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English to Chinese: ”Disconnected" General field: Science Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English Could cell phones be unsafe? When I first heard this idea about six years ago, I did not believe it and I did not want to believe it. I had been an early and enthusiastic adopter of this revolutionary technology, which I put to good use managing a staff of several dozen scientists in two different buildings at the National Academy of Sciences. I used it to stay in touch with my children and husband at odd times and places. I prided myself on being able to keep up with my grad students on the latest geeky applications. I knew that most scientists were convinced it was simply impossible for radio frequency radiation from phones to have any impact on human biology. But, as someone who has spent my entire professional career examining the links between the environment and health, I realized that, like the rest of us, science and scientists follow fads and fashions. Sometimes what everyone wants to believe turns out to be inconveniently wrong. Authorities in technologically sophisticated nations, like Israel and Finland, where phones had been used longer and more heavily, had issued warnings about safer use of phones. I began to ask why.
In this book I present what I found. It astonished me. And it still does. I hope by the time you finish reading this book, you will share my view— and those of growing numbers of experts in this country and abroad— that we would be foolish to not take simple precautions. Cell phone designs can and probably will be improved to lower direct exposures to the brain and body. But, in the meantime, we can reduce radio frequency radiation from cell phones, while science pursues the matter fully— something it has not yet done.
Contrary to the firmly held beliefs of many respected authorities, invisible radio frequency radiation can alter living cells and create the same types of damage that we know increase the risk of cancer and neurological disease. Neither the danger nor the safety of cell phones is yet certain. How we manage that uncertainty could avert a global public health catastrophe.
Each one of our world’s six-plus billion people starts life with a brain that is not fully formed. With luck and decent nutrition, by the time we hit our early twenties our brains have become completely “wired.” By the time you are reading this book there will be about five billion cell phones on this planet. You may even own two of them. And you almost certainly know many people with growing brains (anyone under twenty-five) who regularly use cell phones. Children are growing up in a sea of radio frequency radiation that did not exist even five years ago.
Cell phones have revolutionized our ability to respond to emergencies real and imagined. They provide social status. They help you find a job. They neatly store all the music you want to listen to and summon up loved ones anytime, anywhere. They seem essential to connecting you with whatever you want to do: track stocks, share favorite photos, download sports results, and send text, images, videos, and voice notes throughout the global village. To succeed you need to be reachable 24/7. And who can argue that these wonderful gadgets do make you feel more in touch, more effective, more, well, fun? The newest generation of phones brings us closer, faster, and nearer to one another than ever before.
Cell phones today are like electricity and water— things we can’t live without. They seem so benign and so invaluable. Cell phones are used to call ambulances but are never the reason for the call in the first place. Yet we have overlooked something— something more insidious than the dangers of texting while driving. There is a disconnect between the way that cell phones tie us all together and what these revolutionary tools can do to our bodies as they press up against our ears every day.
I’m probably a tenth generation “bubbie,” the Yiddish word for grandmother. Actually my own mother liked to be called by the American moniker Grandma Jean. But, in fact, she came, like me, from a long line of bubbies: Bubbie Fannie, Bubbie Pearl, Bubbie Leah. Just like all grandmothers in the world, I want to keep my grandchildren safe.
My grandkids come equipped with an array of modern protective armor. They have their own car seats and bike helmets and know all about the need to buckle up. . . . My eldest grandchild, Davis, nearly five, wears a white plastic helmet sitting tightly over his dark brown curly hair, and black Velcro pads for wrists, knees, and elbows, whenever he rides his skateboard. He is a grandmother’s delight in blue jeans and a red checkered shirt swooshing down the sidewalk by Capitol Hill (excellent skateboarding terrain close to our home). Davis is all concentration, as he waits until the walk is clear. He heads pell-mell straight down the middle of the pavement, stops the board abruptly by stepping down hard on the back edge, makes it pop right up in the air, then proudly hops off usually without falling.
I actually have a hard time walking as fast as he can ride. Just over three feet tall, Davis rules the sidewalk, just as long as his sister Josephine, a mere eighteen months younger and six inches shorter, lets him. Curly-brown-haired Josephine proudly pedals her tricycle as fast as she can, tongue sticking out. Her helmet is shimmery pink as she pedals right at her older brother, Davis, but she stops short. Jo Jo has already perfected that second child victim pout. She’s about to whine.
Watching my two young grandchildren at play as they jockey for position on the sidewalk, I can almost hear the neurons firing. The difference between being alive and being dead is just one thing— the presence of electrical activity in the brain. Josephine and Davis know they are being watched. They glance plaintively to me, hoping I will intervene. We decide to go inside and see a new family toy.
Their dad has brought home a small plastic box that is a bit big for their little hands, with a screen that rotates images. Josephine and Davis are enchanted. They each want that Droid— the spanking new phone, the one that plays music, shows cartoons and videos, talks, and tells Dad where to drive and find an open store for soft-serve ice cream.
They’ve grown up with tranquilizing DVDs beamed into the family van. Now here is a little screen that does all that and a whole lot more. Our brain controls what we see, think, feel, hear— how we sense the world around us. By the second month of prenatal life, a simple cylinder of nerve cells forms in the center of the growing embryo. From this hollow tube the human brain grows at the incredible speed of a quarter million cells a minute, going from zero to one hundred billion cells at birth. The brain of an infant triples in weight in the first year of life and doubles to two hundred billion cells by the age of two. There are so many connections among these cells that it would take more than thirty million years merely to count them aloud. With each signal my toddler grandchildren take in, the rods and cones in their eyes dart to whatever most catches their fancy, their ears tune in to the sounds striking their auditory nerves, and their center of wants— the amygdala— presses them onward to demand whatever it is they decide they must have or do. Infants cannot focus their eyes, but they can and do attune to patterns and smells that attract their brains. By the time they are a few months old, babies can see and sense their moms and dads. Their brains settle in to regular rhythms to sleep, to eat, to cry, and do it all over again as they grow. Each one of those billions of cells they are born with can be connected to half a dozen others. Infant brains are like small supercomputers, with hard-to-grasp numbers of combinations and permutations inside their soft skulls.
What about that phone they are each set to have? What explains its nearly hypnotic power for those tender minds? My grandkids are enthralled by the small, shiny new black Droid. But it might be an iPhone or a Palm Pre. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises strongly that parents not rely on television and videos to calm babies. But try telling that to the harried mother of three in diapers. Kids become enthralled, seemingly powerless to resist. Evolution clearly didn’t prepare them for this. Nothing so brilliantly colored and musical, so fluctuating and wild, so exquisitely scaled, existed out there on the African savannah a million years ago. Davis figured out how to play the common cell phone game BrickBreaker before he could read or count. These new toys can be utterly irresistible. Children have always loved to pretend talk on phones. So why shouldn’t a kindergartener be able to chatter to his grandparents on the phone, now that he or she can, anywhere, anytime, quite conveniently? The games, Internet access, global positioning information— what’s the problem with all these interesting treats? Why not give all toddlers a cell phone? The reason is that there is a disconnect between what the scientific world knows about cell phone radiation and the benign reputation these slick gadgets have.
If we could take a slow motion movie of the growth of the brain, we would see that the master computer leading its development spins faster than any mortal can count and it does not sit in a superhero Iron Man case. Unlike a metal shelled machine, the skull of a child is very soft. This is a good thing, as it means that when curious playful infants fall, as they have been doing for millions of years, their heads are less likely to break. A baby’s cranium is made of thin bone that continues to grow and ultimately becomes thicker. The faster that any cells are growing, the greater the chance they can make mistakes and endlessly repeat them. The thinner and pliant skulls of children help them survive, as evolution designed, but the lack of 3G cell phones on the African savannah millions of years ago has left children susceptible to the radiation these phones now emit. Try saying a tongue twister slowly— Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. How many pecks of pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? Now say it again faster. Then say it as fast as you can. With any increase in speed will come more mistakes. The brain of a three year-old weighs three-fourths as much as that of an adult and gobbles up twice as much blood sugar. The young brain continues to grow throughout childhood and adolescence. It’s not just the sheer number of brain cells or neurons that increase, it’s also the ways that they are connected to one another. Over time, fatty coatings of myelin surround neurons, giving them more strength and resilience. This protective coating is much more than window dressing. Myelin is believed to confer judgment, wisdom, impulse control, and many other properties we associate with maturity and a good life. It will not surprise parents who have survived teenage drivers in the family to learn that the human brain does not fully mature until the twenties.
As with any other developing tissue the brain is vulnerable to toxic exposures, especially if they occur early on. Infinitesimal amounts of the heavy metal lead encountered in the first two years of life can lead to a host of nasty neural consequences. Lead has the same number and kinds of electrons surrounding its atoms as calcium. This means that this toxic metal competes with and can block calcium from being taken into the brain and other vital parts of the body. Calcium is essential for brain and bone health and for our heartbeats and neurons. Lead is not only not needed, it has the ability to throw microscopic monkey wrenches into neurons and synapses, if it gets a chance. Children with just a bit too much lead and too little calcium in the first years of life end up with lower intelligence, more problems in school, and ultimately tend to find their ways into jails and mental institutions at much greater rates as young adults.
If toddlers exposed to lead develop permanently diminished brains and more criminal and psychiatric problems as adults, how will their minds and bodies be affected by the unprecedented flood of radio frequency signals in which they are growing up today? In the years after World War II, encouraged by the sudden availability and enthusiasm for military surplus technology, doctors thought it made sense to use X-rays to treat ringworm— an infectious disease of the scalp. It worked. The X-rays cleaned up the infection, but they also left a much more toxic legacy. Children whose brains were irradiated for a short period of time to treat scalp infections before age five develop almost four times more brain tumors by the time they reach middle age than those who didn’t go through such treatments. The brain of a child needs all the protection it can get as early and for as long as possible. The helmets my grandson and his sisters wear keep their skulls from getting cracked by sudden falls, but they do nothing to stop the absorption of small microwave signals into their brains that come from phones. Phones today are smaller, smarter, and faster than ever before. Are they as benign as they seem?
Translation - English Baidu sets up Baidu Capital with 20 billion Yuan, main investment in latter-stage Internet projects
On 12 October, Baidu announced the establishment of baidu capital, a fund with a scope of 20 billion Yuan and mainly investing in latter-stage internet-wide projects. The average investment amount will range from USD 50 million to USD 100 million and will not be restricted to either RMB or USD projects.
Baidu stated that its CEO. Li Yanhong, would be the Director of Baidu Capital and Chair of the Investment Committee. However, the newly established Baidu Capital would operate as a fund on the indepent market with a scope of 20 billion Yuan in the first period and setting up two to three management partners. The management partners will be recruited from the investment sphere and their primary targets will be investors with a background in the internet industry, with abundant private equity investment experience and having had outstanding achievements.
The source of Baidu Capital’s Fund will be extremely diverse, including several large insurance funds, securities companies, the patent fund of a group of Professional institutions, and even some investment organisations with a background in government, all of which are currently in close contact with Baidu.
One month ago, Baidu had just announced the establishment of Baidu Venture with an investment in the first period of USD 200 million, focusing exclusively on artificial intelligence and such innovations in science and technology as AR and VR, and with a focus on early period start-up projects. Industry professionals consider that the newly established Baidu Capital may be compared with a mature PE fund and is vastly different to the position occupied by Baidu CEO. Li Yanhong, with arrangements for Baidu Venture and Baidu Capital, and is conducting and industry-wide selection and recruitment of first-rate fund management partners.
Chinese to English: 日本为何再次出现高中生辍学现象 General field: Other Detailed field: Journalism
Translation - English Why students drop out from high school in Japan
Drop out, a phrase often appears in some developing countries which has frequently appeared in Japanese media again these years. In addition to the Japanese economy has been continued to decline, the education has also been declined since the real estate bubble bursted in the late 1990s. Universities, which have been called "the cradle of the elites," now have become "cram schools." Not like universities, high schools’ situations are even more serious. Nowadays, a growing number of Japanese high school students drop out of school to go home for various reasons.
Japanese TV station NHK had broadcasted a show about high school students dropped out of school to go to work. There were 17 students out of 32 dropped out in one class on account of lacking money for further study. One of the girls in this class who dropped out said she and her three older brothers were all live together with their mom since their parents got divorced when she was in high school. Her mother was suffering from a long-term illness, so her bothers all dropped out of school to work so that they could afford their mother’s treatment and her school. This is why that girl dropped out too – she didn't want her family to sacrifice their lives for her. Now she is working in a supermarket, since her age is under 18, she can only get meager income every month, but she feels very contented because her brothers can do whatever they want by using the money they have earned.
The main reason of causing high school students in Japan to drop out is poverty. During the 1970s, the Japanese economy was in a period of rapid growth, the society saw a substantial increase in average income. However, in the early 1990s, after the economic bubble burst, the income of Japanese people continued to decline. The annual salary for some workers was only over 1 million yen after the deduction of various taxes. People needed to pay tuition since the high school was not belong to compulsory education. While the annual cost of public high school was about 400,000 yen and nearly 1 million yen for private school. This was simply astronomical for some families.
In addition, the Japanese government encouraged fertility was the indirect cause of poverty. Today, Japan faces a serious problem of low birth rate; the Japanese government also spared no effort to encourage people to have more children. Many young people only saw the country would give some subsidies when they had more children, but they did not see the cost for their children to go to high school and university. Necessarily, the dropout rate of the multi-child family is higher than the single-child family.
Finally, Japanese are no longer aspiring to university. Since the low birthrate and aging problems lead to fewer and fewer children, many Japanese universities cannot recruit enough students. In order to maintain school operations, many schools reduce the admission criteria, which leads to uneven levels of students; the university cost millions Yen, which make it inaccessible for those students who can’t even afford high school. Moreover, many students begin to waste their times after they enter the university and after 4 years studying, they get paid not as well as some high school graduates. This is also why some high school students choose to drop out. They cannot see the future if they keep on studying.
Master's degree - The University of Western Australia
Years of translation experience: 2. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2018.