Translation - English Energy efficiency standard products enter Chinese households
China National Standardization Technical Committee on Energy and Management will focus on four aspects of national standard development.
1. Energy consumption limit standard in high energy consuming products. Twenty-two major products have been listed, mainly focusing on steel, electric power, non-ferrous metal, building materials and other areas. This standard is a brand new national standard and a part of the mandatory national standards. The purpose of developing this standard is to fit in the situation of energy efficiency and the requirement of energy-saving; to weed out high energy consuming and high pollution products; to set up higher thresholds in approving and recording of new projects and reforming projects, suppressing the growth of high energy consuming and high pollution products.
2. Energy efficiency standard in mandatory end-use products. China has announced twenty-three energy efficiency national standards for end-use products, mainly covering domestic appliances, lightings, industrial and commercial equipment and transport vehicles. Expansion of the energy efficiency standard to office facilities is also planned. The current developing energy efficiency standard includes microwaves, electrical water heaters, electromagnetic ovens; industrial boilers power transformers and other industrial facilities, refrigeration display cabinets and commercial facilities. Although some of the above mentioned implementation of energy efficiency standards has not yet achieved the bottom line of five years national standar
Chinese to English: How To Raise A Child Who'll Stand Up For Herself 如何培养一个自信的孩子
Source text - Chinese How To Raise A Child
Who'll Stand Up For Herself
By Mary Garner Ganske
You can't change a child's inherent nature, but you can help kids stick up for their right, with confidence.
Of course, there's a vast difference between being assertive and being aggressive. Assertiveness is letting people know your wants and needs; aggressiveness is imposing those wants and needs on others. An aggressive child will try to manhandle a playmate out of her Cozy Coupe; an assertive one, on the other hand, would say, "I'd like a turn when you're done."
Experts believe that assertiveness is, in part, inherited. And we all know from our own experience that some children are simply born comfortable with saying what they want; others are inherently more shy or passive. And you don't want to override natural tendencies by, say, strong-arming a timid youngster into trying out for the lead in a play: "Trying to force a child into a role that's not comfortable for her in order to boost her confidence may have the opposite effect," says Graeme Hanson, M.D., clinical professor of psychiatry and pediatrics at the University of California in San Francisco. It will also make her miserable.
But there are ways to nurture the nugget of assertiveness in any child without pushing too hard, or to help a retiring one see that being just a touch more pushy can be useful. Basically, anything that promotes a healthy sense of self-esteem helps promote assertiveness, says Dr. Hanson. "If a child feels good about who she is and what she has to say - if she's comfortable in her own skin - she'll be more likely to assert herself." To start the engine chugging:
Teach shy kids how to speak up
At around age 2½ , children start genuinely interacting with each other, rather than simply playing side-by-side. So now's the time to encourage a passive youngster to toughen up. If your child is always getting gypped out of his turn on the playground or having his toys snatched away at preschool, he may not realize you think it's okay to stand up for himself or he may not know how to do it politely. "Children don't always realize there's a middle ground between giving in and being pushy right back," says Dr. Hanson. "Explain that it's fine for him to demand his fair share, and then give him specific suggestions on how he could handle similar situations that come up in the future."
One mother found that modeling the right behavior helped her daughter learn to deal with a bossy neighbor. "My husband and I told our daughter that she didn't have to automatically do whatever this girl wanted." But the advice didn't sink in until their daughter saw her mother in action: "Once when we were dyeing Easter eggs, the pushy girl came into our kitchen and started grabbing all the eggs. I said, "You can color these two, but then the other kids get a turn." Our daughter got the idea and gradually stopped letting the neighbor dominate."
Discourage peer worship
Some children shy away from asserting their true selves because they want to fit in or to emulate a cherished pal. A few years ago, Sherry Whay Bieganski, noticed that her 4-year-old daughter, Maryn, was copying all of her friends: "If we were in a restaurant and Hannah ordered pizza, for example, Maryn would order that too, even though she doesn't really like it." Sherry explained to Maryn that it was okay for her to decide for herself: I told her that no one would like her any more or less if she disagreed with them. In fact, I said, it makes life more interesting. I had to remind her a few times, but pretty soon, when she saw that her friends didn't leave her, she stopped being such a follower."
But what if your child won't take a stand despite your best efforts? "My four-year-old daughter, Kate, has a friend who pouts and withdraws when she doesn't get her way. Kate always gives in to keep the peace. I've told her to say, 'Fine, let's play when you're ready,' but she's not willing to," says William Schwarz, New York.
In a case like this, Fischoff advises you explain that while a friend may get annoyed, even angry, she probably won't stop liking her. Ask your child how she feels when you don't let her get her way-she still loves you, right? Also prepare her for the possibility that her playmate will reject her, and explain that a friend who doesn't respect other people's opinions isn't worth having.
Don't be worried if your child's shyness persists; maybe she's just not ready to assert herself. Many reticent kids grow into strong-minded teens.
Encourage kids to think for themselves
Once your child is old enough to carry on a conversation, encourage her to speak her mind-even if you disagree with her. That means, for example, that you can't get annoyed with your daughter for disliking your best friend's son. "If a child is shot down every time she has an opinion that differs from those of their parents, she'll shy away from asserting herself," points out Fischoff. Do, however, insist that she treat your friend's son cordially.
The dinner table is a great place to promote independent thinking. Ask a 3- or 4-year old what her favorite color is, and why. Ask a school-age child who the best basketball player is, what she'd do with a millions dollars, or why there's so much pollution even though almost everyone thinks polluting is bad. Posing open-ended or provocative questions shows a child there isn't necessarily one right answer in life. And teaching her she can arrive at her right answer will help her trust her own opinions. Plus, she'll get practice verbalizing her position and listening to the other side of the argument. And being able to stand up for what you believe-without alienating others- is the ultimate badge of assertiveness.
Translation - English 如何培养一个自信的孩子
作者：玛丽 嘎娜. 甘思卡(Mary Garner Ganske)
I love languages. Three years of interpreting and translation training in the University of Western Sydney has upgraded my language ability to a whole new level. Practicum in the field further strengthens my professional ability. My passion in translation includes legal documents, marketing and advertisements, real estate, medical documents, education, news and films.