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dezhou, Shandong, China
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|English to Chinese: The efficacy of Hsp 90 in targeted therapy for gastric cancer and its expression in gastric cancer|
|Source text - English|
Objective: The efficacy of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp 90) in targeted therapy for gastric cancer and its expression in gastric cancer were analyzed. RNAi technology was employed to inhibit Hsp90 expression in nude mouse model of gastric cancer established by subcutaneous transplantation of MGC803 cells. The inhibitory effect of RNA-Hsp90 on tumor growth was discussed in vivo through the detection of Hsp90 expression. Method: Gastric cancer cell line MGC803 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice to establish the subcutaneously transplanted tumor model. RNAi responses were induced in vivo and pshRNA-Hsp70 plasmid and the corresponding point mutation plasmid were constructed. Then these plasmids were transfected into MGC803 cells, respectively. Hsp90 expressions were detected by using RT-PCR and Western Blot. The changes of tumor size were observed, so as to determine the inhibitory effect of RNA-Hsp90 on Hsp90 expression. Results: Compared with the control, the Hsp90 gene and mRNA expressions were downregulated significantly 30 days after subcutaneous transplantation, and the tumor size decreased considerably. RNA-Hsp90 displayed an obvious inhibition on Hsp90 gene expression compared with the control. Conclusion: RNA-Hsp70 specifically and effectively inhibited the Hsp90 gene expression in MGC803 cells. RNAi technology inhibited the expression of target gene Hsp90 significantly, an essential factor in tumor growth.
|Translation - Chinese|
方法：将胃癌细胞株MGC803 注射入裸鼠表皮下，构建裸鼠皮下移植瘤模型。RNA-Hsp90导入胃癌组织中，在体内诱导RNAi，并构建pshRNA-Hsp70质粒及对应的点突变质粒，分别转染至胃癌细胞株MGC803，采用RT-PCR和Western blot方法，检测Hsp90基因表达的变化．并观察肿瘤体积的变化，检测RNA-Hsp90对Hsp90基因表达的抑制作用。
|English to Chinese: Association between COX-2 Gene 8473>C Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Susceptibility of OSCC|
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
|Source text - English|
探讨环氧化酶-2（COX-2）基因3’端非翻译区（3’ UTR）区域 8473T＞C位点单核苷酸多态性改变与口腔鳞状细胞癌（OSCC）发生的相关关系。采用TaqMan-MGB基因分型方法，分别检测168例OSCC患者和1032例健康对照的 COX-2基因3’UTR区域 8473T＞C位点多态性分布，运用X2检验和多因素Logistic回归等分析其与OSCC发生的相关性。 与健康对照组相比，OSCC患者中吸烟和饮酒者的比例较高，具有统计学差异，同时COX-2基因 3’UTR区域 8473T＞C位点的TT和CC的频率较高（70.24% vs 66.96%, 6.98% vs 2.42%）， 而 TC的频率较低（26.79% vs 30.62%），但是其基因型分布差异不具有统计学意义。 ①烟酒摄入可能会增加OSCC发生的风险；②COX-2基因 3’ UTR 区域 8473T＞C位点多态性改变可能与中国汉族人群中OSCC的发生不具有相关性.
Keywords: 口腔鳞状细胞癌, 环氧化酶-2, 多态性.
口腔黏膜鳞状细胞癌（OSCC）是一类发生于唇、腭、舌、口底、牙龈和颊部的上皮源性恶性肿瘤，是全身第6位常见的癌症，其发病的机理仍不清晰。 流行病学研究表明，OSCC的形成与内在遗传因素与外在环境因素交互作用有关； 烟酒摄入及个体遗传易感性的不同将导致人群中罹患 OSCC危险性的差异。 环氧化酶-2（COX-2）是前列腺素（PGs）合成过程中一个主要的限速酶，介导花生四烯酸（AA）转化为前列腺素。 COX-2过度表达能够促进细胞增殖、 抑制凋亡和促进血管新生，从而导致肿瘤的形成[3, 4]。 许多癌前病变和恶性肿瘤中均有COX-2基因的扩增及其蛋白质的高表达。 8473T＞C位点位于COX-2基因3’UTR区域，与mRNA的稳定性密切相关， 此位点的单核苷酸多态性改变可能导致COX-2基因的表达， 进而影响肿瘤的发生发展。 本研究旨在探讨中国汉族人群中COX-2基因8473T＞C位点与OSCC易感性之间的关系。
Subjects and methods
选择2009年5月～2011年4月期间在江苏省口腔医院经组织病理学确诊的168例OSCC患者作为病例组， 所有病例均经过组织病理学确认；1032例对照来至于江苏省疾病健康普查的非肿瘤健康人群作为对照组，根据病例的年龄（±5岁）和城乡分布进行频数匹配。 定义每天吸烟少于1支，累计不足6个月者为
所有研究对象的基因组DNA来自收集的外周血淋巴细胞，标本经过裂解、蛋白酶K充分消化后采用苯酚－氯仿提取及乙醇沉淀的方法提取。 应用TaqMan-MGB基因分型技术检测病例组和对照组中COX-2基因8473T＞C 位点的基因型。 检测引物及荧光探针订购于南京骥骜生物技术公司，上下游引物序列如下：8473T＞CF: 5’-TTCCAATGCATCTTCCATGATG-3’,8473T＞CR: 5’-ATGCACTGATACCTGTTTTTGTTTG-3’. 荧光探针如下：8473T＞C-P-T: FAM-AGTACTTTTGGTTATTTT-MGB,8473T＞C-P-C: HEX-AGTACTTTTGGTCATTTT-MGB. PCR反应体系：总体积5.0μL，含有大约 50 ng基因组DNA约0.5μL；TaqMan PCR Master Mix 2.5 μL；ddH2O 1.125μL；Primer-F,Primer-R各0.25μL；FAM-Probe,VIC-Probe各 0.125μL；ROX 0.125μL。 在7900型高通量荧光定量PCR仪上进行PCR反应，反应条件如下：50℃ 2min；
95 ℃10 min；95℃ 15 s，60℃ 1 min， 此循环20次；89℃ 1.5 s，60℃ 1 min，此循环30次。 最后，经 ABI HT7900型荧光扫描仪扫描读取荧光信号，以SDS 2.0图像分析软件 Allelic Discrimination程序进行终点分析， 通过检测不同等位基因所标的 FAM和VIC荧光强度，判断各待测样本基因分型为野生纯合子、突变纯合子还是杂合子。 并随机抽取10%样本复测，以检测一致性。
采用2-test评估对病例组和对照组中各基因型的分布差异， 利用 goodness-of-fit 2-test检测哈迪－温伯格平衡（Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium）。 应用单因素和多因素 logistic回归计算比值比（odds ratios,OR）及95％可信区间（confidence intervals,CI）。 所用统计软件为STATA 11.0版，采用双侧检验，P＜0.05认
共收集OSCC患者168例，男113例，女55例，平均年龄58.58±11.09岁； 对照组1032例， 男759例， 女273例， 年龄60.40±8.25岁。OSCC患者与正常对照基本特征资料见表1。病例组和对照组在性别、年龄方面未见明显统计学差异（P＞0.05）；但是病例组中吸烟者的比例高于对照组（73.81% vs 51.84%），差异具有统计学意义 （P＜0.001），；并且病例组中饮酒者的比例高于对照组 （66.07% vs 53.29%），二者之具有明显的统计学差异(P=0.002)，表明吸烟及饮酒可能是导致OSCC发生几率的上升的重要因素之一。
对照组和病例组中COX-2基因8473T＞C位点基因型频率TT，TC，CC分别为 70.24%，26.79%，2.98%和 66.96%，30.62%，2.42%。 均符合Hardy-Weinberg 平衡， 其P值分别为0.78和0.11，表明研究对象均具有群体代表性。对照组和病例组中COX-2基因 8473T＞C位点基因型分布双侧X2检验中 P=0.573； 等位
基因分布双侧X2 检验中P=0.542； 显性模型分布双侧X2检验中P=0.400。 病例组中TT基因型的分布频率较高，而TC和CC基因型的分布频率较低，纳入吸烟、饮酒及年龄的多因素logistic 回归分析也表明， 其基因型分布差异不具有统计学意义（ 表2）。
在我国，OSCC是最常见的口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤，目前的临床治疗强调以手术为主， 兼有化疗和放疗并重的序列治疗手段，经学者和临床医生多年努力，OSCC的治愈率有所提高，但是对于患者口颌功能的破坏较重，严重的影响了患者的生活质量。 目前大量的研究证实， 在由正常口腔黏膜→癌前病变→口腔癌发展的进程中，COX-2的表达逐渐升高；使用 NS-398可以抑制 OSCCTca8113细胞的增殖，实验表明其抑制作用随着时间的延长和药物浓度的增加而增强， 这些都提示COX-2表达与OSCC的发生发展密切相关 [6,7].
转录调控是影响COX-2 表达的主要机制，8473T＞C位于COX-2基因的3’ 端非翻译区域（3’ UTR），该区域含有22个AUUUA重复序列，其中6个位于高度保守区的CR1（conserved region l），3个位于进化保守区CR2 . 这些富含AU元件 （AU-rich element，ARE）通过与序列特异的RNA结合蛋白相互作用而影响mRNA的降解， 其碱基序列的改变往往会导致mRNA转录后期稳定性的变化，改变mRNA的降解速度，能够直接或间接地影响 COX-2的表达或酶活性 [8,9]，从而导致患者OSCC易感性的差异.
此外，Campa等针对东欧人群8473T＞C位点的研究发现，T→C碱基的改变与 OSCC，咽癌以及喉癌的发生没有显著的统计学关联 。 而且Mittal 等在针对印度人群的病例－对照研究表明其突变基因型的携带可能与OSCC的罹患风险不具显著的相关性  。
本研究中， 与健康对照组比较， 病例组COX-2 8473T＞C位点TT，CC基因型频率较高（70.24% vs 66.96 %,6.98% vs 2.42%）， 而TC基因型频率较低（26.79% vs 30.62%），但差异均无统计学意义，与早期的研究结果基本一致。 同时人群分布特征表明，烟酒可能是增加OSCC致病风险的因素之一。
本研究结果表明，COX-2 8473T＞C位点单核苷酸多态性与OSCC的发生不具有显著的相关性， 但是烟酒摄入可能是导致OSCC的主要诱因之一。 囿于病例
|Translation - Chinese|
Association between COX-2 Gene 8473>C Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Susceptibility of OSCC
To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism of 8473T>C in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene and OSCC, TaqMan-MGB genotyping assay was performed in 168 OSCC patients and 1032 healthy controls to detect polymorphism distribution of 8473T>C in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene. Its correlation with OSCC was analyzed using χ2 test and multi-factor logistic regression analysis. Compared with healthy controls, OSCC patients had significantly higher ratios of smokers and drinkers, and higher frequencies of TT/CC (70.24% vs 66.96%, 6.98% vs 2.42%) of 8473T>C in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene, but lower frequency of TC(26.79% vs 30.62%). However, there was no statistical significance among the genotype distributions. Firstly, Drinkers and smokers had increased risks of OSCC; secondly, polymorphism of 8473T>C in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene had no relationship with OSCC development in Chinese Han Population.
Keywords: OSCC, COX-2, Polymorphism.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a type of epitheliogenic malignant tumor in lip, palate, tongue, mouth floor, gingiva and cheek, and it is the sixth commonest cancer, the mechanism of which is still unclear. Epidemiological studies reported that OSCC development was not only related with interaction between genetic and environmental factors, but also related with different levels of tobacco and alcohol intake and individual genetic susceptibility . Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the limited enzyme in the synthesis process of prostaglandins (PGs), mediates the inversion of arachidonic acid to PGs. COX-2 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, apoptosis suppression and angiogenesis, leading to development of tumors [3, 4]. COX-2 gene amplification and its protein overexpression are prevalent in precancerous lesions and cancers. 8473T>C is located in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene and is closely related with mRNA stability. Its single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes may result in COX-2 gene expression and then cancer development. In the study, we aim to investigate the correlation between the SNP of COX-2 gene 8473T>C and the susceptibility of OSCC in Chinese Han population .
Subjects and methods
168 OSCC patients in Jiangsu Stomatological Hospital from May 2009 to Apr 2011 were selected and performed histopathological confirmation. 1032 healthy people from Jiangsu Health screening were selected, and frequency matching was performed based on ages (± 5year) and urban and rural distribution of patients.
People smoking less than one cigarette a day were defined as nonsmokers, otherwise smokers; people drinking at least once a week and lasting for over 6 months were defined as drinkers. Written informed consents, investigation table of clinic epidemiology and 5mL peripheral blood were obtained from all subjects involved in the study.
DNA extraction and genotyping
Peripheral blood lymphocyte from all subjects were collected for genome DNA extraction, which included cell lysis, proteinase K digestion, phenol-chloroform extracting and ethanol precipitation. The COX-2 8473T>C SNP of patients and controls were performed with TaqMan-MGB genotyping assays. Primers and fluorescence probes were purchased from Nanjing Jiao Biotech Co.,LTD. Sequences of upstream and downstream primers were as follows: 8473T>CF:
5'-TTCCAATGCATCTTCCATGATG-3',8473T＞CR: 5'-ATGCACTGATACCTGTTTTTGTTTG-3'. The fluorescence probes were as follows: 8473T＞C-P-T:FAM-AGTACTTTTGGTTATTTT-MGB, 8473T＞C-P-C: HEX-AGTACTTTTGGTCATTTT-MGB. A 5uL system of PCR was added the following agents: DNA 0.5μL, which contained about 50ng genome, TaqMan PCR Master Mix 2.5μL, ddH2O 1.125μL; Primer-F and Primer-R 0.25μL each, FAM-Probe and VIC-Probe 0.125μL each and ROX 0.125μL. PCR was conducted on an ABI Prism 7900HT Real-Time PCR System with the following program: 20 cycles of 50℃ for 2min, 95 ℃ for 10 min, 95℃ for 15s and 60℃ for 1min, followed by 30 cycles of 89℃ for 1.5s and 60℃ for 1min. Then fluorescence signal was read using an ABI Prism 7900HT Real-Time PCR System and analyzed with Allelic Discrimination program of SDS 2.0 software. Fluorescence intensity of FAM and VIC labeled on different alleles was detected for genotyping of samples. To detect the consistency, 10% samples were randomly drawn for retest.
Distribution of genotypes in patients and controls were analyzed with X2-test and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was analyzed using goodness-of-fit X2-test. Single- and multi-factor logistic regression analysis were used for calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 11.0 using two-tailed test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Basic information about research subjects
Among all subjects involved, 168 OSCC patients included 113 male and 55 female with an average age of 58.58±11.09; 1032 controls included 759 male and 273 female with an average age of 60.40±8.25. Basic information of patients and controls was shown in table 1, which suggested that no significant difference was shown in gender, age and other information of patients and controls (P＞0.05); however, smokers' ratio of patients was significantly higher than that of controls (73.81% vs 51.84%,P＜0.001); Furthermore, drinkers' ratio of patients was also significantly higher than that of controls (66.07% vs 53.29%, P=0.002). These data indicated that smoking and drinking may be key drivers for increased OSCC incidence.
TaqMan-MGB Genotyping and statistics
All controls and patients were genotyped for COX-2 gene 8473T＞C polymorphism. The frequency of TT, TC and CC in controls and patients were 70.24%, 26.79%, 2.98% and 66.96%, 30.62%, 2.42%, respectively. These data were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the p values were 0.78 and 0.11, respectively, indicating that all research subjects were representative. The distributions of genotype, allele and dominant model of COX-2 gene 8473T＞C in controls and patients were analyzed with two-tail X2 test, and the corresponding p values were 0.573,0.542 and 0.400, respectively.
The distribution frequency of the TT genotype in patients was relatively higher, but those of the TC and CC genotype were lower. The multi-factor logistic regression analysis including smoking, drinking and age suggested that differences of genotype distribution were not significant (Table 2).
OSCC is the commonest oral maxillofacial cancer in China with treatment methods of surgery and team approach that includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite the success in improving cure rate of OSCC, life quality of patients is still affected seriously . Mass data provides the evidence that in the process of normal oral mucosa developing into precancerous lesions and further into oral cancer, COX-2 exhibits an increased expression; NS-398 inhibits the proliferation of OSCCTca8113 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that COX-2 expression is closely associated with OSCC development.
Transcription regulation plays a key role in regulating COX-2 expression. 8473T＞C locates in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene, which includes 22 AUUUA repeated sequences, 6 of which are in the highly conserved CR1 and 3 are in the evolutionarily conserved CR2 .These AU-rich element (ARE) interacts with sequence specialized RNA binding protein and affects mRNA degradation. Changes in base sequence lead to changes of mRNA stability in late transcription and mRNA degradation velocity, which influence COX-2 expression or enzymatic activity directly or indirectly [8,9], and result in differences of OSCC susceptibility.
Furthermore, Campa et al. reported that base change from T to C was not significantly associated with development of OSCC, nasopharyngeal cancer and laryngocarcinoma in the study on 8473T＞C of people from Eastern Europe . Mittal et al. provided experimental evidences for non-significant association between mutation gene and OSCC development in study on Indian patients .
We here report that compared with controls, OSCC patients have significantly higher frequency of TT/CC (70.24% vs 66.96%, 6.98% vs 2.42%) but lower frequency of TC (26.79% vs 30.62%) of 8473T>C in the 3'UTR of COX-2 gene. However, there is no statistical significance among genotype distributions, which is comparable to our previous results. The distribution characteristics of population indicate that smoking and drinking may increase risk of developing OSCC.
Finally, we demonstrate that COX-2 8473T＞C SNP is not significantly associated with OSCC development, but smoking and drinking may be the main risk factors.
However, restriction of sample size may have influence on the results. Thus it perform function test to uncover the association between COX-2 gene 8473T>C SNP and OSCC development.
|English to Chinese: Charity Gala Concert 2016 held by Sian Chay Medical Institution|
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Media / Multimedia
|Source text - English|
Founded in 1901, Sian Chay Medical Institution ( UEN S62SS0055D) is a voluntary welfare organization (VWO) with an Institution of Public Character (IPC) status ( HEF 0039G) registered with the Ministry of Health ( MOH), providing free Traditional Consultation Medicine (TCM) consultation, subsidized medicine and acupuncture treatments and tuina therapy for the community regardless of race or religion.
We are supported by our pool of over 60 full time and registered TCM Physicians, TCM Therapists and TCM Assistants and professionals supporting the day to day operations at 8 TCM branches and Corporate HQ.
Sian Chay is expected to handle over 100,000 patient visits and dispensed over 300,000 prescriptions through our 8 TCM branches in Singapore this year. The no. of patient visits and prescriptions are expected to more than double to 250,000 and 800,000 respectively when our network of TCM branches expands to 20 locations by 2018.
While consultation is free, medication is charged at nominal fee of $2 per daily prescription. Senior Citizens ( age 60 years and above ) enjoy a preferential rate of $2 for 4 days of prescription. Acupuncture is being charged at a flat rate of $5 per treatment. For Tuina therapy, patient pays only $10 per session while Senior Citizens enjoy a subsidized rate of $5 per session. Those under the government assistance scheme or low income families can apply for waiver of medical charges.
Sian Chay has established the Pioneer Generation Medical Fund with the $1 million donation from Lee Foundation. The Pioneer Generation Medical Fund will grant full waiver of medical charges to the Pioneer Generation seeking treatment at Sian Chay TCM clinics.
3 new TCM Branches, currently undergoing renoations ,will be opened before end 20153
1) Jalan Kayu Branch at 219 Jalan Kayu@Pei Hwa Foundation Building.
2) 682 Geylang Road ( Centre of Excellence for Mental Health)
3) 692 Geylang Road ( Centre of Excellence for Orthopaedic )
Sian Chay Medical Institution has entered into a community partnership with the Silver Ribbon (Singapore) in mental health promotion and advocacy recently. Sian Chay Medical Institution offers complimentary TCM treatment to beneficiaries of Silver Ribbon ( Singapore) from its four centres and Silver Ribbon (Singapore) provides complimentary counselling service to clients of Sian Chay Medical Institution from its 8 branches.2,000 clients from Silver Ribbon ( Singapore ) will enjoy full waiver of all treatments and medications where applicable.
In addition, Sian Chay is partnering other voluntary organisations ( VWOs), eg RSVP Singapore and Keeping Hope Alive to reach out to the Senior volunteers and to care and share for the needy and elderly residents in the community. With RSVP Singapore, Sian Chay could reach out to 150,000 beneficiaries; and with Keeping Hope Alive serve 10,000 low income households living in the HDB heartlands.
Sian Chay is a beneficiary charity of the President's Challenge 2015 and a voluntary welfare organisation with the Care and Share movement since 2014. Sian Chay is organising the Charity Gala Concert on 19th March 2016 at Max Pavilion , Sing Expo to raise $5 million for the new TCM Hub to house the Centres of Excellence ( Oncology, Mental Health, Orthopaedic etc) and Corporate HQ.
We are indeed honoured by the consent of President Tony Tan and Mrs Mary Tan to grace the Charity Gala. President Tony Tan will present tokens of appreciation to our Key Sponsors and donors. Our Special Guests are Ms Grace Fu , Minister for Community , Culture and Youth, Mr Heng Chee How, Senior Minister of State ( Prime Minister's Office) and Dr Lam Pin Min, Minister of State ( Health).
We are appealing for your support and generous donation towards the Charity Gala Concert 2016. The Sponsorship scheme is attached for your consideration.
|Translation - Chinese|
善济医社(UEN S62SS0055D)创立于1901年，是一家获新加坡公益机构(IPC)批准(HEF 0039G)并在卫生部（MOH）注册的志愿性福利组织(VWO)，不分种族和宗教，均一视同仁，为社区居民提供免费中医问诊、医药补贴、针灸治疗及推拿理疗。
1) 惹兰加由分社 惹兰加由219号@培 华基金大厦
3) 芽笼路692号 （整形外科卓越中心）
|Master's degree - 中国海洋大学 ocean university of china|
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Profile last updated
May 30, 2016