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Spanish to English: Microbiólogo General field: Science Detailed field: Science (general)
Source text - Spanish La Antracnosis causada por Colletotrichum gloesporioides es la enfermedad más limitante en el cultivo de Mango. Las Infecciones quiescentes no pueden ser detectadas durante la cosecha y su desarrollo es rápido a través de la cadena de almacenamiento con pérdidas de hasta 50% en Colombia. Muchos agricultores sumergen las frutas en soluciones de fungicidas para prevenir el desarrollo del patógeno. Sin embargo, como resultado de la preocupación del público sobre la presencia de químicos sintéticos en suministros de alimentos y en el ambiente, muchos países han sido prohibidos numerosos fungicidas o retirados voluntariamente del mercado para su uso en poscosecha. El control biológico de enfermedades en la poscosecha con el uso de levaduras y bacterias ha emergido como una alternativa efectiva. Con el objetivo de seleccionar potenciales agentes biocontroladores para el control de la antracnosis en la poscosecha de mango, una colección de 32 levaduras y bacterias nativas filosfericas previamente seleccionadas por su actividad biocontroladora en otros patho-sistemas o con potencial probiótico fueron consideradas. Adicionalmente los atributos ecofisiológicos y tecnológicos de estos microorganismos como el rápido crecimiento a diferentes pH y temperaturas, capacidad de crecimiento a baja actividad agua:
Translation - English Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides is the most limiting disease of Mango. Quiescent infection often cannot be detected at harvest and it develops rapidly during storage with losses up to 50 percent in Colombia. Many growers dip fruits in fungicides solution to prevent development of the pathogen. However, as a result of public concern about the presence of synthetic chemicals in our food supply and environment, many countries have banned several fungicides or have been voluntarily withdrawn from the market for postharvest use. Biological control of postharvest diseases by using naturally
occurring yeasts and bacteria has emerged as an effective alternative. In order to select potential biocontrol agents for controlling anthracnose in mango postharvest, a collection of 32 indigenous phyllosphere yeasts and bacteria previously selected for its high biocontrol activity in other patho-systems or with probiotic potential were considered. In addition ecophysiological and technological attributes of these microorganisms as rapid growth at different pH and temperatures, growth capacity under low water activity: [ - ], phyllospheric adhesion conditions, tolerance to UV-B radiation as well as absence or reduced risk for mammals and environment were also considered. Accordingly to the above criteria sixteen isolates were selected. In a first bioassay yeasts: Rhodotorula glutinis (LvCo7), Pichia onychis (Lv297, LvF20 and Lv027), Candida oleophila (Lv037), Metschnikowia (L3, L5), Pseudozyma aphidis (L3) and bacteria: Bacillus mojavensis (J209), Bacillus solisalsi (J217), Bacillus safensis (J280), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (J282), Paenibacillus peoriae (J294), Bacillus subtilis (BS003), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bs006) and Bacillus subtilis natto (BsN) were evaluated under high humidity conditions for anthracnose control. Results showed that the evaluated yeast did not reduce the average of lesion diameter in fruits sprayed with suspensions (1x 107cells/mL) through the six-day period of evaluation. On the other hand the only bacteria (1x 108cells/mL suspension) that slightly reduced the average of lesion diameter were B. safensis and L. xylanilyticus (33.364 and 33.61 mm) compared to the pathogen witness (36.53 mm). In a second bioassay under low relative humidity conditions P. onychis (Lv297) and C. oleophila (Lv037) were chosen for further evaluation due to lower average of the overall bioassays and because of rapid growth and biocontrol activity over different pathogens. On the other hand, B. safensis and L. xylanilyticus (J280 and J282) were selected due to promissory inhibition percentage against C. gloesporioides for final bioassays. From the evaluated microorganisms in low relative humidity in the final bioassay J282 provided the greatest disease reduction (severity 6.152 mm, AUDPC: 737.88) as compared with pathogen witness (14.4 mm, AUDPC: 1295.04), although no significant difference were founded. On the other hand under high RH J280 had the higher inhibition percentage (~17.45%) and the lower AUDPC (2643.05) compared to pathogen witness (4722.92). Since post-harvest ideal relative humidity is between 60 and 80% J280 was considered as the most promising treatment for a possible commercial use. We also consider Lv037 potential for further research due to its inhibition properties in both high and low RH.
Graduate diploma - University of the Andes
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