|Simple English to Chinese: MOTOR LEARNING AND RECOVERY OF FUNCTION|
General field: Other
Detailed field: Sports / Fitness / Recreation
|Source text - Simple English|
Nondeclarative (Implicit) Forms of Learning
As you see in Figure 2.1, nondeclarative learning can be divided into a number of subtypes, each controlled by different parts of the brain. We will begin our discussion of nondeclarative learning with nonassociative forms of learning, which are the simplest forms of learning, involving reflex pathways.
Nonassociative Forms of Learning
Nonassociative learning occurs when animals are given a single stimulus repeatedly. As a result, the nervous system learns about the characteristics of that stimulus. Habituation and sensitization are two very simple forms of nonassociative learning. Habituation is a decrease in responsiveness that occurs as a result of repeated exposure to a nonpainful stimulus (Kandel et al., 2000).
Habituation is used in many different ways in the clinical setting. For example, habituation exercises are used to treat dizziness in patients with certain types of vestibular dysfunction. Patients are asked to repeatedly move in ways that provoke their dizziness. This repetition results in habituation of the dizziness response. Habituation also forms the basis of therapy for children whose behavior is termed “tactile defensive,” that is, children who show excessive responsiveness to cutaneous stimulation. Children are repeatedly exposed to gradually increasing levels of cutaneous inputs in an effort to decrease their sensitivity to this stimulus.
Sensitization is an increased responsiveness following a threatening or noxious stimulus (Kandel et al., 2000). For example, if I receive a painful stimulus on the skin, and then a light touch, I will react more strongly than I normally would to the light touch. After a person has habituated one stimulus, a painful stimulus can dishabituate the response to the first. That is, sensitization counteracts the effects of habituation.
Associative Forms of Learning
A second type of nondeclarative or implicit learning is associative learning. What is associative learning? It is through associative learning that a person learns to predict relationships, either relationships of one stimulus to another (classical conditioning) or the relationship of one’s behavior to a consequence (operant conditioning). For example, when a patient recovering from a stroke, through repeated practice, begins to learn to redefine their stability limits so that they do not put so much weight on their involved limb that they fall, they are undergoing associative learning, and specifically, operant conditioning. That is, they are learning that stability is associated with a new strategy of weight support.
It has been suggested that associative learning has evolved to help animals learn to detect causal relationships in the environment. Establishing lawful and therefore predictive relationships among events is part of the process of making sense and order of our world. Recognizing key relationships between events is an essential part of the ability to adapt behavior to novel situations (Kandel et al., 2000).
Patients who have suffered an injury that has drastically altered their ability to sense and move in their world have the task of reexploring their body in relationship to their world in order to determine what new relationships exist between the two. Pavlov studied how humans and animals learn the association of two stimuli through the simple form of learning that is now called “classical conditioning.”
|Translation - Chinese|