Translation - English “Cease-fire agreement” in a monopoly market
“The furthest distance on the earth is not between the South Pole and the North Pole but between China Telecom and China Netcom”. This is a widespread saying on the internet.
Although it is a joke, there must be some reasons for saying that. People who always surf the internet know that in the southern part of China, the network access server of northern China Netcom belongs to China Telecom. The internet speed is very slow when transferring files. In contrast, when visiting websites accessed by northern Netcom through China Telecom in the south, the network speed is even slower than browsing overseas websites.
Why would this happen? It is because that the two fixed network operators, China Telecom and China Netcom, restrict each other, forming a setup of southern and northern separation of network. China Telecom is occupying telecom resources in 21 provinces in the south while China Netcom is holding fixed telephone services in 10 provinces in the North including Beijing. Over the years, in order to enter into each other’s territory, their competition has become fairly fierce, contradiction has increased and investment on equipment has been growing. Moreover, price wars also happened very frequently.
In the competition of many years, neither of them is at an advantage. Fixed telephone servers are facing more and more pressures since mobile network is attempting to replace fixed network by significantly reducing mobile phone tariffs. In order to keep the fruits of victory to the greatest extent, the two operators decided to join hands to resist mobile network operators in March of this year. They established a ‘’cease-fire agreement’’ promising that both of them would stop developing new customers in each other’s territory.
This agreement, which could lead to oligopoly in the southern and northern markets, sparked public discontent among consumers.
At the end of May, a letter jointly signed by Fangping Li, the solicitor of Beijing Reifeng Law Firm, and Liping Wang, the associate professor of the Law School of Fujian Provincial Party School, was sent to the Ministry of Information Industry. They appealed to launch an investigation on China Telecom and China Netcom’s collusion oligopoly.
The two legal experts pointed out that an oligopoly market of fixed network services would be formed after signing the “cease-fire agreement”. The non-competitive situation has violated the fundamental principle of which must be obeyed to achieve social progress. By doing this, technological progress will be inhibited and resource allocation will be distorted. As a result, disadvantages such as price distortion, inefficient management and bad quality of services could occur. This also violates the Consumer Rights Protection Law and Telecommunication Regulations. Consumers would have no choices but be ripped off in a monopoly market.
In response to the criticism made by the two scholars, China Telecom and China Netcom explained that they had a stiff competition in the last few years to enter into each other’s territory. “Cease-fire agreement” has reduced resource waste and kept and incremented the value of state-owned assets.
In fact, relative telecommunication regulations in our country clearly require network operators to interconnect and interwork with each other, share resources and avoid repeated constructions. If each side can obey the rules, the phenomena of repeated constructions can be avoided, resulting in a more sufficient and effective use of state-owned assets.
Telecom analysts stated that avoiding repeated constructions by eliminating competition is used as an excuse by powerful interest groups to strengthen their monopoly position in a convert way and obliterate competitions in the market. Once the premises and motivations of competitions are no longer in existence, each side can grow in their domains smoothly and steadily. In this case, consumers’ rights and public interests can hardly be protected.
English to Chinese: Coogee, NSW General field: Other Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - English Coogee, New South Wales
Coogee is a beachside suburb of local government area City of Randwick 8 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is also a part of the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney.
The Tasman Sea and Coogee Bay along with Coogee Beach lie towards the eastern side of the suburb. The beach is popular for swimming and famous for its dangerous shorebreaks. The boundaries of Coogee are formed mainly by Clovelly Road, Carrington Road and Rainbow Street, with arbitrary lines drawn to join these thoroughfares to the coast in the north-east and south-east corners.
Coogee was gazetted as a village in 1838. The first school was built in 1863, and the building was converted into the Coogee Bay Hotel in 1873. Three years later, Coogee Public School was established. In late 1887, Coogee Palace Aquarium and swimming baths were constructed. The Coogee Pleasure Pier, a large attraction including a theatre, restaurant and ballroom, was constructed in 1928, but was later demolished in 1934.
The Coogee Surf Life Saving Club was founded in 1907 by local people who believed swimmers needed protection from the dangers of the surf. The CSLSC prides itself on being a pioneer in the realm of surf life saving. In fact, the first mass rescue, night surf carnival, shark attack and the development of the resuscitation technique are attributed to the CSLSC.
Coogee Palace Aquarium (1887-1986)
The Coogee Aquarium and Swimming Baths were officially opened on 23 December 1887, it covered a block of land bordered by Arden Street, Beach Street, Bream Street and Dolphin Street. The Palace included an indoor Swimming pool (25 x 10 meters), an aquarium featuring the tiger shark from the famous shark arm murder case, a Great Hall that could be used as a roller skating rink, Canadian toboggan ran down the hillside for over 70 meters, a herd of 14 donkeys to ride as well as swings, whirligig's rocking horses, toy boats, aviaries, flower beds, bandstand and an open-air bar.
The Coogee Pier (1928-1934)
In 1924 construction started to build an 'English seaside style' amusement pier at Coogee Beach, on 24 July 1928, the pier was officially opened, reaching 180 metres out into the sea complete with a 1400-seat theatre, a 600 capacity ballroom, a 400-seat restaurant upstairs, small shops and a penny (machine) arcade. Unfortunately Coogee's rough surf damaged the pier and it was demolished in 1934. Life guards have recently discovered remains of the pier on the ocean floor about 50 metres out from shore.
Shark Arm murder case
The Shark Arm Case refers to an incident at the Coogee Aquarium Baths in 1935, when a captured tiger shark regurgitated a human arm. The arm belonged to a missing person, James Smith, and was identified by a tattoo. The arm had been cut off, which led to a murder investigation. Nobody was ever charged over the murder, although another local criminal, Reginald Holmes, was found shot in a car near the Sydney Harbour Bridge the day before the inquest into Smith's death was due to start.
Translation - Chinese 澳大利亚新南威尔士州的库吉镇（Coogee）
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