English to Chinese: The application of composite membrane on separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - English The implementation of membrane-based separation for olefin/paraffin mixtures has the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption, but is limited by the lack of suitable membrane materials with desired performance and low cost. Here, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) fabricated from incorporating ZIF-8 nanocrystals into the poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) matrix exhibit significant improvement of propylene/propane permeability and selectivity as well as the operating stability. On the 39 wt% ZIF-8/PVAc MMMs, both the C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity are about 10-fold increase over pure PVAc. The gas transportation mechanism through ZIF-8/PVAc MMMs was also evaluated. The favorable interfacial interaction between the H of the imidazole in the ZIF-8 and ester groups of PVAc enhances the mechanical strength and plasticization resistance of the neat polymer membrane. Therefore, the newly developed composite membrane may have great potential for industrial C3H6/C3H8 separation.
Chinese to English: 硫磺制酸生产酸雾产生的原因分析与控制 General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese 硫磺制酸生产过程中因空气中的水分、液硫中有机物燃烧所生产的水分被带入生产系统以及操作酸温、酸浓的控制、设备是否正常运行等因素都会使系统产生酸雾。通过对酸雾的形成机理、产生原因及危害进行综合分析，针对性地做出工艺调整和采取防范措施，减少冷凝酸的形成，保护硫酸装置长周期安全稳定运行。
Translation - English Many factors can cause the formation of acid mist in the sulfuric acid production, such as the water in the air and the water formed during the combustion of organic materials from the liquid sulfur, which are introduced into the operating system. Other factors include the equipment malfunction and the unit operations, such as the acid temperature and acid concentration control. Process improvement and preventive measures have been proposed to reduce the formation of condensed acid and to ensure a safe and stable operation in the long run based on the integrated studies, including the mechanism of the acid mist formation, root cause analysis, and hazard assessment.
English to Chinese: Enhancing recovery and sensitivity studies in an unconventional tight gas condensate reservoir General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Petroleum Eng/Sci
Source text - English The recovery factor from tight gas reservoirs is typically less than 15%, even with multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation. Such low recovery is exacerbated in tight gas condensate reservoirs, where the depletion of gas leaves the valuable condensate behind. In this paper, three enhanced gas recovery (EGR) methods including produced gas injection, CO2 injection and water injection are investigated to increase the well productivity for a tight gas condensate reservoir in the Montney Formation, Canada. The production performance of the three EGR methods is compared and their economic feasibility is evaluated. Sensitivity analysis of the key factors such as primary production duration, bottom-hole pressures, and fracture conductivity is conducted and their effects on the well production performance are analyzed. Results show that, compared with the simple depletion method, both the cumulative gas and condensate production increase with fluids injected. Produced gas injection leads to both a higher gas and condensate production compared with those of the CO2 injection, while waterflooding suffers from injection difficulty and the corresponding low sweep efficiency. Meanwhile, the injection cost is lower for the produced gas injection due to the on-site available gas source and minimal transport costs, gaining more economic benefits than the other EGR methods.
Translation - Chinese 致密气藏的采收率，即使采用多级水压裂技术，通常低于15％。在致密凝析气藏的开采中，油气的衰竭将有价值的凝析油留在储层中，使得采收率会更低。本文研究了三种油气采收率增强法（EGR），包括注干气法，注二氧化碳法和注水法，以提高加拿大Montney地层致密凝析气藏的油井产能。对三种油气采收率增强法的生产性能进行了比较，并对其经济可行性进行了评估。本文研究了初级生产期，井底压力，裂缝导流能力等关键因素的敏感性，并分析了其对油井生产性能的影响。结果表明，与单纯的衰竭法相比，天然气和凝析油的累计产量均随着流体的注入而增加。与注二氧化碳法相比，注干气法有更高的天然气和凝析油产量；而注水法， 注入困难， 因而相应的驱赶效率低下。同时，与其它油气采收率增强法相比，注干气法由于气源现场可得，运输成本最小，可获得更好的经济利益。
English to Chinese: Factors associated with shorter night-time sleep in toddlers:The Survey of Young Canadians General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English Factors associated with shorter night-time sleep in toddlers:The Survey of Young Canadians
In recent decades, sleep during childhood has become a burgeoning research focus, given its importance in physical and mental health development. Although this period of life is accompanied by significant changes in the duration and timing of sleep, a decrease in children’s total sleep duration is being consistently reported, resulting in more children being sleep deprived. In fact, between 20% and 30% of children experience sleep problems during the first 3 years of life. Clear clinical recommendations for optimal sleep duration in infancy and early childhood do not exist currently, however, at around 18 months of age, children sleep 11.3 hours per night and 1.5 hours during the day, on average. Sleeping < 11 hours per night substantially increases the risk of obesity in children under 5 years of age, therefore reflecting a sleep level that does not promote health. Epidemiologic studies from infancy to adolescence have demonstrated a high prevalence of sleep disturbances that are associated with physiological, psychological, cognitive and behavioural consequences. Insufficiently sleep in early childhood can impair learning and memory, disrupt emotional regulation, and increase the risk of childhood obesity.
Sleep duration in children, in addition to being influenced by biological and psychological factors, is also influenced by cultural, social and parental factors. Low socio-economic status, non-Caucasian ethnic group, higher maternal age, maternal stress and/or depression, prematurity, low birth weight, care outside the home, TV/screen viewing especially before going to sleep, and male gender have been found to be factors associated with shorter night sleep duration in school-aged children and toddlers. Moreover, parental behaviour at bedtime (e.g. parental presence until sleep onset, feeding), especially among toddlers, presents an additional important risk factor for fragmented sleep and consequently shorter sleep duration. Few studies report on sleep problems among a representative sample of Canadian children, with the majority examining the link between poor sleep and childhood obesity, and hyperactivity.
The factors that play a role in toddlers’ night-time sleep duration are unknown in Canada and have yet to be addressed in a single national study. The health implications of shorter sleep duration warrant understanding of its associated factors, particularly in early hours with a cessation of daytime naps, and when patterns of sleep behaviour are being established. Moreover, Sadeh et al. demonstrated that ecological factors, which include cultural factors, are related to nocturnal sleep in toddlers. Therefore, the concept of “normal sleep” varies according to cultural backgrounds. In fact, on quarter of parents in predominantly Caucasian countries perceive that their child has a sleep problem. Clinicians and parents will therefore benefit from a context-specific estimate of night-time sleep duration in relationship to various characteristics in this age group. Results of this study can also provide important information for stakeholders and researchers in conceptualizing and effectively addressing sleep problems by developing strategies to improve sleep habits in early childhood. Therefore, using a large Canadian dataset, the aim of this study was to determine factors associated with toddlers’ night-time sleep duration.
Translation - Chinese 与幼儿夜间睡眠时间缩短相关的因素：加拿大年轻人调查
Chinese to English: 食物过敏的全球流行状况 General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - Chinese 食物过敏的全球流行状况
Translation - English The global epidemic status of food allergies
Asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy are common allergic diseases in Western countries. About one third of children in developed countries suffer from at least one allergic disease. As the reason that causes food allergy is unknown, the only way to prevent the potentially fatal disease is to avoid contacting the food causing allergies. Epidemiological studies are very important in defining the scope of food allergies and can provide clues for finding the cause of food allergies.
Over the past 10 years, the increase in the prevalence of food allergies has been more pronounced than asthma and allergic rhinitis. Food allergy is often considered as the first step of "atopic march". The prospective birth cohort studies have demonstrated that the early allergic reactions to food allergens are the key factors to predict the subsequent development of other forms of allergy. The prevalence of asthma has steadily increased over the past decades. Recent studies have found that the prevalence of asthma in some high-endemic countries has reached a plateau of sustained high incidences. The increase in food allergies has only recently occurred and has been described as the "second wave" of allergies following asthma. A random population survey and a survey of hospitalized patients both real that food allergies and food-induced allergies have increased over the past 10 years. However, the methods used for food allergy studies all over the world vary widely, making it difficult to compare the existing data. In addition, many studies only involved questionnaires and did not conduct any objective methods of testing or food-intrigued testing. The interviewers or parents tend to over-report the adverse food reactions as food allergies, some of which may not be related to true food allergies. A recent Meta-analysis has clearly demonstrated that the incidence of food allergy resulting diagnosed by the objective tests or food-intrigued tests can be much lower. This is the reason why the EU has built and funded the research team for allergy epidemiological study. The team assessed the epidemiology of the food allergy in many European countries and some countries outside of Europe via standardized procedures.
The characteristics and modes of food allergy varies dramatically due to the various dietary structures in different areas of the world. Globally, the common food allergens are eggs, milk, peanuts, nuts, and fruits, followed by shrimps and fish. In the United States alone, more than 30,000 food-induced allergic reactions occur every year, resulting in more than 150 people dead. Recently, an Australia-based data showed that the number of children under the age of 4 hospitalized due to food-induced allergic reactions increased by nearly fourfold from 1994 to 2005. Moreover, among infants and toddlers in Australia, the incidences of food allergy confirmed by the food-intrigued test is as high as 10%. Three cross-sectional and random telephone surveys conducted nationally in the United States showed that the incidence of peanut allergy increased by 3 times in people under the age of 18 during the 12 years from 1997 to 2008. Moreover, there is an evidence that the course of food allergy has changed. In the past, most children who were allergic to milk could tolerate milk at school age. However, a study in 2007 showed that the children's tolerance to the milk may be delayed until adolescence.
In Asia, food allergies are rare except for Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and other developed countries and regions. Due to the wide range of dietary intake in Asian countries, it is not surprising that different ethnics have different forms of food allergies. It is reported that shrimp allergy is quite common in Singapore, Thailand and Hong Kong (China). However, it is very interesting that peanut allergy is very uncommon in Chinese although peanuts are widely consumed in China. In addition, the incidences of allergic reactions and food allergy among children in Hong Kong (China) are reported significantly higher than those among children in the mainland. This is most likely due to the loss of some protective factors during the progress of urbanization. Thus, it is of great importance to identify the protective factors and to determine the potential mechanisms for developing primary strategies to prevent food allergies in the future.
Years of translation experience: 3. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2018.
Hello, I am a native Chinese speaker. I moved to Canada in 2003 and got my PhD in chemical engineering. Since then I have been very active in R&D and published many academic papers. With time, I find my real passion is in translation. I started to get involved into translation work 3 years ago and really enjoy it.
My working language pair is English<>Chinese (simplified/traditional). My specialization is in engineering and science, but I am also very interested in medical, public health, IT, fashion, nutrition, sports, life style, children literature.
My recent projects include:
- Public health related to sleeping (English > Chinese, 500 words)
- A patent about a novel die casting machine and process (English > Chinese, 6720 words)
- Public health related to the study of food allergy (Chinese > English, 1200 characters)
- Description of chemical agents (English > Chinese, 3100 words)
- An academic paper about soil study (Chinese > English, 1556 characters)
- An academic paper about petroleum geology (Chinese > English, 14,633 characters)
- An abstract about the control system of motors (Chinese > English, 798 characters)
- An abstract about the formation of lead ore (Chinese > English, 673 characters)
- An abstract about the precipitation study (Chinese > English, 566 characters)
- An abstract about the earthquake model (Chinese > English, 290 characters)
- Academic papers about sulfuric acid production (Chinese > English, 23,310 characters)
- 2 chapters of a published book abut catalyst design (English > Chinese)
Keywords: Chemical engineering, science, industry, environment, mining, medical/healthcare, business, marketing, finance, children's literature, media, general conversation, letters, advertising, fashion.