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English to Sinhala (Sinhalese): The Birth of the Solar System General field: Science Detailed field: Aerospace / Aviation / Space
Source text - English The Solar System was formed 4,600 million years ago from the condensation of a cloud of cosmic gas and dust. Today, king-size telescopes enable astronomers to witness like events in the universe.
By training them on the Eagle constellation for example, they can observe the nebula known as M16, often
referred to as “The pillars of Creation”. The cloud, formed by a series of catastrophic events, whilst initially irregular in shape, is gradually moulded by the forces released by spinning on its axis, eventually flattening out as a disk. In the clouds centre, matter collapses attracted by its own gravity, forming a huge mass or protosun which continues to cave in on itself, increasing in temperature and reaching millions of degrees. This massive high temperature Hydrogen sphere becomes a nuclear bomb about to explode. When it does, it causes the Sun to expand. A shock wave is released from the centre, pressing the cloud from within, and other external events –such as supernova explosions or stars passing nearby –misshape the cloud from without The clouds gas atoms cool and begin to condense into small particles: first metals and shortly thereafter rocks. These small particles start colliding against each other to form larger bodies called “planetesimals”. For millions of years such collisions were normal events in the life of a protoplanet, driven by the
forces of gravity: increasing mass leading to an increase in the force of attraction, the resulting
condensation into larger bodies giving rise to the planets, their satellites, and asteroids.
English to Sinhala (Sinhalese): Natural Selection General field: Science Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - English
Script Natural Selection version 15 as recorded.
Deep down along the East African coast, hidden in underwater caves, we find the Coelacanths, fish from another time. 00:42
These 400 million year old living fossils were once thought to have become extinct along with the dinosaurs.
Possibly the sole remaining representative of a family of fleshy finned fish.
Perhaps the ancestors of amphibians that started to roam on land.
------------------Opening Dover ---------
When we look at the World around us, we can tell it has not always been the same.
The top of a cliff was once the bottom of the sea.
Fossilized shells of long gone ocean creatures can be found right here.
Since the Earth was formed many exciting changes have occurred.
The key is time.
The long geological history of the Earth dwarfs our own human history.
In the 19th century in Victorian times people had a different perception of the Natural World around them.
Most people stuck to the conventional belief that the Earth is only a few thousand years old.
And is populated by species that are the same today as they were when originally made, during the single week in which the Creator formed the entire Universe.
In 1842 Queen Victoria had seen the Orang-Utan in London zoo.
She was less than amused:
‘The OrangUtan is too wonderful … he is frightfully and painfully and disagreeably human’
Around the same time fossils of large extinct dinosaurs were gradually being unearthed and described.
Even then scientists recognized that extinction had been a common occurrence in the history of life.
But how could new species appear to replace those lost through extinction ?
It was time for someone to come forth with a naturalist explanation of : “this mystery of mysteries”….
Welcome to Down House, the home of Charles Robert Darwin during the last 40 years of his life.
It was here where Darwin wrote his famous book: On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection.
The book that challenged a Worldview that had been taught for centuries.
----- Darwin speaking to the audience in the study of Down House -----------
“I am delighted by your visit and humbled that you are here to learn about the ideas I had during my blessed youth”.
“I didn’t enjoy or do well at school but no pursuit gave me so much pleasure as collecting beetles”.
“My father worried that I would end up being a disgrace to myself and the family”.
“But when I was only 22 years old in 1831 I was invited to sail as a naturalist on board the HMS Beagle, whose mission was to circumnavigate the World”.
“At first my father opposed it, but in the end he relented, and I accepted the post”.
“The voyage of the Beagle has been by far the most important event in my life, and has determined my whole career”.
------ HMS Beagle -------------------------
The primary mission of the Beagle was to chart poorly known stretches of the South American Coastline.
Darwin was not a hired biologist but had to pay for his own trip as a gentleman-companion to captain Fitzroy.
While the ship’s crew surveyed the coast, Darwin spent most of his time on shore, observing and collecting thousands of specimens from the wide diversity of exotic plants and animals.
Darwin’s life now had purpose. He would follow his heart and become a scientist.
He was filled with excitement as from an early age he had a passion for nature.
Captain Fitzroy had given Darwin a new book called principles of Geology by Lyell a geologist.
Lyell wrote that the Earth had been formed not in a few days but over a long period of time by natural processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes
Darwin was fascinated !
------------------Earth Quake -------------------
Then on February 20th 1835 Charles Darwin experienced an earthquake himself in Valparaiso, Chili.
The nearby town of Concepcion was ruined by the Earthquake.
It was one of the most interesting spectacles he had seen since leaving England.
------------------Shells pushed above water ----
At the same time captain Fitzroy found beds of mussel shells still sticking to the rocks, way above high water mark as a result of the Earthquake.
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