Member since Jan '15

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English to Indonesian
German to Indonesian
Indonesian to English
German to English

Achmad Fuad Lubis
Documents translated by Engineer for you

Jakarta, Jakarta Raya (Djakarta Raya), Indonesia
Local time: 04:44 WIB (GMT+7)

Native in: Indonesian Native in Indonesian
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Expertise
Specializes in:
Electronics / Elect EngConstruction / Civil Engineering
Mechanics / Mech EngineeringFinance (general)
Law: Contract(s)Energy / Power Generation
ManagementMarketing / Market Research
Human ResourcesTelecom(munications)

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Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 7
English to Indonesian: Electric Traction Motors
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - English
“Systems Available for New Electrification. These are (i) the d.c. system and (ii) the single-phase system. For heavy suburban service the low-voltage d.c. system is undoubtedly superior to the single-phase system, as the following comparison will show:
The dynamical characteristics of the d.c. traction motor are better suited for the frequent and rapid acceleration of heavy trains than those of the single-phase traction motor.
The d.c. train equipments are lighter, more efficient, and less costly (both initially and inmaintenance) than the corresponding single-phase equipments. Moreover, the energy consumption of a d.c. train will be lower than that of a single-phase train operating under similar service conditios.”
Translation - Indonesian
“Sistem Yang Ada Untuk Elektrifikasi Baru. Ada dua yaitu (i) sistem d.c. (arus searah) dan (ii) sistem satu fasa arus bolak-balik. Untuk pelayanan daerah ramai pinggir kota sistem d.c. tegangan rendah dipastikan lebih unggul dibanding sistem satu-fasa, seperti ditunjukkan oleh perbandingan berikut:
Sifat dinamis motor traksi d.c. lebih sesuai untuk memberikan percepatan rangkaian kereta yang sering dan cepat daripada motor traksi satu-fasa.
Peralatan rangkaian kereta d.c. lebih ringan, lebih efisien, dan lebih murah (pada awalnya dan dalam pemeliharaannya) daripada peralatan sebanding untuk satu-fasa. Lagi pula, pemakaian energi rangkaian kereta d.c. lebih rendah daripada rangkaian kereta satu-fasa pada kondisi pelayanan yang mirip.”
English to Indonesian: Competency Based Recruitment
General field: Other
Detailed field: Human Resources
Source text - English
INTRODUCTION
This is a 'how to' book based on our experience of implementing professional practice recruitment and selection processes.
We deal with the whole cycle of recruitment and selection, from advertising, through shortlisting and assessing, to final decision making.
Running through everything is the notion of competencies.
Love it or loathe it, all we could say is that if it had not already been invented (and it has been, several times) it would be necessary to invent it.
That is why competencies are not just any old flavour of the month.
It was not always so, but so many HR policies and practices now depend crucially on having a structure around which everything can be integrated and harmonized.
Inasmuch as competencies are serving that function, they cannot be blown away overnight.
That is why we are sufficiently relaxed to believe a second edition of this book might be required in three or four years' time; providing this one is well received, naturally.
Translation - Indonesian
PRAKATA
Inilah buku petunjuk pelaksanaan yang berasal dari pengalaman kami melaksanakan praktek profesional proses rekrutmen dan seleksi.
Kita menangani keseluruhan siklus rekrutmen dan seleksi, berawal dari pengiklanan, melalui penyaringan dan pengkajian hingga pengambilan keputusan.
Dalam setiap proses ditemukan konsep kompetensi.
Suka atau tidak, kita hanya bisa berkata seandainya konsep ini belum diciptakan (dan sudah, beberapa kali) maka dianggap perlu untuk menciptakannya.
Itulah sebabnya mengapa kompetensi bukan hanya suatu selingan rasa.
Tidak selamanya demikian, namun demikian banyak kebijakan dan praktek Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) kini bergantung secara kritis pada kepemilikan struktur dimana segala sesuatunya dapat dipadukan dan diharmonisasikan.
Karena kompetensi menjalankan fungsi itu, maka kompetensi tidak dapat semudah itu ditiadakan.
Itulah sebabnya mengapa kami lega dalam meyakini edisi kedua dari buku ini mungkin diperlukan dalam tiga atau empat tahun; dengan syarat tentunya buku yang ini diterima baik.
English to Indonesian: Hotel Marketing
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Marketing / Market Research
Source text - English
SPECIAL OFFERS
Special offers at the XXX will allow you to further enjoy your stay at one of the city’s most emblematic hotels so conveniently located in central Avalon City. Benefit from our attractive and unique packages which include spa facilities, cooking classes, fitness centre… Book now one or more of these special offers at the best price, available only on the official website of XXX. These offers and prices are updated regularly according to demand.
Translation - Indonesian
PENAWARAN ISTIMEWA
Berkat penawaran istimewa di XXX, anda akan lebih menikmati menginap di salah satu hotel yang paling bernuansa mutu dan terletak memudahkan di pusat kota Avalon. Manfaat paket kami yang menarik dan unik dan mencakup fasilitas spa, kelas belajar memasak, pusat kebugaran.....Silahkan mendaftar untuk mendapatkan satu atau lebih dari penawaran istimewa ini dengan harga terbaik, yang hanya tersedia di di situs web resmi XXX. Penawaran dan harga-harga akan diperbaharui secara teratur sesuai permintaan.
English to Indonesian: Resuscitator
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Instruments
Source text - English
SECTION 5 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
The following instructions are for the proper use of the OXYLATOR ® FR-300. They are to be followed to provide adequate ventilation when attempting Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. The instructions deal strictly in the proper use of the device. The user of this device must have knowledge of C.P.R. techniques
1. The OXYLATOR ® FR-300 hose must be connected to the available oxygen supply, a wall outlet or to the regulator of a pressurized cylinder.
2. When using a pressurized cylinder, open the main valve and ensure that the regulator indicates a reading of between 40 psig and 80 psig; adjust if necessary.
3. Attach suitable mask to patient connection (7), make sure mask is rotated into proper position so that an effective seal can be achieved.
4. Depress oxygen release button (1) briefly to test for oxygen flow.
5. After positioning person and establishing a proper airway, place mask on person's face so as to achieve a complete seal with one hand; using the other hand, depress oxygen release button (1) completely while maintaining mask seal against the person's face. Hold down oxygen release button (1) FIRMLY, or if appropriate, depress, then turn oxygen release button (1) clockwise for continuous oxygen flow. The unit will start cycling continually. OXYGEN RELEASE BUTTON (1) MUST BE HELD MANUALLY DEPRESSED OR KEPT IN LOCKED-IN POSITION AT ALL TIMES FOR CONTINUOUS CYCLING.CAUTION; WITHOUT A PROPER MASK SEAL THE DEVICE CANNOT CYCLE. A NON-CYCLING DEVICE INDICATES THAT IMPROVEMENT IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT INCLUDING A PROPER MASK SEAL IS NEEDED.
6. An audible, rapid "clicking" or buzzing indicates airway obstruction, STOP!, take necessary steps to clear airway, then reposition person to continue. REPEAT step # 5. An obstruction is also confirmed by observing the rapid movement of the tip (14)
7. A natural breathing pattern will ensue as the OXYLATOR ® FR-300 continually cycles. Ensure that the inspiratory phase does not exceed 2 seconds in an adult or 1 second in a child. Switch to manual mode if necessary. see page 10.
8. To stop flow of oxygen, let go of the oxygen release button (1) or, if oxygen release button (1) is in locked-in position, rotate it counter-clockwise until the oxygen release button (1) disengages.
Translation - Indonesian
BAB 5 PETUNJUK PENGOPERASIAN
Petunjuk ini memberikan cara penggunaan yang benar alat OXYLATOR ® FR-300. Dengan mengikutinya akan didapat pernapasan yang cukup dalam upaya Resusitasi Jantung Paru-paru (R.J.P). Petunjuk ini berhubungan khusus dengan cara penggunaan alat dengan benar. Pengguna alat ini harus memiliki pengetahuan tehnik R.J.P.
1. Slang OXYLATOR ® FR-300 harus dihubungkan dengan pasokan zat asam (oksigen) yang tersedia, baik dari sambungan pasangan dinding atau di pengatur pada silinder bertekanan.
2. Apabila menggunakan silinder bertekanan, bukalah katup utama dan pastikan pengatur menunjukkan bacaan antara 40 psig dan 80 psig; setel jika perlu.
3. Pasang masker yang sesuai ke sambungan pasien (7), pastikan masker di putar ke posisi yang tepat untuk mendapatkan penyekatan yang efektif.
4. Tekan sebentar tombol pelepas zat asam (1) untuk menguji aliran zat asam.
5. Sesudah mengatur letak orang sakit dan membuat jalan udara yang benar, tempatkan masker pada wajah orang sakit dengan maksud mendapatkan penyekatan yang menyeluruh menggunakan satu tangan; dengan tangan yang lainnya, tekan tombol pelepas zat asam (1) sepenuhnya sambil mempertahankan masker tersekat pada wajah orang sakit. Tahan kebawah tombol pelepas zat asam (1) KOKOH, atau, jika sesuai, tekan, kemudian putar tombol pelepas zat asam (1) searah jarum jam untuk memastikan aliran zat asam yang terus menerus. Alat ini akan mulai siklusnya terus-menerus. TOMBOL PELEPAS ZAT ASAM (1) HARUS DIJAGA TERTEKAN SECARA MANUAL ATAU DIJAGA DALAM POSISI TERKUNCI SENANTIASA UNTUK SIKLUS TERUS-MENERUS. PERHATIAN: TANPA PENYEKATAN YANG BENAR PADA MASKER ALAT INI TIDAK DAPAT BERSIKLUS. JIKA ALAT TIDAK BERSIKLUS BERARTI DIPERLUKAN PERBAIKAN PENGURUSAN JALAN UDARA TERMASUK PENYEKATAN PADA MASKER.
6. Suara yang jelas terdengar berupa "klik" yang cepat atau dengungan menandakan ada hambatan jalan udara, BERHENTI! Lakukan yang diperlukan untuk membebaskan jalan udara, kemudian letakkan kembali orang sakit untuk melanjutkan. ULANGI langkah nomor 5. Hambatan udara juga dipastikan dengan mengamati pergerakan ujung (14) cepat.
7. Suatu pola pernafasan yang alamiah akan terjadi segera setelah alat OXYLATOR ® FR-300 bersiklus terus-menerus. Pastikan fase penarikan napas tidak melebihi 2 detik pada orang dewasa atau 1 detik pada anak-anak. Alihkan ke moda manual jika diperlukan. Lihat halaman 10.
Untuk menghentikan aliran zat asam, lepaskan tombol pelepasan zat asam (1) atau, bilamana tombol pelepasan zat asam (1) dalam posisi dikunci, putarlah dia berlawanan arah jarum jam sampai tombol pelepasan zat asam (1) bebas.
English to Indonesian: Medical Professional Association
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English
ENGLISH (SOURCE LANGUAGE)

National Association Reference Group

The letter below has been written by members of the National Association Member Reference Group.

This group was set up last year to look into the issues around establishing National and Regional Associations of PPI Forums, to consult with members and to advise CPPIH on the way forward. This is still the purpose of the group, however things have moved on. The Government has consulted on the future of PPI and published a White Paper, which announced a further review of PPI.

Members of the Reference Group have become increasingly concerned that, by the time an Association is set up (if members agree to it), the major decisions on the future of PPI will have been taken and that Forum members will not have been as involved as they should have been in those decisions. Consequently they have written this letter, which we have agreed to publish.

Factually speaking the Steering Group is still the Reference Group. The members do not have the mandate to change the name or its function. In effect they are seeking permission from the wider membership to take on this role. This is a very important issue and it is essential that the Reference Group hears from as many Forum members as possible. CPPIH and the Group are keen to expand its membership by filling current vacancies. If you are interested in joining and live in the East Midlands, North East or West Midlands, you can download a form from KMS or ask your FSO to do it for you.

Letter to Forum Members from the National Association Reference Group

The members of the National Association Reference Group, established to consider the possibility of establishing a National Association, have decided that we must set up a national voice for Patient Forums immediately.
Events that have led us to this conclusion include:
• the published opinion of Dr David Colin-Thome, National lead for General Practice, that Forums have had their day,
• the White Paper on Community Services, which does not mention Forums at all
• the establishment of an Expert Panel to consider future mechanisms for patient and public involvement
Translation - Indonesian
INDONESIAN (TARGET LANGUAGE) BY ACHMAD FUAD LUBIS

Grup Referensi Asosiasi Nasional

Surat dibawah ini ditulis oleh anggota Grup Referensi Anggota Asosiasi Nasional.

Grup ini didirikan tahun lalu untuk menyelidiki masalah seputar pembentukan Asosiasi Regional dan Nasional dari Forum PPI, untuk berkonsultasi dengan anggota dan untuk menasihati CPPIH dalam hal arah masa depan. Hal ini masih menjadi maksud grup, namun keadaan sudah berkembang. Pemerintah telah berkonsultasi mengenai masa depan PPI dan telah menerbitkan Buku Putih, yang memaklumatkan peninjauan lanjutan PPI.

Para anggota Grup Referensi semakin prihatin bahwa, segera sesudah Asosiasi dibentuk (jika disepakati anggta), keputusan-keputusan utama mengenai masa depan PPI telah diambil dan anggota Forum tidak akan cukup terlibat sebagaimana seharusnya dalam keputusan tersebut. Akibatnya mereka menulis surat ini, yang kami setuju untuk diterbitkan.

Pada kenyataannya Grup Pengarah masih tetap Grup Referensi. Anggota tidak berwenang mengubah nama atau fungsinya. Praktisnya, mereka mencari izin dari kalangan anggota yang lebih luas untuk mengemban peran ini. Ini masalah yang sangat penting dan tidak dapat diabaikan bahwa Grup Referensi mendengarkan sebanyak mungkin anggota Forum. CPPIH dan Grup sangat ingin meluaskan keanggotaannya dengan cara mengisi lowongan yang ada. Jika anda berminat bergabung dan anda tinggal di Midlands Timur, Timur Laut atau Midlands Barat, anda dapat mengunduh formulirnya dari KMS atau meminta bantuan FSO anda melakukannya.

Surat kepada Anggota Forum dari Grup Referensi Asosiasi Nasional

Anggota Grup Referensi Asosiasi Nasional, yang didirikan untuk menjajagi kemungkinan mendirikan suatu Asosiasi Nasional, telah memutuskan bahwa kita harus menggalang suara nasional untuk Forum Pasien segera.
Peristiwa-peristiwa yang menggiring kita ke kesimpulan ini termasuk:
• Pendapat yang telah dipublikasikan dari Dr David Colin-Thome, pemimpin Nasional dari Praktek Umum, bahwa Forum telah melalui masa jayanya,
• Buku Putih tentang Pelayanan Masyarakat, yang sama sekali tidak menyebut Forum
• Pendirian suatu Panel Ahli yang akan menjajagi mekanisme masa deopan untuk keterlibatan pasien dan publik
English to Indonesian: Effects of Corporate Governance on Capital Structure
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English
The effects of corporate governance on optimal capital structure choices have been well documented, though without offering empirical evidence about the impact of corporate governance quality on the adjustment speed toward an optimal capital structure. This study simultaneously considers two effects of debt originating from agency theory—the takeover defense and the disciplinary effects of debt—on the speed of adjustment to the optimal capital structure. Corporate governance has a distinct effect on the speed of capital structure adjustment: weak governance firms that are underlevered tend to adjust slowly to the optimal capital structure, because the costs of the disciplinary role of debt outweigh the benefits of using debt as a takeover defense tool. Although overlevered weak governance firms also adjust slowly, they do so because they are reluctant to decrease their leverage toward the target level to deter potential raiders, especially if they face a serious takeover threat. Therefore, this study finds that both overlevered and underlevered firms with weak governance adjust slowly toward their target debt levels, though with different motivations.
Translation - Indonesian
Pengaruh tata kelola perusahaan pada pilihan struktur permodalan yang optimal telah didokumentasikan dengan baik, walaupun tanpa menampilkan bukti empiris tentang dampak kualitas tata kelola perusahaan pada kecepatan penyesuaian kearah struktur permodalan yang optimal. Kajian ini secara bersamaan membahas dua pengaruh hutang yang berasal dari teori keagenan – pertahanan terhadap pengambil-alihan dan pengaruh bertata-tertib oleh hutang – terhadap kecepatan penyesuaian kearah struktur modal yang optimal. Tata kelola perusahaan berpengaruh jelas pada kecepatan penyesuaian struktur permodalan: perusahaan dengan tata kelola lemah yang rasio hutang modalnya rendah cenderung lambat menyesuaikan kearah struktur modal yang optimal, karena biaya menegakkan tata tertib terkait dengan hutang melebihi manfaat penggunaan hutang sebagai alat pertahanan terhadap pengambil-alihan. Namun perusahaan dengan tatakelola lemah yang mempunyai rasio hutang modal tinggi juga lambat dalam menyesuaikan, ini karena keengganan mereka menurunkan rasio hutang modal kearah tingkat yang disasarkan untuk mencegah pihak yang potensial mengambil alih, apalagi dikala mereka sedang menghadapi ancaman pengambil-alihan yang jelas. Oleh sebab itu, kajian ini menemukan bahwa perusahaan dengan tata kelola yang lemah baik dengan rasio hutang modal yang rendah maupun yang tinggi, lambat menyesuaikan kearah sasaran tingkat hutang, namun dengan motivasi yang berbeda.
English to Indonesian: Angina Treatment
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Cardiology
Source text - English
Source Text - English
Angina treatment: Stents, drugs, lifestyle changes — What's best?


You may have several options for your angina treatment: angioplasty and stenting, medications, or lifestyle changes. Discover the benefits and risks of each treatment.

By Mayo Clinic Staff
Your doctor says your chest pain (angina) is caused by blockages in your heart arteries and that you need to get those blockages taken care of. What are your options?

First, it's important to determine what type of angina you have. Different types of angina may need different treatments. Common types of angina are chronic stable angina — a type of angina that occurs when your heart is working hard — and unstable angina, which is new chest pain or chest pain that is getting worse.


Other types of angina include variant angina — a rare type of angina caused by a spasm in the coronary arteries — and microvascular angina, which can be a symptom of disease in the small coronary artery blood vessels.
Unstable angina is a serious situation and requires emergency treatment. Treatment for unstable angina involves hospitalization with medications to stabilize your condition. Some people with unstable angina may require a procedure called angioplasty (also known as percutaneous coronary intervention), usually combined with the placement of a small metal tube called a stent. In some cases of unstable angina, heart surgery (coronary bypass surgery) may be needed.


Generally, if you have mild stable angina that is controlled by medications, you may not need further treatments. If you're experiencing symptoms of chronic stable angina even after taking medications and making lifestyle changes, or if you're at higher risk of serious heart disease, your doctor may recommend angioplasty or coronary bypass surgery.

Making a decision on how to treat your angina can be difficult, but knowing the benefits and risks of stents and medications may help you decide.
Why are there different treatments for each type of angina?
Angina is pain, discomfort or pressure in the chest, and doctors usually describe it as chronic stable angina or unstable angina.

• Chronic stable angina. Chronic stable angina is a form of chest pain that happens when your heart is working hard and needs more oxygen, such as during exercise. The pain goes away when you rest. In chronic stable angina, the pattern of chest pain is consistent, or stable, as far as how much physical exertion will trigger it. Your narrowed arteries can be the cause of this form of angina.

• If you have chronic stable angina, you may need angioplasty with stenting or medications as treatment. If the blockage causing chronic stable angina is severe, it's possible your doctor may recommend coronary bypass surgery. In this procedure, the blocked arteries are replaced with blood vessels grafted from another part of your body.


• Unstable angina. Unstable angina is either new chest pain or a change in your usual pattern of chest pain or discomfort — such as chest pain that is getting worse, lasting longer, or not being relieved with rest or use of medications.
Unstable angina is dangerous and a warning sign of a heart attack. If your angina is unstable, seek urgent medical care. You may need hospitalization, adjustment of medications, angioplasty with stents or coronary bypass surgery.



What are the treatment options for chronic stable angina?
Angioplasty and stenting
During an angioplasty (AN-jee-o-plas-tee), your doctor inserts a tiny balloon in your narrowed artery through a catheter that's placed in an artery, generally in your groin. Your doctor inflates the balloon to widen the artery, and then he or she may insert a small metal tube (stent) to keep the artery open. Some stents are bare metal, some are covered with a synthetic fabric, and others are coated with medications to help keep your artery open (drug-eluting stents).


Angioplasty and stenting involve some risks. These include a risk of blockages re-forming after a stent is implanted, a risk of a blood clot forming in the stent, as well as small risks of having a heart attack, stroke, or life-threatening bleeding during or after the procedure.


You should consider that even if you have a stent placed, you'll likely need to take aspirin for the rest of your life. You may also need to take additional medications to prevent blood clots. You'll probably remain hospitalized for at least a day while your heart is monitored and your vital signs are checked frequently. You can generally return to work or your normal routine soon after angioplasty.

Many doctors consider angioplasty with stent placement to be a good angina treatment option for blocked arteries and chronic stable angina. Some reasons that it may be considered a good treatment option are that it's less invasive than open-heart surgery and generally has good results.

Medications
If you have stable angina, you may be able to treat it with medications and lifestyle changes alone, and you may not need angioplasty with stenting. Several medications can improve angina symptoms, including:

• Aspirin. Aspirin reduces the ability of your blood to clot, making it easier for blood to flow through narrowed heart arteries. Preventing blood clotting may reduce your risk of a heart attack.

• Nitrates. Nitrates are often used to treat angina. Nitrates relax and widen your blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow to your heart muscle.
You might take a nitrate when you have angina-related chest discomfort, before doing something that usually triggers angina (such as physical exertion), or on a long-term preventive basis. The most common form of nitrate used to treat angina is sublingual nitroglycerin tablets, which you put under your tongue.



• Beta blockers. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. As a result, your heart beats more slowly and with less force, reducing blood pressure and reducing the workload on your heart. Beta blockers also help blood vessels relax and open up to improve blood flow, which reduces or prevents angina.

• Statins. Statins are drugs used to lower blood cholesterol. They work by blocking a substance your body needs to make cholesterol. They may also help your body reabsorb cholesterol that has accumulated in the buildup of fats (plaques) in your artery walls, helping prevent further blockage in your blood vessels.

• Calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium antagonists, relax and widen blood vessels by affecting the muscle cells in the arterial walls. This increases blood flow in your heart, reducing or preventing angina. Calcium channel blockers also slow your pulse and reduce the workload on your heart.

• Ranolazine (Ranexa). Ranolazine, an anti-angina medication, may be prescribed with other angina medications, such as beta blockers. It can also be used as a substitute if you can't take beta blockers.

• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These drugs help relax blood vessels. ACE inhibitors prevent an enzyme in your body from producing angiotensin II, a substance in your body that affects your cardiovascular system in numerous ways, including narrowing your blood vessels. This narrowing can cause high blood pressure and force your heart to work harder. These medications might help people with other conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
If you try drug treatment and lifestyle changes and you still have symptoms that are limiting you, an angioplasty with stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be an option, depending on your condition and the cause of your angina.



Enhanced external counterpulsation therapy (EECP) therapy

EECP therapy may be recommended for some people with angina. During this therapy, a doctor places cuffs on your legs and applies air pressure to your legs in rhythm with your heartbeats. This therapy may help improve blood flow to your heart and may improve angina.


Lifestyle changes: Part of all treatments
Regardless of which angina treatment you choose, your doctor will recommend that you make healthy lifestyle changes.
Because heart disease is often the underlying cause of most forms of angina, you can reduce or prevent angina by working on reducing your heart disease risk factors and making healthy lifestyle changes. These risk factors may include:
• Smoking. If you smoke, stop.
• Poor diet. Eat a healthy diet with limited amounts of saturated fat, trans fat and salt. Include a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat dairy products in your diet.


• High cholesterol. Know your cholesterol numbers and ask your doctor if you've optimized them to the recommended levels.
• Lack of physical activity. Talk to your doctor about starting a safe exercise plan. Because angina is often brought on by exertion, it's helpful to pace yourself and take rest breaks.

• Excess weight. If you're overweight, talk to your doctor about weight-loss options.

• Underlying conditions. Get treatment for diseases or conditions that can increase your risk of angina, such as diabetes, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol.

• Stress. Avoiding stress is easier said than done, but try to find ways to relax. Talk with your doctor about stress-reduction techniques.


So which angina treatment is better — angioplasty and stenting or medications?

Your medical condition will determine whether having angioplasty and stenting or taking medications will work better for you. Talk to your doctor about which angina treatment is best for your situation. Consider this:
• People who have angioplasty and stenting first may feel better quicker. For example, their chest pain may decrease quicker than those who just take medication.

• People who take only medications for angina may not feel better as quickly, but medications require no recovery time and are less expensive than angioplasty and stenting. If you choose to take medications to treat your angina, it's important that you take them exactly as your doctor says so that you get the most benefit.



What if your angina treatment doesn't work?

If you try medication and lifestyle changes first, but they don't relieve your angina, angioplasty and stenting may be another option. In some cases coronary bypass surgery may be needed. It might be reasonable to try more-conservative steps first — medications and lifestyle therapy — before considering angioplasty and stenting or other treatments.


Research is ongoing in new therapies and medications to treat angina. Discuss with your doctor if other therapies may be appropriate for you.

Talk to your doctor if you're concerned that medications or stents aren't controlling your angina. Remember that with any treatment plan, lifestyle changes are important.
Translation - Indonesian
Translation - Indonesian
Penanganan angina: pemasangan stent, makan obat atau perubahan gaya hidup – Mana yang terbaik ?

Ada beberapa pilihan untuk menangani rasa sakit di dada (angina): melebarkan pembuluh darah koroner dan memasang stent, makan obat, atau perubahan gaya hidup. Temuilah keuntungan dan resiko dari setiap macam penanganan.
Oleh: Staf Klinik Mayo
Dokter anda mengatakan sakit di dada Anda (angina) disebabkan terjadinya sumbatan pada pembuluh darah jantung dan sumbatan itu harus ditangani. Apa saja pilihan yang ada untuk anda ?

Pertama, penting menentukan jenis angina yang Anda alami. Penanganan berbagai macam angina berbeda. Jenis angina yang paling lazim adalah angina stabil kronis – yaitu angina yang dialami jika jantung anda bekerja berat- dan angina tidak stabil, yaitu rasa sakit dada yang baru muncul atau sakit dada yang cenderung memburuk.

Jenis angina lain termasuk angina varian – jenis yang langka yang disebabkan oleh kekejangan pembuluh darah koroner – dan angina mikrovaskular, yang boleh jadi suatu gejala penyakit di pembuluh darah arteri koroner yang halus.
Angina tidak stabil merupakan keadaan genting dan memerlukan penanganan gawat darurat. Penanganan angina tidak stabil membutuhkan opname dengan pemberian obat2an untuk memantapkan keadaan Anda. Beberapa penderita angina tidak stabil boleh jadi memerlukan suatu prosedur yang dinamai angioplasti (juga dikenali dengan istilah intervensi koroner melalui kulit), lazimnya digabung dengan penempatan sebuah pipa logam kecil dinamai stent. Pada beberapa kasus angina tidak stabil, mungkin diperlukan bedah jantung (bedah bypass koroner).

Umumnya, jika Anda mengalami angina stabil ringan yang dikendalikan dengan pengobatan, maka Anda mungkin memerlukan penanganan lanjutan. Jika Anda mengalami gejala angina stabil kronis meski telah minum obat2an dan melakukan perubahan gaya hidup, ataupun jika Anda memiliki risiko lebih tinggi dari penyakit jantung, maka dokter Anda bisa menyarankan angioplasti atau bedah bypass koroner.
Membuat keputusan mengenai cara menangani penyakit angina Anda bisa sulit, tetapi pengetahuan mengenai manfaat dan risiko dari stent dan pengobatan mungkin menolong Anda menentukan pilihan.
Mengapa ada perbedaan penanganan untuk setiap jenis angina ?
Angina adalah rasa sakit, perasaan tidak nyaman atau rasa tertekan di dada, dan para dokter menyebutnya sebagai angina stabil kronis atau angina tidak stabil.

• Angina stabil kronis. Angina stabil kronis adalah semacam sakit di dada yang muncul apabila jantung Anda bekerja berat dan membutuhkan lebih banyak oksigen, misalnya pada waktu berolah-raga. Rasa sakit menghilang jika Anda beristirahat. Pada angina stabil kronis, pola rasa sakit di dada konsisten, atau stabil, diukur dari tingkat pengerahan tenaga fisik yang menjadi pencetusnya.
• Dalam hal Anda menderita angina stabil kronis, kemungkinan Anda memerlukan tindakan angioplasti dengan pemasangan stent atau minum obat2an sebagai bentuk penanganannya. Dalam hal angina stabil kronis yang berat, ada kemungkinan doktor Anda menyarankan operasi bypass pembuluh darah koroner. Pada prosedur ini, pembuluh arteri yang tersumbat diganti dengan pembuluh darah yang dicangkokkan dari bagian lain tubuh Anda.

• Angina Tidak Stabil. Angina tidak stabil dapat berupa sakit yang baru muncul didada atau berubahnya pola sakit atau tak nyaman di dada – misalnya sakit di dada yang kian buruk, berlangsung lebih lama, atau tidak lenyap sesudah beristirahat atau meminum obat-obat.
Angina tidak stabil berbahaya dan menjadi tanda peringatan akan datangnya serangan jantung. Jika angina Anda tidak stabil, carilah pertolongan medis yang segera. Anda kemungkinan perlu diopname, perlu penyesuaian obat-obat atau membutuhkan angioplasti dengan pemasangan stent atu bedah bypass koroner.


Beberapa pilihan penanganan angina stabil kronis
Tindakan angioplasti dan pemasangan stent
Pada tindakan angioplasti, dokter Anda memasukkan balon kecil pada lokasi arteri yang menyempit melalui kateter yang ditempatkan dalam arteri, biasanya pada titik di arteri yang berada di kunci paha. Dokter menggelembungkan balon itu untuk melebarkan arteri, dan kemudian ia memasukkan selongsong logam keci (stent) untuk menahan arteri terbuka. Beberapa stent terbuat dari logam telanjang, ada pula yang dilapisi bahan sintetis, dan yang lain disalut dengan obat untuk membantu menjaga arteri Anda terbuka (stent disalut obat).
Tindakan angioplasti dan pemasangan stent mengandung risiko. Diantaranya risiko terbentuknya kembali penyumbatan setelah stent dipasang, risiko penggumpalan darah yang terbentuk di stent, juga risiko kecil mengalami serangan jantung, stroke, atau perdarahan yang mengancam jiwa selama atau sesudah tindakan.

Harus jadi pertimbangan Anda bahwa walaupun telah dipasang stent, Anda kemungkinan besar harus minum aspirin seumur hidup Anda. Juga mungkin perlu minum obat-obat tambahan untuk mencegah penggumpalan darah. Andapun mungkin perlu dirawat-inap minimum satu hari selama jantung Anda dipantau dan dilakukannya pemeriksaan berulang terhadap tanda-tanda penting Anda.

Banyak dokter menganggap angioplasti dengan pemasangan stent merupakan pilihan penanganan yang baik untuk angina dengan penyumbatan arteri dan angina stabil kronis. Beberapa alasan mengapa ini dianggap pilihan penanganan yang baik karena ini tidak se-invasif dibandingkan bedah jantung terbuka dan umumnya dengan hasil yang baik.

Obat-obatan
Apabila Anda mengalami angina stabil, maka mungkin penanganan dengan obat-obatan dan perubahan gaya hidup saja, dan Anda mungkin tidak memerlukan angioplasti dengan pemasangan stent. Beberapa obat-obatan mampu mengatasi gejala angina termasuk:

• Aspirin. Aspirin mengurangi kemungkinan penggumpalan darah anda, menyebabkan darah lebih mudah mengalir melalui arteri jantung yang menyempit. Dengan mencegah penggumpalan darah maka risiko serangan jantung dikurangi.
• Nitrat. Nitrat sering digunakan untuk menangani angina. Nitrat mengendurkan dan melebarkan pembuluh darah anda, sehingga memperbanyak aliran darah ke otot jantung Anda. Anda mungkin meminum nitrat apabila Anda mengalami ketidak-nyamanan di dada jika ini berkaitan dengan angina, sebelum melakukan sesuatu yang biasanya mencetuskan angina (seperti pengerahan tenaga fisik), atau untuk pencegahan berbasis jangka panjang. Bentuk paling lazim dari nitrat yang digunakan untuk angina adalah tablet sublingual nitroglicerin, yang ditempatkan dibawah lidah.


• Penyekat beta. Penyekat beta menyekat efek dari hormon epinefrin, yang dikenal juga dengan nama adrenalin. Akibatnya jantung Anda berdenyut lebih lambat dan lebih lemah, mengurangi tekanan darah dan mengurangi beban kerja jantung Anda. Penyekat beta juga mengendurkan pembuluh darah dan melebarkannya untuk memperlancar aliran darah, yang menurangi atau mencegah angina.

• Statin. Statin digunakan untuk menurunkan kolesterol darah. Statin menyekat bahan yang diperlukan tubuh kita untuk membuat kolesterol. Statin juga membantu tubuh menyerap kembali kolesterol yang terakumulasi yang memunculkan lemak (plak) pada dinding arteri, membantu mencegah lanjutnya penyumbatan di pembuluh darah.
• Sekat kanal kalsium . Sekat kanal kalsium, juga dinamai antagonis kalsium, mengendurkan dan melebarkan pembuluh darah dengan cara mempengaruhi sel otot di dinding arteri. Hal ini melancarkan aliran darah di jantung, mengurangi atau mencegah angina. Sekat kanal kalsium juga memperlambat denyut jantung Anda dan mengurangi beban kerja jantung Anda.

• Ranolazin (Ranexa). Ranolazin, obat anti-angina dapat diresepkan dengan obat-obat angina lainnya, seperti penyekat beta. Juga dapat digunakan sebagi pengganti jika Anda tidak dapat menggunakan penyekat beta.

• Penyekat enzim pengubah angiotensin (ACE). Obat ini membantu mengendurkan pembuluh darah. Penyekat ACE mencegah suatu enzim di tubuh kita menghasilkan angiotensin II, suatu bahan dalam tubuh Anda yang mempengaruhi sistem jantung pembuluh darah dalam beberapa hal, termasuk mempersempit pembuluh darah. Penyempitan ini bisa menimbulkan tekanan darah tinggi dan memaksa jantung Anda bekerja keras. Obat ini dapat menolong orang yang menderita kondisi lain seperti tekanan darah tinggi dan diabet.
Apabila Anda telah mencoba penanganan melalui obat-obatan dan perubahan gaya hidup namun masih mengalami gejala yang membatasi Anda, angioplasti dengan memasang stent atau bedah koroner bypass mungkin harus dipilih, tergantung pada keadaan dan penyebab angina anda.

Terapi Pompa Jantung (EECP)

Terapi Pompa Jantung (EECP) bisa disarankan untuk sebahagian orang yang mengidap angina. Sewaktu menjalani terapi ini, dokter memasang gelang-gelang di kaki Anda dan memberi tekanan udara pada kaki yang seirama dengan denyut jantung Anda. Terapi ini bisa meningkatkan aliran darah ke jantung Anda dan melegakan angina.

Perubahan Gaya Hidup: Bagian dari seluruh jenis penanganan angina
Jenis penanganan yang manapun yang Anda pilih, doktetr Anda akan menasehati Anda agar mengubah gaya hidup yang sehat.
Karena sakit jantung sering menjadi penyebab utama dari kebanyakan jenis angina, Anda bisa mengurangi atau mencegah angina dengan cara mengupayakan menurunkan faktor risiko penyakit jantung Anda dan melaksanakan perubahan gaya hidup sehat.
• Merokok. Apabila Anda merokok, maka berhentilah.
• Gizi jelek. Biasakanlah makan makanan yang sehat dengan membatasi jumlah lemak jenuh, lemak trans dan garam. Masukkan dalam makanan Anda beragam buah-buahan dan sayur mayur, bijian utuh, daging rendah lemak, dan produk peternakan rendah lemak.
• Kolestrol tinggi. Kenalilah angka kolesterol Anda dan tanya dokter Anda apakah Anda telah memperbaikinya pada tingkat yang disarankan.
• Kurangnya kegiatan fisik. Bicarakan dengan dokter Anda mengenai rencana latihan fisik yang aman. Oleh karena gejala angina sering dipicu oleh pengerahan tenaga, maka akan membantu jika Anda memacu diri dan menghentikan kegiatan sejenak untuk istirahat.
• Kelebihan berat. Apabila Anda mengalami kelebihan berat badan, bahaslah dengan dokter Anda tentang pilihan cara mengurangi berat badan.
• Kondisi penyebab. Usahakan penanganan terhadap penyakit dan kondisi yang dapat meningkatkan risiko angina, seprti diabet, tekanan darah tinggi dan kadar kolesterol tinggi.
• Stres. Menghindari stres lebih mudah dikatakan dari pada dilakukan, namun upayakanlah menemukan cara untuk bersantai. Bicarakan dengan dokter Anda tentang tehnik mengurangi stres.


Maka penanganan angina yang mana yang lebih baik – angioplasti dan pemasangan stent atau minum obat-obatan ?
Kondisi medis Anda akan menentukan apakah penanganan dengan angioplasti dan pemasangan stent atu minum obat-obatan akan lebih bermanfaat untuk Anda.
Pertimbangkanlah hal ini:
• Orang yang penangan pertamanya dengan angioplasti dan pemasangan stent mungkin merasakan perbaikan lebih segera. Misalnya, rasa sakit didada akan berkurang lebih cepat daripada orang yang hanya minum obat-obatan.
• Orang yang hanya minum obat-obatan untuk mengatasi angina mungkin tidak segera merasakan perbaikan, namun minum obat-obatan tidak memerlukan waktu pulih dan lebih hemat daripada angioplasti dan pemasangan stent. Apabila Anda memilih minum obat-obatan untuk menangani kondisi angina Anda, penting Anda meminumnya tepat seperti petunjuk dokter Anda untuk memperoleh manfaat sepenuhnya.


Bagaimana jika penanganan angina Anda tidak berhasil?
Apabila Anda pertama mencoba minum obat-obatan dan merubah gaya hidup, namun cara ini tidak melegakan angina Anda, maka angioplasti dan pemasangan stent mungkin menjadi pilihan lainnya. Dalam beberapa kasus bedah bypass koroner mungkin diperlukan. Mungkin beralasan untuk mencoba, sebagai langkah percama, langkah yang lebih konservatif – minum obat-obatan dan perubahan gaya hidup – sebelum mempertimbangkan angioplasti dan pemasangan stent atau cara penanganan lainnya.
Penelitian terus dilakukan untuk menemukan terapi dan obat-obatan baru untuk menangani angina. Bicarakan dengan dokter Anda apakah terapi lain mungkin cocok untuk Anda.

Bahas dengan dokter Anda jika Anda merasakan bahwa minum obat-obatan atau pemasangan stent belum mengendalikan angina Anda. Ingatlah bahwa bersama rencana penanganan manapun, perubahan gaya hidup tetap penting.

Experience Years of experience: 6. Registered at ProZ.com: Oct 2014. Became a member: Jan 2015.
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s) N/A
Credentials English to Indonesian (Himpunan Penerjemah Indonesia (Association of Indonesian Translators))
Indonesian to English (Himpunan Penerjemah Indonesia (Association of Indonesian Translators))
Memberships HPI
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Bio
WELCOME TO MY PROFILE PAGE RESUME IN BRIEF
• Native speaker of Indonesian
• Full time freelance translator
• Registered at ProZ.com: October 2014 as a freelance translator
• Member of ProZ.com The translation workplace from January 2015 (http://www.proz.com/profile/1990192)

. Member of Himpunan Penerjemah Indonesia/ HPI (Association of Indonesian Translators)
• Residing over ten years in Australia during University engineering education and professional employment in engineering & manufacturing companies
• Twenty seven years working experience in Indonesia with a Germany based multi-national engineering & manufacturing company and an Indonesian telecommunication company
• Earned an MBA Degree from a Harvard University-affiliated Management Institute
• Specialized in Business, Commerce, Engineering, Marketing, Medical, and Legal translations
• Well versed in Business and Managerial Communications in English, Indonesian and German
• Ten years experience in Electrical Engineering Equipment and System Sales and Marketing, Manufacture, Design, Construction, Erection and Commissioning, Project Management for the Construction of Steam and Diesel Power Stations and Distribution System for Industrial Users in Australia and Indonesia
• Seventeen years experience in Logistics and Procurement, Internal Auditing and Facilities Management in Indonesia
• Nine years experience in Audit Committee for a dual-listed Public Company in Telecommunication as independent member : Oversight of Internal Audit Function, Evaluating Independence and Appointment of Public Auditors for Financial and Internal Control Annual Audit, Review of Corporate Governance, Review of Company Annual Report for Submission to New York and Indonesian Stock Exchanges
• Three years experience in a Travel & Tourism Company
• Six years experience in Finance and Administration of a Human Resource Outsourcing Company

SERVICES OFFERED
• Written Translation
• Editing
• Proof Reading

WORKING LANGUAGE PAIRS
• English – Indonesian
• Indonesian – English
• German – Indonesian (preference: technical)

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• Engineering (Electrical, Mechanical, Civil Engineering Tender Documents, Technical Specification, Acceptance Certificates, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Handbook etc.)
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• Legal (Company Board Resolution, Contracts, Memorandum of Understanding, Committee Charter, Minutes of Meeting, Laws and Regulations, Certificates, Notarial Deeds etc.)
• Medical (general)


COURSES, SEMINARS AND WORKSHOPS ATTENDED
• Course in German Language, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Course in German Language, Prien am Chiemsee, Bayern, Germany
• Seminar in Computer Based Management Information System, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar Computer System Control and Audit, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Import and Export Procedures and Documentation, Jakarta Indonesia
• Course in Administrative Manager and Staff, Bandung, Indonesia
• Seminar in Management of Audit Tasks, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Workshop in Management Audit, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Master of Business Administration Course, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Built-in Control, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Corruption and Its Eradication, A Psychological Management Review, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Electronic Data Processing and Computer Security, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Computer Audit With Basic COBOL, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in State Administrative Tribunal, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Course in Leadership for Indosat, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Telecoms ’91 Opportunities and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Management Professionalism in Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Business Ethics, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Course in Microsoft Office Software, Jakarta, Indonesia
• International Seminar In Human Resources Development for Managers from Developing Countries, Vienna, Austria
• Conference on Internal Audit Asia, Singapore
• Conference on Corporate Governance and Transparency, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
• Seminar in Strategy and Implementation of Outsourcing, Jakarta, Indonesia
• Seminar in Public Speaking
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Total pts earned: 271
PRO-level pts: 247


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