|Armenian to Chinese: sample|
General field: Social Sciences
|Source text - Armenian|
Based on the employment discrimination theory of United States of America and the important cases on employment discrimination of Federal Supreme Court Trial , Employment discrimination is divided into two different forms as follows:
By “Disparate Treatment Discrimination” we mean the situation which the employer discriminate employees directly and intentionally. The most typical situation is given differential treatment because of the factors of the applicants’ or employees’ race, color, religion, gender or nationality of origin. Differential Dreatment Discrimination is divided into two types, one is the “facial” or “overt” discrimination situation outwardly , that is the employer give differential treatment to the group members protected by the seventh chapter of civil rights act of 1964 evidently. The most obvious example is the employer’s restrictions in recruitment ads to indicate gender, race, skin and color . Refer to this kind of ( intentional discrimination ), there is another special exception clause in it - ( Bona Fide Occupational Qualification BFOQ ), it is also the normal reason operation of the occupation itself that employer give the discrimination treatment to employees completely . In this case, the color requirements obviously belong to the Disparate treatment discrimination.
2.This case also reminds me of affirmative action. One of main distinguishing feature of the preventing employment discrimination system of USA, is to adopt active affirmative action on a voluntary or passive situation,through the government or private enterprises; to provide more jobs or other benefits to vulnerable groups of specific members who are not protected by the fair employment law, such as ethnic minorities, the disabled or even women,through a variety of programs or plans implementation and execution .In order to correct the negative impact which have to be discriminated on his (her ) treatment in past , to establish the exemplary role ( role model ) and eliminate all the stereotype and prejudice to minority and female employees , and to enhance the representativeness and diversity to him ( her ) people in the workplace .
|Translation - Chinese|
Disparate treatment discrimination指雇主直接而故意歧视之情形。最典型的情形就是因为求职者或受雇者之种族、肤色、宗教信仰、性别或原始国籍等因素而给予差别待遇。差别待遇歧视又分为两种类型，一是表面上facial或overt歧视之情形，即雇主明显对1964年民权法案第七章所保障群体之成员给予差别待遇。最明显的例子就是雇主在招聘启事上注明对于求职者做出性别，种族，肤色等方面做出限制。针对这种（intentional discrimination），该法特别制定另一项例外条款—（Bona Fide Occupational Qualification BFOQ），也就是雇主给予歧视待遇完全是职业本身正常运作之缘故。本案例，对肤色的要求明显属于Disparate treatment discrimination.
2、这个案例还让我想到了affirmative action. 美国防制就业歧视制度重要特色之一，是经由政府机关或私人企业在自愿或被动之情况下，采取积极affirmative action，透过各种programs或plans之实施与执行，来对受公平就业法律所保护特定弱势群体之成员，诸如少数族裔、身心障碍者或甚至妇女，提供更多之就业机会或其它优惠利益，藉以纠正过去对他（她）们加以歧视待遇所产生之负面影响、建立模范角色(role model)而消除各种对少数族裔及女性受雇者之刻板印象与偏见，以及增进他（她）们在工作场所之代表性及多样性等.