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English to Chinese: Guidelines for solubility of peptides General field: Medical Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - English Guidelines for solubility of peptides
Peptides shorter than 10-15 amino acids will normally be soluble in water or aqueous buffer, unless they contain a very high proportion of hydrophobic amino acids. In general it is recommended to test the solubility of a small quantity of the delivered peptide in an aqueous buffer, unless the peptide is strongly hydrophobic.
The content of hydrophilic (acidic and basic), neutral and hydrophobic amino acids are written on Page 2 in the Certificate of Analysis for your peptide.
In general longer peptides containing less than 40% hydrophobic amino acids and more than 25-30% hydrophilic amino acids (acidic and basic) will normally dissolve in aqueous solutions (please see page 2 in the certificate of Analysis for your peptide for the distribution between hydrophilic, neutral and hydrophobic amino acids). It is recommended to dissolve these peptides in pure water or a buffered solution like PBS buffer, TRIS buffer etc. If the peptide contains significantly more acidic than basic amino acids, and the peptide is soluble in aqueous buffer in order, it is recommended to dissolve the peptide in a slightly basic buffer in order to increase the solubility. If the peptide contains significantly more basic than acidic amino acids and the peptide is soluble in aqueous buffer it is recommended to dissolve the peptide in a slightly acidic buffer in order to increase the solubility.
Longer peptides containing 40-65% hydrophobic amino acids will typically only be partially soluble in aqueous solutions. It is recommended to dissolve these peptides in a small quantity of organic solvent like DMF, TFA, acetonitrile etc. DMSO can also be used (If the sequence does not contain C, W or M). Peptides with moderate hydrophobicity can eventually be dissolved in ethanol. After a peptide has been dissolved in a minimum volume of organic solvent, an aqueous buffer or water can be added dropwise to the solvent. Stop immediately if the solution starts to show turbidity, and if the turbidity exists after some minutes then add more organic solvent, until the solution is clear again.
Translation - Chinese 多肽产品溶解指南
English to Chinese: Basics: Pathophysiology Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English Basics: Pathophysiology
In all forms of PA, aldosterone production is excessive to the body's requirements and relatively autonomous with regard to its normal chronic regulator, the renin-angiotensin II system. This results in excessive sodium re-absorption through amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels within the distal nephron, leading to HTN and suppression of renin-angiotensin II. Urinary loss of potassium and hydrogen ions, exchanged for sodium at the distal nephron, may result in hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis if severe and prolonged enough. The exact causes of excessive, autonomous aldosterone production in aldosterone-producing adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are unknown, but genetic factors related to adrenal cortical ellular growth regulation and/or steroid biosynthesis are likely to be involved.
In FH-I, the causative hybrid gene encodes a hybrid enzyme of unique structure that synthesises aldosterone but, unlike CYP11B2, is regulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and not by angiotensin II. Aldosterone production in FH-I is therefore regulated by ACTH rather than by angiotensin II, and can be suppressed and managed by administering small doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone.
Mutations in KCNJ5 (which encodes an inwardly-rectifying potassium channel) lead to reduced potassium/sodium channel selectivity and sodium influx, predisposing to cell membrane depolarisation, increased calcium influx, increased expression of genes promoting aldosterone synthesis, and increased aldosterone production by adrenocortical cells. How these effects lead to adrenal cell proliferation and tumour development remains uncertain.
Although morbidity in PA mainly results from HTN, experimental and clinical evidence strongly suggests that aldosterone excess can bring about adverse cardiovascular sequelae (including remodelling and fibrosis) independently of its hypertensive effects. In animal studies, both aldosterone excess and a high salt intake appear to be necessary for induction of cardiac fibrosis, and coronary vasculitis has been observed to be an early manifestation. These effects were preventable by the administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The doses of aldosterone used in experimental studies have been very large, and the results of these studies may, therefore, have limited applicability to clinical situations. Nevertheless, several groups have convincingly demonstrated abnormalities in cardiovascular morphology or function in patients with PA that appear to be out of proportion to the elevation in BP. These have included:
• Increased left ventricular mass index and reduced diastolic function, both of which markedly improved following specific treatment of PA
• Reduced myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise
• Increased myocardial backscatter (an echo marker of myocardial fibrosis)
• Increased proteinuria (as evidence of renal glomerular damage)
• A greater incidence of cardiovascular events, which was reversed following specific surgical or medical treatment.
• Evidence of left ventricular remodelling was also reported in individuals with genetically proven FH-I who had biochemical evidence of aldosterone excess but had not yet developed HTN.
English to Chinese: Medical training material General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English Overall: During training try and do the discussions and practice slides with the trainees. This will help them to begin to understand how to have a collaborative conversation using these tools. Things to practice would be changing closed questions into open questions, listening (reading) and then coming up with reflections, and pulling out affirmations from a negative response. Practicing these skills should be a big part of the training sessions. Have examples always ready to share with trainees. When it comes to motivational interviewing the best way to learn is to practice. Set the trainees up to be successful and to be successful it takes ongoing practice.
Simple vs Complex Reflections: Simple reflections are the repeating of a word or two that may keep a patient moving in the conversation. They usually add little meaning to what the patient is saying. Complex reflections add meaning or emphasis to what the patient has said, making a guess at the unspoken content or what might come next.
This type of conversation is an art that is learned – a coach actively decides what to reflect on and what to ignore, what to emphasize or de-emphasize and what word to use to capture meaning.
English to Chinese: Patient Case Report Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English The patient is a 68 y/o female with recently diagnosis presumed pancreatic cancer status post ablation of pancreas head mass. Patient presented with 1 month abdominal distension. Imaging showed pancreatic head mass that was FDG avid with surrounding adenopathy that was not FDG avid but possibly due to PET sensitivity. Imaging reports do not describe adjacent blood vessels (report states that “pancreas body was surrounded with superior mesenteric vein” but not sure if that means mass encircled vein or not). EUS sample reported as “few small groups of heterogenic glandular epithelial cells exist in the blood clot tissue, part of which in the form of mucous epithelium so mutinous tumor is related, whereas pancreatic carcinoma could not be excluded.” The patient was treated with gamma knife.
This consultation was based on the limited medical records received. No pathology slides nor radiograph images were reviewed by our staff pathologist or radiologist respectively.
In regard to confirmation of diagnosis, based on the information provided, it is hard to opine if this patient has pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The report appears to suggest the biopsy was inadequate/non diagnostic sample. The issue now is that the lesion on the pancreas has been treated with radiation and thus likely will be more difficult to get a diagnostic sample.
Without a firm diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, it is difficult to make treatment recommendations. There are other pathologies in the pancreas that are malignant, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, lymphoma, or metastases from another primary site.
Translation - Chinese 患者，女，68岁，近期诊断为假定胰腺癌状态伴胰头肿块切除术后。 患者腹胀1月余。 FDG－PET成像显示胰头肿块氟脱氧葡萄糖浓聚（FDG avid)，而周围肿大的淋巴结未显示氟脱氧葡萄糖浓聚。但此结果不排除与PET的敏感性相关。 影像学报告没有对相邻血管进行描述（报告指出，“整个胰体被肠系膜上静脉覆盖”，但环绕肿块的静脉是否为肠系膜上静脉尚不清楚）。 内镜超声引导下细针穿刺活检报告显示：“血凝块组织中可见少量异种腺上皮细胞簇，有些呈黏膜上皮细胞形态，提示粘液瘤的存在，但胰腺癌不除外。” 患者接受了伽玛刀治疗。
I am a professional translator who received a full medical education in China and has worked as a medical scientist in Europe for many years. I received my doctoral degree in life sciences from University Utrecht the Netherlands. Medicine and language have been my passion for many years. I have studied and worked in the medical field for more than 15 years and have been working as a freelance translator since 2014. I am grateful that this career path allows me to embrace my passion for both medicine and language. During my working as a medical doctor, scientist and translator, I have realized how important it is to produce high quality text in this field. I take it as my mission to ensure that Medical Information flows accurately and fluently into my native language — Chinese.
I am a translator of both passion and formation. My clients appreciate my reliability and quality as well as my friendliness and willingness to accommodate their needs in a timely manner. My translation services are considered of high quality and competitive in price by my clients.
My Credentials and Accomplishments:
• Qualified translator English to Chinese by DipTrans IoLET (Diploma)
• Proz.com certified translator with excellent willing to work again feedbacks from clients (Pro Certificate)
• Member of ATA
• Ph.D. holder in Life Sciences (awarded by University Utrecht the Netherlands)
• Worked up to Master of Science in Medicine in China, including 2.5 year clinical experience as a resident doctor
• Worked as a medical scientist in Europe for 7 years, having first-hand experience with biomedical and clinical research
My Career Summary:
2014 - date
Full-time freelance medical translator at VDChina Language Lab
2004 - 2007
Part-time medical translator at multiple translation agencies in China
2007 - 2014
Medical researcher at University Medical Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands
2004 - 2007
Medical Training in Internal Medicine (Master program) at Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
1999 - 2004
Medical Training General (Bachelor program) at Jining Medical University, Shandong province, China
Du VX, Huskens D, Maas C, Al Dieri R, de Groot PG, de Laat B. New Insights into the Role of Erythrocytes in Thrombus Formation. Seminar of Thrombosis and Hemostasist. (2013) Du VX, Kelchtermans H, de Groot PG, de Laat B. From antibody to clinical phenotype, the black box of the antiphospholipid syndrome: pathogenic mechanisms of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thrombosis Research. (2013)
Casari C, Du V, Wu YP, Kauskot A, de Groot PG, Christophe OD, Denis CV, de Laat B, Lenting PJ. Accelerated uptake of VWF/platelet complexes in macrophages contributes to VWD type 2B-associated thrombocytopenia. Blood. (2013) Du VX, van Os G, Kremer Hovinga JA, Dienava-Verdoold I, Wollersheim J, Ruggeri ZM, Fijnheer R, de Groot PG, de Laat B. Indications for a protective function of beta2-glycoprotein I in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology. (2012).
van der Wal DE, Gitz E, Du VX, Lo KS, Koekman CA, Versteeg S, Akkerman JW. Arachidonic acid depletion extends survival of cold-stored platelets by interfering with the [glycoprotein Ibα--14-3-3ζ] association. Haematologica. (2012)
Tournoij E, Koekman CA, Du VX, Roest M, Ruijtenbeek R, Moll FL, Akkerman JW. The platelet P2Y12 receptor contributes to granule secretion through Ephrin A4 receptor. Platelets. (2012)
van der Wal DE, Du VX, Lo KS, Rasmussen JT, Verhoef S, Akkerman JW.Platelet apoptosis by cold-induced glycoprotein Ibα clustering. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. (2010)
van Nispen Tot Pannerden HE, van Dijk SM, Du V, Heijnen HF. Platelet protein disulfide isomerase is localized in the dense tubular system and does not become surface expressed after activation. Blood. (2009) Du VX, de Groot PG, van Wijk R, Ruggeri ZM, de Laat B. Identification of intercellular adhesion molecule 4 on erythrocytes as mediator of platelet-erythrocyte interaction in thrombus formation. Submitted for peer review.
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