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English to Chinese: Gambling problems and CALD communities
Source text - English A growing body of research suggests that while those from CALD communities are less likely to take part in gambling activities overall, those who do gamble are at significantly greater risk of developing problems with their gambling. A report released by the Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority indicated that while people from Arabic, Chinese and Greek communities gambled less than a sample of the general Australian population, those who did gamble were up to seven times more likely than Australian gamblers to develop severe problems with gambling. It has also been estimated that in the Australian Chinese community, problem gambling rates are between two and eight times higher than in the general population. CALD-specific gambling issues
A range of factors that affect CALD participation and engagement in gambling has been discussed in the literature. Some factors are thought to apply to multiple CALD groups, others are more culturally specific.
Beliefs about luck and chance
All societies have views and beliefs about luck, chance and good fortune. Within the context of gambling, these views are important as they affect how individuals from that culture will approach games that are based largely on chance. While some beliefs regarding luck and chance in gambling are unique to a particular culture, there is evidence to suggest there are also some beliefs that are common across cultures. For example, almost all cultures consider winning to be proof that one is lucky.
Some beliefs about luck and chance are strongly influenced by the religion or spiritual beliefs of the culture in question (e.g. praying to the Chinese god of wealth Cáishén). In some cultures, such as Vietnamese and Chinese, luck is inextricably linked with one’s character. Therefore, a display of good luckthrough gambling wins provides evidence to others of an individual’s good character.
(303 words; adapted from https://aifs.gov.au/agrc/publications/gambling-culturally- and-linguistically-diverse-communities-australia)
Translation - Chinese 越来越多的研究表明，虽然总体上多文化多语言社区居民较少参与赌博活动，但是沾染者会面临病态赌博的巨大风险。
一项由维多利亚赌场和博彩管理局（Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority）发布的报告表明，虽然来自阿拉伯、华人和希腊社区的赌博者人数少于受测的澳洲居民，但是参与赌博者产生病态赌博问题的概率是澳洲赌博者的7倍多。另据估算，在澳洲的华人社区，病态赌博案例的比率是普通社区的2至8倍。
Chinese to English: 浅谈网络暴力 General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Journalism
Source text - Chinese 舆论力量对个体公民的伤害从来就不容忽视,而随着互联网的发展,公民发表个人观点愈发简单,也愈发不用对言论负责。在网络世界虚拟身份的掩饰下,人们往往会减少对自身道德的约束,会更加倾向于出言不逊,导致网络暴力造成的悲剧愈演愈 烈。此外,大众传播理论中还有一个“沉默的螺旋”原则:人们在表达自己想法和观点的时候,如果看到自己赞同的观点受到广泛欢迎,就会积极参与进来,这类观点就 会愈发大胆地发表和扩散;而如果他发觉某个观点很少有人理会,即便自己赞同,也 会保持沉默。所以,在如今的互联网上,而往往是“沉默的少数”成为最终受害者。 如何防止网络暴力呢?首先,要有独立思考能力,不要人云亦云。多用自己的知识和经验,更客观地评价事实,让理性思考代替感性判断,不让自己成为施暴者。其次,应尊重普世价值观。不管时代发展到什么地步,有什么样的新锐思想和文化流行, 人们的普世价值观还是不可能改变的。例如,尊重他人的民族、宗教、性别,以及重视平等、自由和差异。
Translation - English The harm of public opinions to individual citizens couldshould never be overlooked. With the development of the Internet, it becomes easier and easier for citizens to express their own opinions and do not need to be responsible for what they said. Covered up by virtual identity, people tend to be less restrained by morality and speak rudely, which causes more and more serious cyber-violence tragedies. In addition, there is “Spiral of Silence” principle in mass communication theories: in expressing ideas and opinions one would join the topic actively if realizing his opinion have been accepted wildly, which leads people to express and spread this opinion more boldly; if one realizes his opinion draw little attention, he will keep silence even if he agrees. Therefore, on today’s Internet the “Silent Minority” always become victims at last.How to prevent cyber-violence? Firstly, retain the ability to think independently and avoid parrot other’s opinion. Use your own knowledge and experience to evaluate facts and use rational thinking instead of subjective judgment to avoid to be violence user. Secondly, respect to universal values. No matter how the world develops and how new the opinions and culture become, people’s universal values will not change. For example, respect to others’ nationality, religion and gender as well as value equality, freedom and difference.
Bachelor's degree - Anqing Normal University, China
Years of translation experience: 5. Registered at ProZ.com: Oct 2017.