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English to Chinese: passages from the literary journal General field: Art/Literary
Source text - English Although the Pangu legend has been shown to possess roots in foreign soil, its implications are nonetheless borne out by other evidence of more assuredly Chinese origin.
These implications of the legend can be suggestively extended to the realm of literature, where they yield a number of immediately apparent observation.
In what follows the foreign myth simply serves as a useful focus for the isolation of what were pre-existing and prevailing ideas within the Chinese tradition - this may also, of course, explain why it eventually appealed to Chinese sensibilities.
A first observation might be that the tradition lacks the figure of some anthropomorphic deity whose creative actions and products serve as the model for human literary activity, as in this well-known formulation form Sir Philip Sidney's Apology for Poetry:
"Only the poet, ... lifted up with the vigour of his own invention, doth grow in effect another nature, in making things either better than Nature bringeth forth, or, quite anew, forms such as never were in Nature...Neither let it be deemed too saucy a comparison to balance the highest point of man's wit with the efficacy of Nature; but rather give right honour to the heavenly Maker of that maker, who, having made man to His own likeness set him beyond and over all the works of that second nature:which in nothing he showeth so much as in Poetry, when with the force of divine breath he bringeth things forth far surpassing her doings."
Translation - Chinese 雖然已證明盤古傳說具有外國根源，但是其他更穩當地源自中國的證據證實了其含意。
English to Chinese: repertoire introduction General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Music
Source text - English The Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso (1863) is by far one of Saint-Saëns most popular show-pieces. The piece starts with a moving theme in "Andante malincolico", and then moves on to an Animato section, showing off a technical, yet lyrical section. Following a musical bridge back into a minor, the piece introduces a new theme, the start of the rondo, in a livelier animato tempo. The next large development is when the piece starts a c major “andante con morbidezza” melody after a previous g major introduction, which gradually intensifies into a bridge leading the music back to the main theme of the rondo. After numerous technical embellishments, the piece leads to a spiccato accompaniment of the piano by the violin, with the piano stating for the last time the main theme of the rondo. The violin part becomes more challenging, and gradually takes back the melody to introduce a brief solo section in chords. After a short drum roll-like introduction from the piano, the notorious last coda in A major starts, and the piece finishes off with a technically challenging A major arpeggio, ending the piece with a technical flair.
Translation - Chinese 序曲與隨想迴旋曲（1863）是目前聖桑最受歡迎的表演作品之一。樂曲以「憂鬱行板」的動人主題作為開端，再進到一個活潑的樂段，展現其技巧性而抒情的一面。在一段過門之後，回到A小調，樂曲用較有活力的活潑速度，提出一個新的主題，此即迴旋曲的開端。接下來的大型開展，發生於接續先前G大調導奏的C大調「柔軟行板」的旋律，並逐漸強化為過門，將樂曲導回迴旋曲的主要主題。在許多技巧性的裝飾之後，樂曲來到小提琴的跳弓式伴奏，跟隨著最後一次敘述迴旋曲主要主題的鋼琴。小提琴的部分變得更有挑戰性，並且漸漸收回旋律，用和聲提出一個簡短的獨奏樂段。在鋼琴如擂鼓聲般的簡短導奏之後，著名的A大調尾聲便開始了，樂曲結尾伴隨著富有技巧挑戰性的A大調琶音，以演奏者的技巧天賦結束樂曲。
English to Chinese: Cross-cultural and Intercultural communication General field: Social Sciences
Source text - English Intercultural communication generally involves face-to-face communication between people from different national cultures, but the term also is used frequently to include all aspects of the study of culture and communication. One major area of research within the broad rubric intercultural communication is cross-cultural communication (i.e., the comparison of face-to-face communication across cultures; for example, comparing speech convergence in initial interactions in Japan and the United States). The study of cross-cultural communication grew out of cultural anthropological studies of communication processes in different cultures (e.g., Edward T. Hall's work published in books such as The Silent Language, The Hidden Dimension, and Beyond Culture).
Most cross-cultural communication research tends to be comparative. A related area of research that falls under this rubric is cultural communication, which focuses on the role of communication in the creation and negotiation of shared identities (e.g., cultural identities). Research on cultural communication tends to focus on understanding communication within one culture from the insiders' points of view, but there has been comparative research published on cultural communication. Understanding cross-cultural communication is a prerequisite to understanding intercultural communication.
As indicated earlier, research on intercultural communication generally focuses on communication between people from different national cultures (e.g., studying speech convergence when Japanese and U.S. Americans communicate). Some researchers, however, use broad definitions of "culture" and include studies of communication between people from different ethnic/racial groups, able-bodied/disabled communication, intergenerational communication, and other areas of research under the heading of intercultural communication. I view these areas of research, including intercultural communication, as "types" of intergroup communication (i.e., communication between members of different social groups).
Translation - Chinese 異文化溝通一般涉及來自不同國家文化者之間面對面的溝通，但這個術語也經常用來包含文化及溝通研究的所有面向。用異文化溝通的廣義解釋為範圍，其中一個主要的研究領域是跨文化溝通（亦即橫跨文化，對於面對面的溝通進行比較；例如比較日本與美國在初期互動時的口語聚合）。跨文化溝通研究的發展緣由，是對於不同文化當中的溝通過程，所進行的文化人類學研究（例如哈爾發表於書中的作品，包括《無聲的語言》、《隱性次元》、《超越文化》等）。