Chinese to English: Economics segment General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - Chinese 一、前言
依據世界銀行(World Bank)所公布之統計數據，中國大陸自1980年代至2000年代每十年間平均經濟成長率約為9.75%、9.99%與10.29%；同期間世界平均經濟成長率則為3.14%、2.74%及2.71%。 相較於其他國家，中國大陸的經濟成長速度相對快速發展。2001 年底中國加入 WTO 後，與其他經濟體的聯結更為緊密；十多年經濟發展下逐步演變成今日世界工廠的印象。大陸與其他經貿夥伴間的合作、競爭，亦對彼此經濟成長帶來影響。自1979年大陸採行改革開放政策以來，兩岸貿易就快速的成長。據財政部統計，2003 年時台灣對大陸出口達到 353.6億美元，佔台灣出口份額的 24.52%。其後兩岸經貿往來持續增溫，至2010年止，臺灣對大陸的出口額度更占整體出口總額40%以上。面對此一逐漸崛起且與臺灣經貿互動頻繁的經濟體，如何去「精確」的判斷大陸各區域間的生產效率與績效是適切且必要的。
在傳統衡量生產效率的文獻上，大多延用Charnes et al. (1978)提出之資料包絡分析法(data envelope analysis, 簡稱DEA)或使用Battese and Coelli (1995)的隨機邊界法(stochastic frontier approach, 簡稱SFA)，將各群組樣本資料合併後，估計一條代表性生產邊界，據以計算各樣本的經營(技術)效率，並將研究樣本依不同屬性分組做比較。然而此種作法須建立在各生產決策單位(decision making unit, DMU) 採行的生產技術皆相同的假設下，實際上生產者可能使用不同生產技術，忽略此點將使實證估計結果產生偏誤。舉例來說，同一產業內不同管理型態的業者可能會因訴求商品消費者群體不同、面臨區域間市場結構有別、或是投入要素屬性相異等因素以致於生產行為、技術有所差異。在這樣的狀況下，若仍然以傳統生產技術同質假定來進行績效評估，其估計結果可能會出現偏誤、錯估的
Translation - English 1. Preface
According to data published by World Bank, the average economic growth rate for People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred as China) for every decade since 1980 to 2000 is 9.75%, 9.99% and 10.29%, respectively. In the mean time, the average economic growth rate for the world is 3.14%, 2.74% and 2.71%, respectively. Comparing to other nations' economies, the Chinese economy was growing at a faster pace. Since China joined WTO in 2001, it has collaborated more with other countries, and over the past decade has become the "factory of the world" that we know of today. The collaboration and competition that exist between China and its various trading partners have had impacts on all parties involved. Since the implementation of the reform and open policy in 1979, the trade volume across the Taiwan straits has increased significantly. According to Department of Finance, in 2003, the export volume from Taiwan to China has amounted to 35.36 billion USD, which accounts for 24.52% of the Taiwan's total export volume. The trading between China and Taiwan has increased since then, in 2010, the export volume to China has accounted for 40% of Taiwan's total export volume. As Taiwan faces this raising and closely interacting economy, it is crucial to find a method to "appropriately" determine the relative productivity and performance in different areas of China.
The traditional method of measuring productivity usually uses the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) which was proposed by Charnes et al. (1978) or Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) which was proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995). The idea is to combine different productivity samples and come up with a productivity frontier. From there, the samples are classified and then analyzed according to the group that they belong to. However, this method of analysis is based on the assumption that all Decision Making Units (DMU) have the same technologies. In reality, however, the DMUs have different technologies, and ignoring this point will cause an error for the result of the analysis. For example, the manufacturers within the same industry will be facing different product demands in different niches, different geographical areas and different input constraints which will cause the manufacturing process and technology be different from one manufacturer to another. In this situation, if the traditional method for comparing productivity is still used, the estimated result will err from the actual results.
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