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Chinese to English: Changes in the risk of fertilizer pollution in China over time and place by Liu Qin-pu General field: Science Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - Chinese 随着点源污染环境风险的不断控制，面源污染环境风险已成为世界范围内地表水与地下水污染的主要风险来源。为了避免农业面源污染现场监测耗时费力的困难，人们试图用模型方法对面源污染进行模拟和环境风险评价。当前研究的热点主要集中在1980年代后国外出现的SWAT、AnnAGNPS、APEX等大型的面源污染机理模型的改进和应用[2-3]。汪朝辉等基于GIS和SWAT模型对清江流域面源污染进行模拟，揭示了面源污染环境风险的主要影响因素是降水、土地利用方式和耕作制度等。田耀武等基于AnnAGNPS模型对三峡库区秭归县面源污染输出进行评价，认为该模型对秭归县域泥沙和营养物质等模拟方式有待进一步改进，才能更好地成为面源污染环境风险防治管理和调控工具。尹黎明等认为APEX模型在淮河中上游坡面尺度进行不同土地管理措施下的水土流失评价较为适宜。国内学者也构建了相关面源污染模型。刘曼蓉等、李怀恩等、李定强等分别建立了暴雨径流污染的概化模型与统计相关模型、降雨量-径流量-污染负荷之间的数学统计模型和面源污染物迁移机理模型等。陈会等基于排水过程分析，利用模拟方法，对水稻灌区中地表排水和稻田渗漏排水的面源污染过程进行研究。以上的面源污染模拟和环境风险评价模型体现了对面源污染的综合研究，模拟过程也较为复杂，但对化肥施用的单项污染建立的环境风险评价模型还不多。刘钦普提出了化肥污染环境风险评价经验模型，对中国的化肥施用环境风险进行了初步研究。但是，该模型的环境风险评价标准主要是采用国家环保部门制定的生态县和生态乡镇化肥施用强度不低于250 kg•hm-2的常量标准[10-11]，没有考虑评价标准的时空变化。本文利用笔者建立的化肥施用环境安全阈值计算模型，对中国化肥施用的环境风险时空变化做深入研究，期望完善化肥施用环境风险评价方法，并对我国生态农业建设的化肥面源污染控制提供科学依据。
Translation - English Following the continued control of point-source pollution risks, surface water and groundwater non-point source pollution has become the main global pollution risk. To avoid the time and effort spent in monitoring the site of agricultural non-point source pollution, people are using modeling of non-point source pollution to conduct simulations and evaluate environmental risks. Current research of interest has focused on the improvement and application of SWAT, AnnAGNPS, and APEX large-scale, non-point source pollution modeling that has appeared overseas since the 1980’s. Wang Zhaohui and others have used GIS and SWAT modeling to simulate non-point source pollution in the Qingjiang River Basin to show that among the major factors in the environmental risk of non-point source pollution are patterns of precipitation and soil use as well as farming methods. Tian Yaowu and others have used AnnAGNPS modeling to evaluate non-point source pollution in the Three Gorges reservoir region's Zigui County believing that the model simulates that silting and nutrient levels in the county have not yet improved, and that the model has the capability to become a better tool for the prevention and management of non-point source pollution. Yin Liming and others believe that the APEX model was quite suitable in evaluating soil erosion when scaled to the slopes of the upper reaches of the Huai River and under different types of soil management. Chinese academics have also built related non-point source pollution models. Liu Manrong, Li Huai’en, and Li Dingqiang, et.al. separately established generalized modeling of runoff together with related statistical modeling, mathematical modeling of the relationship between rainfall volume, flow volume, and pollution load. They also modeled the mechanism for migration of non-point source pollution. Chen Hui and others, based on the analysis of drainage processes and the use of simulation methods, have conducted research into non-point source pollution caused by rice paddy drainage and leakage. The non-point source pollution simulations mentioned above and environmental risk assessment models reflect the overall research into non-point source pollution and the complexity of simulation processes, but there are still not many models assessing environmental risk of fertilizer use as the sole pollution source. Liu Qinpu has proposed an experiential model of fertilizer pollution environmental risk assessment and has undertaken initial research of the environmental risks of fertilizer use in China. However, the criteria used in the above models of environmental risk assessment mainly are those formulated by national environmental protection departments for ecological demonstration counties and villages for fertilizer application that does not exceed 250 kg/hm and have not taken into consideration changes that have occurred over time and in different places. This article discusses the author’s model for calculating environmentally safe levels of fertilizer application, thoroughly researches changes to the environmental risk of fertilizer application in China over time and place, hopes to improve the methodology of assessing the environmental risk of fertilizer application, and furthermore supplies a scientific basis for the control of non-point source pollution from agriculture in China.
Master's degree - University of Pennsylvania
Years of experience: 36. Registered at ProZ.com: Jan 2017. Became a member: Jan 2017.
I grew up in Pennsylvania, studied Chinese history and literature and attended National Taiwan University as an exchange student while enrolled at Penn State, going on to complete an MA at the University of Pennsylvania. I spent 32 years as a U.S. government translator and now work as a freelance translator. I have experience performing quality control of translations, native language revisions, machine translation post-editing, and translation project management. Over the years I've translated material covering a wide variety topics written in both simplified and traditional Chinese. I am familiar with CAT translation tools like SDL Trados.