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Japanese to English: Failure Analysis Report, Flash Memory General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Computers: Hardware
Source text - Japanese ４．ビット化け不具合について
The data failure occurs in the sector for which the write operation has already been completed. For example, if the write operation is currently ongoing in SA118, the data error occurs in SA114-SA117.
Symptom: A particular data bit turns from 0 to 1. (in some cases, the data bit becomes unstable: you will never know if you are going to read 0 or 1 from that bit)
The error bit (of which the data has turned from 0 to 1) can be reset to 0 by erasing the data and then writing 0 into it.
Note that there is no chance that the past sectors would be overwritten. The only access to past sectors occurs during the routine daily read operations for all used sectors (no write).
Due to Flash memory’s limitations, it is impossible to overwrite only a particular bit through firmware (the whole sector must be erased).
Note: Another memory from EON with the same features but different memory size (EN29LV320BT-70TIP) has been used in another device with the same circuit structure and access procedures: No failure has been reported.
５．A snapshot of reading the failed data bit address
The following diagram shows the snapshot of reading the failed data bit address.
- The failed bit (1 instead of 0) has been output according to the standard FROM output timing. Therefore, the data bit error is NOT occurring at an abnormal timing.
- The data read timing also meets the data sheet requirement, as you can see.
English to Japanese: Introduction to features of a document camera General field: Marketing Detailed field: Computers: Hardware
Source text - English Versatility – VZ-1 HD’s unique multi-jointed stand gives you the freedom to place the camera in a wide variety of positions without the hassle of tightening knobs or otherwise locking the stand. At all positions, VZ-1 HD will remain secure and stable because of its weighted base, offering you on-the-fly customization of your image.
High-Definition Capture – VZ-1 HD features a 5 Megapixel camera and can achieve a resolution of up to 2592 x 1944 pixels. This high-definition video capture provides an exceptionally crisp and brilliant image.
Effortless Autofocus – VZ-1 HD has a smart focusing system that gives you manual control when you need it and convenient automatic control when you don’t. VZ-1 HD can be set to either of two focus settings:
• Continuous Focus – in which VZ-1 HD automatically and constantly determines the best focus. In this mode, you are free to move the subject around, and the focus will continue to stay sharp.
• Single Focus – in which you set focus once, with VZ-1 HD staying with that focus setting. This mode is best for a subject that will remain at the same distance from the camera, such as a static sheet of paper.
Translation - Japanese 柔軟性 – VZ-1 HDはユニークなマルチジョイントスタンドを備え、ノブやロックを閉じるなどの複雑な操作抜きで、カメラにいろいろなポジションをとらせることができます。重み付の台座を利用して、どんなポジションをとっても、VZ-1 HDはしっかりと安定します。
高解像度 – VZ-1 HDは5メガピクセルのカメラを備え、解像度を最大2592 x 1944まで上げられます。高解像度の撮影により、非常に鮮明で色鮮やかな画像が得られます。
English to Japanese: Introduction to Fractional Reserve Banking System General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Economics
Source text - English Banking is a particularly arcane part of the economic system; one of the problems is that the word "bank" covers many different activities, with very different implications. During the Renaissance era, the Medicis in Italy and the Fuggers in Germany, were "bankers"; their banking, however, was not only private but also began at least as a legitimate, non-inflationary, and highly productive activity. Essentially, these were "merchant-bankers," who started as prominent merchants. In the course of their trade, the merchants began to extend credit to their customers, and in the case of these great banking families, the credit or "banking" part of their operations eventually overshadowed their mercantile activities. These firms lent money out of their own profits and savings, and earned interest from the loans. Hence, they were channels for the productive investment of their own savings.
To the extent that banks lend their own savings, or mobilize the savings of others, their activities are productive and unexceptionable. Even in our current commercial banking system, if I buy a $10,000 CD ("certificate of deposit") redeemable in six months, earning a certain fixed interest return, I am taking my savings and lending it to a bank, which in turn lends it out at a higher interest rate, the differential being the bank's earnings for the function of channeling savings into the hands of credit-worthy or productive borrowers. There is no problem with this process.
The same is even true of the great "investment banking" houses, which developed as industrial capitalism flowered in the nineteenth century. Investment bankers would take their own capital, or capital invested or loaned by others, to underwrite corporations gathering capital by selling securities to stockholders and creditors. The problem with the investment bankers is that one of their major fields of investment was the underwriting of government bonds, which plunged them hip-deep into politics, giving them a powerful incentive for pressuring and manipulating governments, so that taxes would be levied to pay off their and their clients' government bonds. Hence, the powerful and baleful political influence of investment bankers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: in particular, the Rothschilds in Western Europe, and Jay Cooke and the House of Morgan in the United States.
Translation - Japanese 銀行業務は、経済システムの中でも特に不可解な部分だ。問題の一つは、「銀行」という言葉がいろいろな活動を指し、しかも異なる意味にとれる点だ。ルネッサンス時代、イタリアのメディチ家とドイツのフッガー家は「銀行家」だった。ただし、彼らの金融活動は民営であるだけでなく、少なくとも合法で、インフレを引き起こすこともなく、しかもかなり生産的な活動だった。本質的には、彼らは一流の商人から転向した「引受銀行」だった。商取引を行うにつれ、商人たちは顧客への貸し付けを広げ始め、それは上記の偉大な銀行一家たちの場合、「貸し付け」の活動が本業を大きく上回るまでに至った。これらの商人は自身が得た利益や貯蓄から貸し付けを行い、融資の利息で利益を得ていた。故に、彼らの活動は自らの貯蓄を生産的に活用する手段だったわけだ。
English to Japanese: Descriptions of chemical compounds used in pet foods General field: Medical Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - English In general, foods will spoil without some form of temperature control or preservatives. BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin are chemical antioxidants designed to extend the shelf life and reduce fat spoilage (rancidity) of pet foods and pet treats. Chemical additives and artificial preservatives such as BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin may cause dry skin, allergic reactions, dental disease, and poor health, as well as stimulate adverse effects on liver and kidney functions.
Specifically, BHA, short for Butylated Hydroxyanisole, and BHT, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, are both artificial preservatives added to oils to slow down deterioration. BHA and BHT (as well as ethoxyquin) are used in numerous pet food brands, including both "premium-grade" brands like Science Diet (even their prescription diet product line) and lower-grade brands like Alpo and Pedigree, to replace vitamin E, which is removed during oil processing. Studies have shown that BHA and BHT promote liver disease and other medical problems.
Translation - Japanese 一般的に、温度管理を行ったり保存料を使用しない限り、食物は腐っていきます。BHA、BHT、エトキシキンはペットフードやペット用おやつの賞味期限を延ばし、酸敗を抑える目的で化学的に合成された酸化防止剤です。BHA、BHT、エトキシキンなどの化学添加物や合成保存料は肌の乾燥、アレルギー反応、歯周病、健康状態の悪化を招いたり、肝臓と腎臓の機能を弱めるきっかけになります。
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