon trade. Several major private financial institutions are also evincing keen interest and see this as a major investment opportunity.
III. PERSISTENT CHALLENGES
8. Despite these emerging opportunities, globally, the progress towards enhancing the financial basis for SFM is still fairly small and uneven. The average revenues obtained from forests per hectare are still very low in many tropical countries compared to their potential. Public expenditures continue to show a decline in real terms or relative to investments in other sectors. Often, even the revenues earned from forests are not fully reinvested in forestry. The persistent challenges include both low levels of investment as well as the absence of an enabling environment. Some of the key elements hindering progress include: weak forest governance and institutional enforcement; ineffective forest revenue systems; low levels of processing, value-addition and marketing of forest products; inadequate policy and institutional support for targeted investment portfolio development; and low organizational capacities.
9. Access to international financial mechanisms and payments for forest ecosystem services seems to be constrained by the complexity of rules and the absence of standards, uncertainty over long-term sustainability, price fluctuations and high transaction costs. Discussions on REDD are dominated by developing strategies for institutional settings and by scientific research geared towards carbon accounting and trading. As the market for carbon is still emerging, to what extent these sources ultimately benefit communities involved in forest conservation and restoration remains a major concern. There is also considerable imbalance in the flow of official development assistance (ODA) in terms of ecoregions and types of forestry activities. High forest cover countries and REDD currently receive the majority of ODA. Dry forest countries and strategies to promote trees outside forests and agro-forestry on the other hand, receive relatively less funding.
IV. INCREASING FINANCIAL RESOURCES – KEY ENABLING FACTORS
10. FAO and the National Forest Programme Facility, along with other members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), have been helping countries to address some of the above challenges and develop appropriate financing strategies and instruments to augment financial resources for SFM. The CPF has also organized an Organization Led Initiative (OLI) on Forest Finance in support of the UNFF, held at FAO on 19-21 September 2012, which discussed the 2012 Study on Forest Financing by the Advisory Group on Finance (AGF) of the CPF, as well as experiences and innovations in forest finance by countries and organizations. Many of the successful experiences presented in the AGF study underline the need for strong political support, good systems of governance, efficient, robust and flexible implementation capacities, and well-defined involvement of local stakeholders. These examples also demonstrate that public funding for SFM can increase when the benefits of forestry are strongly linked to broader development goals such as poverty alleviation and rural employment. They also highlight the need for aligning forest policies with other sectoral policies and opening them up to consultation with a wider group of stakeholders.
11. Case studies analyzed by FAO also underline the need for improvements in knowledge and skills if financing is to be increased. This includes improving administrative and communication skills so that forestry administrations can win the confidence of investors and make a convincing case for increased investment in the sector. A shared vision among different actors on the roles, functions and modus operandi of forest financing is also needed at the national level to undertake advocacy and communication to mobilize required political will and actions to achieve SFM. There is particular need for:
(a) having timely and reliable data on forest resources and their contributions to society;
(b) development of the skills required to engage other sectors, particularly the finance sector, and other top levels of administrations;
(c) adequate knowledge of financing language, instruments and processes, and a strong inclination to innovate and adapt new financing instruments and mechanisms; and
(d) creation of appropriate multi-stakeholder platforms and institutional structures that allow the forest sector to be mainstreamed in national planning and policy making.
V. POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION
12. The Committee may wish to recommend that countries develop suitable strategies and actions for sustained financing for SFM and strengthen regional and international cooperation in this area.
13. The Committee may wish to note the accomplishments of CPF in support of forest financing and invite CPF members to strengthen their collaboration in this area including by sharing and disseminating best practices.
14. The Committee may wish to request FAO to support national efforts to strengthen the financial basis for SFM, with a specific emphasis on:
• developing policies, institutional capacities and technical expertise that will support an enabling environment for investment in the sector;
• demonstrating the multiple values and benefits from public investment in sustainable forest management;
• integrating the evaluation of ecosystem services provided by forests into national forest assessment and monitoring, forest management planning and GDP accounting;
• creating new revenue streams and other innovative approaches to improve the conditions for investment by all stakeholders; and
• accessing international financial mechanisms for forest and wildlife management through necessary capacity building and knowledge sharing.
Translation - Chinese 林业委员会
Heavenly Beauty: Art Photography of Succulents is Mr. Li Changshun’s latest major photo album, an exciting follow-up to Heavenly Beauty: Li Changshun’s Cultivation and Photography of the Cacti and other Succulents. Using his refined artistic sense and photography skills, Mr. Li unfolds the wonderful world of succulents from unusual angles.
Succulents, in the broad sense, include members of Cactaceae and succulents plants of other families, covering dozens of families and nearly ten thousand species. Cactaceae are diverse and widespread, and have all evolved the areole, the signature structure that identifies them as cacti. This family is distinct from other succulent plants which are more commonly referred to as succulents and featured in this album.
Succulents are native to the Americas and Africa and also found in other regions including China. They’re subdivided into leaf succulents, stem succulents and caudiciform succulents. To adapt to arid climates or soil conditions, they’ve developed succulent leaves, stems or roots above the soil surface to store water. This plant group is highly ornamental and enjoys wide popularity, as exemplified by collections held by botanical gardens worldwide in their exhibitions or greenhouses. Succulents also have significant economic and practical value. Aloe, for example, was first introduced into China hundreds of years ago and gained renown for its medicinal effects and use in health and beauty treatments. Succulents have a unique method of metabolism. Since they mainly grow in arid and semi-arid regions, their stomatas remain closed during the day to minimize water loss and stay open during night hours to capture carbon dioxide and release oxygen. This distinctive mechanism has contributed to their popularity as houseplants among people increasingly concerned with health and the environment.
It’s always breathtaking the first time you see beautiful flowers emerge from the “fissures” between the leaves of those pebble-like plants. Often known as “living stones,” these lovely plants represent a microcosm of the fascinating world of succulents. The beautiful creatures range in shape from upright to snaky and in color from flamboyant to delicate. Geographical differences have helped create the towering 10-20 meter Madagascar’s Moringa (Moringa hildebrandtii) or Queensland Bottle Tree (Brachychiton rupestris) native to Australia, as well as the pebble-sized Conophytums and other Mesembs native to Africa. The disproportionately thick-stemmed caudiciform and pachycaul succulents come in the shape of time-worn tree trunks or dwarf trees like those commonly seen in Chinese pot gardening. Flowers of succulents take various forms and can resemble chrysanthemums, starfish, butterflies or pendant clocks. They also vary from several millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Succulents have reversed the traditional images of flowers and enhanced our admiration for the unpredictability of nature. The large agaves native to the Americas only produce flowers after years or even decades of cultivation. In some species soaring inflorescences rise several meters high and bear a cluster of visually impressive flowers, only to die shortly after the mature flowers fall off. This cycle of growth and decay embodies the unending grandeur of life.
This is an intriguing photo album, one that will fascinate readers and provide them with extraordinary visual experiences. Mr. Li Changshun pursues perfection in all his various interests. Years devoted to international exchanges have broadened his horizons and elevated his artistic pursuits. He takes keen interest in painting and calligraphy, literature, Chinese opera and art collecting, and these in turn add a cultural dimension to his photographic works. Photographic art is constantly in pursuit of creativity. The predictable choice of subjects often seen in photography has its roots in photographers’ limited artistic sense. Mr. Li, however, looks at these almost ignored succulents with an unconventional and creative mind, and has put years of hard work into this enlightening album marked by his individual style. Mr. Li is also an expert on cacti and succulents, and he has cultivated many of the rarities collected in the album by himself. It’s his encyclopedic knowledge of succulents and passion for their flowers that bring these photographs to life. Although a number of the collected flowers are rare or endangered species both in China and abroad, he has somehow managed to present their most glorious moments in this album, something that would have been impossible without numerous tiring trips and serious studies over the past few years. These features make the album even more valuable.
Flowers give expression to beauty and love as well as happiness and friendship. They carry with them dreams and hopes, and they give a clearer picture of our beautiful world. Ornamental plants are popular and abundant in China, and the country has a long and rich history of cultivation. Recent years have seen a rapid rise in cultivation of succulents in China by a large group of specialists and enthusiasts, which indicates their increasing popularity. Amid the clamorous concrete jungles, people want to feel closer to nature, to shady trees and blooming flowers. Heavenly Beauty guides us into this entrancing green world and gives a taste of the visual feast of our amazing natural world.
Chinese to English: Publication II -《天外奇妍•多肉植物艺术摄影》（Heavenly Beauty: Art Photography of Succulents） General field: Science Detailed field: Botany
It took me eight years to prepare this album for publication. My work has proved fruitful and has helped fulfill one of my long-cherished hopes: bringing out the best in succulents and sharing with others the wonders of our world, the splendor of life, and the boundless beauty of nature.
The collected 700 plus photos represent a selection from more than one thousand. Obviously such an album isn’t accomplished on short notice. As succulents are subject to seasonal changes in climates and day length, they either wither in autumn or winter, or remain dormant during summer; some of them bloom for days but others only last a few hours; some flowers by day and others by night. So patience is required to eternalize their most glorious moments. Favorable lighting and angles are always available to photographers working indoors, but botanical gardens, greenhouses and the countryside make for demanding working conditions. One can well imagine the difficulties involved. Having said that, these difficulties are also an enjoyable part of the process of artistic creation. The joy of success always comes with a good photo. It’s no exaggeration that I’ve been immersed in this project for the last eight years. Professor Li Zhenyu from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and experts from Beijing Botanical Garden have carefully revised the common and Latin names of hundreds of the collected plants. They have brought this album to perfection and made it a resource for popular science and professional research. I never expected it to go so far. I also express deep gratitude to many foreign friends, cultivation specialists and enthusiasts for their willingness to offer assistance to this album.
Succulents include innumerable species and represent an inexhaustible source for flower photography, and my photos only provide an overview. My enthusiasm for photographing succulents is part of my nature, and it won’t come to an end with the publication of this album.
Chinese to English: Publication III -《天外奇妍•多肉植物艺术摄影》（Heavenly Beauty: Art Photography of Succulents） General field: Science Detailed field: Botany
Source text - Chinese 景天科为双子叶草本植物，其中多肉植物占相当大的比例，是多肉植物的重要一科。该科产地广泛，在我国也有分布。景天科多肉植物品种多样，许多园艺品种深受人们的喜爱，已成为走进人们家庭的主要多肉植物。
Translation - English Crassulaceae is a family of dicotyledon herbs and succulents account for a large proportion. A major branch of succulents, members of Crassulaceae are found worldwide and also in China. Succulents of Crassulaceae are widely varied and many of their cultivars have become familiar as houseplants.
Members of Aizoaceae include various succulent herbs and subshrubs. Most of them are highly fleshy and found in southern Africa. Among its commonly known cultivars are Lithops and Conophytums, which have gained popularity for their jade-like appearance and brightly colored flowers.
Succulents of Liliaceae, mostly found in Africa, the Mediterranean region and Central and South America, are perennial monocotyledon herbs mainly composed of leaf succulents. Among other members of the genus, Haworthia, Haworthia ssp., Haworthia truncata and Haworthia truncata var. maughanii are diversified in color after years of cultivation and have recently gained popularity. The genera Gasteria and Aloe are also popular cultivated succulents.
Succulents of Agavaceae are native to the tropical Americas and have been introduced or naturalized in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. Cultivated worldwide as ornamental plants, they have fibrous, leathery or fleshy leaves. Their inflorescences can grow up to 8 meters, the tallest of their kind in the world. After years of cultivation, their cultivars have become highly ornamental in various shapes and colors.
Succulents of Euphorbiaceae are a family of dicotyledon plants which mainly grow in the tropics and subtropics around the world. Euphorbia is the most varied genus of Euphorbiaceae and has the most diversified succulents of the family. These plants are succulent herbs or shrubs and produce milky sap. They grow flowers without tepals on cyathia.
Succulents collected in this chapter mainly comprise plump-stemmed caudiciform succulents as well as plants that grow swollen tubers above the soil surface, thick fleshyroots, tuberoids and bulbs. Along with chunky stem succulents, they’re collectively referred to as caudiciform and pachycaul succulents among enthusiasts. Belonging to different genera or families, they’re favored by cultivation specialists and enthusiasts for their multifarious appearances.
Master's degree - Graduate Institute of Interpretation and Translation (GIIT), Shanghai International Studies University (SISU)
Years of translation experience: 9. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2013.