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Source text - English http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the mid 1940s until the early 1990s. The main U.S. allies were Western Europe, Japan and Canada. The main Soviet allies were Eastern Europe and (until the Sino-Soviet split) the China. Throughout the period, the rivalry between the two superpowers was played out in multiple arenas: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and espionage; military, industrial, and technological developments, including the space race; costly defense spending; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race; and many proxy wars.
There never was a direct military engagement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, but there was a half-century of military buildup, and political battles for support around the world, including significant involvement of allied and satellite nations.
Although the U.S. and the Soviet Union had been allied against Nazi Germany, the two sides differed on how to reconstruct the postwar world even before the end of the Second World War. Over the following decades, the Cold War spread outside Europe to every region of the world, as the U.S. sought the "containment" of communism and forged numerous alliances to this end, particularly in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
The challenge of Nazi Germany forced the Western Allies and the Soviets into wartime cooperation. However, from the start, the alliance between the Soviet Union, the world's first Communist state, the United States, the world's leading economic power, and the United Kingdom, the world's largest colonial empire, were marked by mutual distrust and ideological tension.
Walter LaFeber argues the U.S. and Imperial Russia became rivals by 1900 over the development of Manchuria. Russia, unable to compete industrially with the U.S., sought to close off parts of East Asia to trade with other colonial powers. Meanwhile, the U.S demanded open competition for markets.
The ideological clash between communism and capitalism that began in 1917 following the Russian Revolution was the first event that would make Russian-American relations a matter of major concern to leaders in each country. In World War I, the U.S., Britain, and Russia had been allies until the Bolsheviks seized power in 1917. In 1918 the Bolsheviks negotiated a separate peace with the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk; and the Western Allies intervened in the Russian Civil War against revolutionary forces. After the war, the U.S. had refused to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933.After winning the civil war (see Russian Civil War), the Bolsheviks proclaimed a worldwide challenge to capitalism. (Fred Halliday)
The period of prewar diplomacy also left both sides wary of the other's intentions and motives in World War II. Each feared that the other might pull out of the war effort and make a separate settlement with Germany. Moscow recalled Western appeasement of Adolf Hitler after the signing of the Munich Pact in 1938. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt feared Joseph Stalin would once more make a settlement with Germany, as he had done in August 1939 with the German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact. (LaFeber 1991) From 1941 to 1945, the alliance was only a temporary aberration in the post-1890s relationship between Russia and America. (LaFeber 1991)
During the war, the Soviets were deeply suspicious of the U.S. military tactics and strategies. The Soviets believed at the time, and charged throughout the Cold War, that the British and Americans intentionally delayed the opening of a second front against Germany. (Gaddis, 151) As early as July 1941, Stalin had asked the UK to invade northern France, but the British were in no position to carry out the request. (Gaddis, 149) The second front was ultimately constituted on June 6, 1944, or D-Day. The Soviets suspected that the Anglo-Americans had decided to allow the Russians to bear the brunt of the war effort, but would intervene at the last minute to influence the peace settlement and dominate Europe. (Gaddis, 151) Historians such as John Lewis Gaddis dispute this claim, citing other military and strategic calculations for the timing of the Normandy invasion. (Gaddis, 151-153) But Soviet perceptions—or misperceptions—of the West and vice versa left an undercurrent of tensions and hostility between the Allied powers.
Moreover, both sides held very dissimilar concepts of establishing postwar security. Americans tended to understand security in situational terms, assuming that if U.S.-style governments and markets were established as widely as possible, states could resolve their differences peacefully through international organizations. (Gaddis, 176) The key to the U.S. vision of security was a postwar world shaped according to the principles laid out in the Atlantic Charter in 1941—a liberal international system based on free trade and open markets. This vision would require a rebuilt capitalist Europe with a healthy Germany at its center that could again serve as a hub in world affairs. (LaFeber 1991) It would also require U.S. economic and political leadership of the postwar world. Europe needed U.S. assistance to rebuild their domestic production and to finance their international trade. The U.S. was the only world power not economically devastated by the fighting. By the end of the war, the U.S. produced around fifty percent of the world's industrial goods. (LaFeber 1991)
Soviet leaders, however, tended to understand security in terms of space. (Gaddis, 176) This reasoning was conditioned by Russia's historical experiences, given the frequency with which their country had been invaded over the previous 150 years. (Gaddis, p. 176) The experiences of the Second World War were particularly dramatic for the Russians. The Soviet Union suffered unprecedented devastation as a result of the Nazi onslaught, and over 20 million Soviet citizens died during the war. Tens of thousands of Soviet cities, towns, and villages were leveled; and 30,100 Soviet factories were destroyed.  In order to prevent a similar assault in the future, Stalin was determined to use the Red Army to control Poland, dominate the Balkans, and destroy Germany's capacity for another war. However Stalin's strategy risked confrontation with the equally powerful United States.
Following the Allied victory in May, the Soviets effectively occupied the countries of Eastern Europe; and the U.S. occupied much of Western Europe. In occupied Germany the U.S. and the Soviet Union—the world's two superpowers, along with the waning colonial powers of Britain and France, established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control.
Translation - Chinese The college entrance examination system must be improved but cannot be readily abolished.
In 1977, the destiny of a generation was changed, because the college entrance examination system recovered after 11 years stalemate.
Thirty years quickly passed. A symposium of the Ministry of Education to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the resumption of the college entrance examination held in Dongguan, Guangdong Province from March 27th to 28th, the experts and scholars pointed out that the resumption of the college entrance examination is not simply a restoration of an examination system, but a reconstruction of social fairness and justice. While promoting education reform and development, the university entrance examination system must be further improved, but cannot be abolished.
The resumption of the college entrance examination has contributed greatly.
During the 30 years since the resumption of the college entrance examination, 36 million people have been enrolled in colleges and universities, and a large number of talents have been selected for the country according to data provided by the Ministry of education. Over the past 30 years, the admission rate of colleges and universities has increased significantly. In 1977, there were about 5.7 million applicants, the number of students admitted was about 270,000, with the acceptance rate was 4.7%. In 2006, the number of applicants was about 9.5 million, and 5.4 million students were enrolled, with the enrolment rate was 56.85%; planned to enrol 5.7 million in 2007. By the end of 2006. The gross enrolment rate of colleges and universities in China had reached 22%, and the popularization of higher education was realized.
Dai Jiagan, director of the examination centre of the Ministry of education, pointed out that these achievements are inseparable from the resumption of the college entrance examination. The resumption of the college entrance examination has provided equal development opportunities for people from different strata, enabled them to compete fairly at the same starting point, and reshaped the values of fairness and justice. The resumption of the college entrance examination laid the foundation for the reform and development of education, and has exerted a positive impact on the social and economic construction of the country, with a significant and profound that cannot be underestimated.
Jiang gang, deputy director-general of the department of college student affairs under the ministry of education, said that through 30 years of efforts, we have gradually established a system of enrolment and examination that suits China’s national conditions, which is dominated by unified examination, supplemented by separate examinations and exemption and admission of a small number of students. The college entrance examination has made great contributions to the selection of talents in China’s universities, and its scientific, faire and authoritative has been highly recognized by the whole society. It has been proved by practice that in China, a country with vast territory, relatively insufficient investment in education and unbalanced educational resources, the implementation of the college entrance examination system is the most economical, efficient and reasonable way to ensure the quality of freshmen enrolment, maintain education equity and satisfy the people to receive higher education.
The reform of college entrance examination never stops
Since the resumption of the college entrance examination, a variety of comments and criticisms have been heard. Especially with the resumption of the college entrance examination for 30 years, some people believe that the college entrance examination is not reformed, and there is no reform in education. Some even proposed abolishing the examination, and others argue that there is no need to change dramatically this exam.
In the face of various discussions and defamation, Dai Jiagan pointed out that no matter how people comment, there is a fact that exists objectively: the reform of the college entrance examination has been going on in the past 30 years, and the exploration has never stopped. From the standardized test to the trail implementation of the bail system; from the merger of college enrolment plans to the expansion of college enrolment, from the ‘3 plus X’ which emphasis on test ability, to Beijing, Anhui Spring college entrance Examination; from independent college enrolment to some provinces and cities self-proposition and so on, the reform has been advancing. Especially in recent years, the implementation of the sunshine project enrolment, the state started examination legislation, reform is moving forward in depth.