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Putri Utami
Detail-Oriented Translator Skilled in We

Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Jogjakarta), Indonesia
Local time: 01:38 WIB (GMT+7)

Native in: Indonesian (Variant: Javanese) Native in Indonesian
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Indonesian to English: Failure to Achieve Demographic Dividend: Learning from West Sumatra
General field: Science
Detailed field: Anthropology
Source text - Indonesian
Jurnal Populasi Volume 26 Nomor 1 2018

Ketidaktercapaian Bonus Demografi: Pembelajaran dari Sumatera Barat
Dian Sri Andriani, Agus Joko Pitoyo, dan Evita Hanie Pangaribowo

Indonesia tahun 2017, menurut CIA World Factbook, merupakan negara dengan jumlah penduduk terbanyak urutan keempat di dunia, yaitu 260.580.739 jiwa atau 3,51 persen dari total penduduk dunia. Besarnya jumlah penduduk ini akan memengaruhi struktur umur penduduk, baik distribusi maupun komposisi penduduk. Dinamika struktur umur penduduk disebabkan oleh berlangsungnya proses demografi, meliputi fertilitas, mortalitas, dan migrasi penduduk yang saling berpengaruh satu sama lain.
Transisi demografi sebagai proses awal telah menggambarkan terjadinya dinamika struktur umur penduduk yang ditandai dengan menurunnya mortalitas dan fertilitas. Bloom, et.al. (2011) mendeskripsikan transisi demografi sebagai transisi menurunnya angka mortalitas dan fertilitas, dengan penurunan mortalitas mendahului penurunan fertilitas sebagai akibat dari kemajuan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan. Struktur umur penduduk Indonesia juga telah mengalami proses transisi demografi.
Ananta (1997) menguraikan bahwa transisi demografi telah terjadi tahun 1950-an saat penurunan mortalitas yang cepat sehingga turut memengaruhi perubahan jumlah, komposisi, dan pertumbuhan penduduk Indonesia yang cepat pula. Pada 1997-an terjadi penurunan fertilitas sehingga angka pertumbuhan penduduk periode 1980 sampai 1990-an juga menurun dengan cepat.
Transisi demografi tersebut telah mengantarkan Indonesia pada proses demografi selanjutnya yang dikenal dengan bonus demografi. Berbagai literatur studi kependudukan menggunakan istilah bonus demografi untuk menggambarkan keuntungan ekonomis yang diterima oleh suatu daerah atau negara akibat menurunnya rasio ketergantungan (dependency ratio), yaitu besarnya jumlah penduduk umur produktif (15-64 tahun) dibandingkan dengan penduduk non produktif (0-14 tahun dan 65 tahun ke atas). Suatu daerah dianggap dapat menikmati bonus demografi apabila dependency ratio berada di bawah angka 50.
Bonus demografi di Indonesia telah dimulai sejak tahun 2012, yaitu ketika dependency ratio Indonesia berada di bawah angka 50 dan akan mencapai titik terendah tahun 2028- 2031 (Kominfo, 2014). Hal itu berarti bahwa penduduk umur produktif berjumlah dua kali lipat dibandingkan dengan penduduk yang bukan umur produktif. Namun, proses transisi demografi di Indonesia tidak serta-merta menunjukkan adanya perjalanan yang sama untuk setiap provinsi. Akibatnya, tidak semua provinsi akan menerima bonus demografi. Berdasarkan hasil proyeksi penduduk tahun 2010-2035, terdapat beberapa provinsi yang belum akan menerima bonus demografi hingga tahun 2035, salah satunya adalah Sumatera Barat. Hal ini disebabkan oleh dependency ratio Sumatera Barat yang masih tinggi.
Dependency ratio Sumatera Barat tahun 2010 adalah 57,7 per 100 penduduk produktif, sedangkan Indonesia telah menempati angka 50,5 tahun yang sama. Dependency ratio Sumatera Barat pun diproyeksikan belum akan menyentuh angka 50 hingga tahun 2035, padahal suatu daerah dikatakan dapat menikmati bonus demografi apabila dependency ratio berada di bawah angka 50. Kominfo (2014) berasumsi bahwa penyebab Provinsi Sumatera Barat tidak dapat memasuki fase bonus demografi karena adanya tradisi merantau (migrasi keluar) oleh masyarakat setempat, terutama bagi penduduk usia produktif. Namun, dinamika pertumbuhan penduduk di suatu daerah tidak hanya dipengaruhi oleh migrasi, tetapi juga oleh fertilitas dan mortalitas sebagai kesatuan komponen yang memengaruhi berlangsungnya proses demografi. Pencapaian dependency ratio saat ini merupakan hasil dari perjalanan proses demografi beberapa dekade sebelumnya.
Secara demografis, apabila mortalitas mengalami penurunan, maka pengaruh yang diberikan dapat dilihat dari meningkatnya jumlah bayi hidup yang sekaligus akan menambah jumlah penduduk usia produktif di masa mendatang. Sementara itu, fertilitas memberikan dampak positif apabila mengalami penurunan karena dapat mengurangi proporsi penduduk muda dan dependency ratio penduduk muda (0-14 tahun). Dewasa ini proses transisi demografi juga sangat dipengaruhi oleh migrasi penduduk sebagai variabel penambah atau pengurang jumlah penduduk di suatu daerah.
Fenomena migrasi di Sumatera Barat diwarnai oleh tradisi merantau dan dapat disaksikan bahwa saat ini banyak orang Minangkabau tersebar di pulau-pulau di Indonesia. Naim (2013) mengemukakan bahwa karakteristik migran keluar (perantau) pada umumnya adalah penduduk usia produktif, yaitu rentang usia 15 sampai 64 tahun. Asumsinya adalah banyaknya penduduk produktif yang bermigrasi keluar daerah menyebabkan proporsi penduduk produktif berkurang dan nantinya berdampak pada tingginya dependency ratio.
Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini akan memaparkan berlangsungnya ketiga komponen demografi di Sumatera Barat secara time series guna mengetahui pengaruh yang diberikan terhadap perubahan struktur umur penduduk yang mengakibatkan Sumatera Barat tidak dapat meraih bonus demografi.
Translation - English
Jurnal Populasi Volume 26 No. 1 2018

Failure to Achieve Demographic Dividend: Learning from West Sumatra
Dian Sri Andriani, Agus Joko Pitoyo, dan Evita Hanie Pangaribowo

According to the CIA World Factbook, Indonesia ranked the 4th most populous country in the world in 2017, with population 260,580,739 or equivalent to 3.51% of the world's total population. This vast number would influence the age structure of a population, both in distribution and composition of population. The dynamics of the the age structure of a population are the results from the ongoing demographic processes. This includes three factors which affect each other - fertility, mortality, and migration.
Demographic transition as an initial process, illustrates the dynamics of the age structure of a population. This transition is characterized by the declining in mortality and fertility rates. Bloom, et.al. (2011) describes demographic transition as a switch from high mortality and fertility rates to low ones. Mortality decline precedes fertility decline are the consequences of scientific and technological advances in the public health. The age structure of Indonesia population also has sustained a demographic transition process.
Ananta (1997) lists a demographic transition occurred in the 1950s when mortality rate declined rapidly and contributed to the abrupt changes in the number, composition, and growth of Indonesia's population. In 1997, there was also fertility decline and resulted sudden decline in the 1980s and 1990 population growth rates.
This demographic transition has led Indonesia to the next demographic process known as demographic bonus also known as demographic dividend. Several population studies use the term demographic dividend to describe the occurrence of accelerated economic growth in a province or a country that stems from the decrease of dependency ratio (0-14 years and 65 years and above) compared to the working-age population (15-64 years). A province or a a country is considered to be able to enjoy a demographic dividend if the dependency ratio is less than 50.
Since 2012 demographic dividend has been started in Indonesia, exactly when Indonesia's dependency ratio is less than 50 and will reach the lowest point in 2028-2031 (Kominfo, 2014). It means population of the working-age population is twice as large as the population of the dependents (i.e.,children and elderly). However, the demographic transition process in Indonesia does not necessarily indicate the same progress for each province. Therefore, not all provinces will receive demographic dividends. Based on the results of population projections for 2010-2035, there are many provinces that will not receive demographic dividends until 2035, one of them is West Sumatra. The failure to achieve demographic dividend in West Sumatra is caused by the province’s high ratio dependency.
West Sumatra in 2010 had dependency ratio 57.7 per 100 productive population, while data from the Government of Indonesia’s official projections, Indonesia had the total ratio 50.5 per 100 productive population the same year. West Sumatra dependency ratio was also projected would not reach 50 until 2035. Therefore, West Sumatra would not be able to achieve demographic dividend soon.
Kominfo (2014) deduces that West Sumatra cannot achieve demographic dividend phase due to the local community tradition of migration, especially the departure of the working-age residents. However, the dynamics population growth in a region are not merely influenced by migration, but also by the decline and increase of fertility and mortality as a unified components that influence the ongoing demographic process. The current achievement of the dependency ratio is the continuity result of previous decades demographic processes.
Demographically, if mortality declines, the number of newborn will increase. Gains newborn babies can be attributed to the growth of working-age in the future. Meanwhile, the decline of fertility has a positive impact, since it can it can reduce the proportion the young population and the dependency ratio of young population (0-14 years). However, nowadays the demographic transition process is also strongly influenced by migration as the adding or subtracting variable to a population in a certain region.
The migration in West Sumatra is rooted in merantau (overseas) tradition, a traditional rite of passage where a man leaves his home to pursue a career or gain experience outside of the village. Over half of the Minangkabau people can be considered overseas Minangkabaus. They make up a significant minority in every province in Indonesia. Naim (2013) argues that working-age population is the one of characteristics of overseas Minangkabaus in general, which is the age range of 15 to 64 years old. He proposes a hypothesis that the large number of working-age population overseas causes the decrease in proportion of working-age population in a region and will later alter on the rate of dependency ratio.
Therefore, this article presents the progress of each three demographic components in West Sumatra using time series analysis. This progress analysis intends to determine the outcomes that alter the age structure of a population which causes West Sumatra fail to achieve demographic dividend.
English to Indonesian: Kondisi Sosial Ekonomi dan Kehidupan Buruh Migran Lokal di Kota Visakhapatnam, India
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Anthropology
Source text - English
Jurnal Populasi Volume 26 Nomor 2 2018

Socio-Economic and Living Conditions of Internal Migrant Labour Living in Visakhapatnam City, India
Godi Rajendra Varma, Konathala Geethakumari, and Godi Sudhakar

India as a nation has seen a high internal migration rate in recent years. The 64th National Sample Survey (NSS) of India estimated that there were around 326 million migrants (i.e., 28.5% of the population) in 2007-08 in India and witnessed an increased internal urban migration (NSSO 2010). An analysis of data of 64th round of National Sample Survey (NSS) concluded that among these internal migrants, there is a substantial proportion of poorer migrants involved in low paid and low earning jobs, primarily in the informal sector (Srivastava, 2011). Most people migrate because of a combination of push and pull factors. Lack of rural employment, fragmentation of land holdings and declining public investment in agriculture create a crisis for rural Indians. Urban areas and some rural areas with industrial development or high agricultural production offer better prospects for jobs or self-employment. Contrary to common perception the search for jobs is more often within the same state than in other state. About 9 million persons were intra-state migrants often within the district while 5 million went to other states. The intra-state figures include people moving from villages to nearby towns and cities in search of better jobs. Over 5.7 million persons who moved in search of jobs migrated from rural to urban areas. Another 4.5 million migrated within the rural areas looking for work. Seasonal migrants are usually “oppressed” castes, which have been subjected to untouchability and other highly impoverished sections that migrate out to work in harvesting seasons or on construction sites, in brick kilns, etc. They usually go out to pay their debts and to survive.
Visakhapatnam is the largest city in Andhra Pradesh, a southern Indian state. The city’s population is 2.03 million in 2011 (Census of India, 2011). Visakhapatnam is ranked 122 in the list of world’s fastest-growing cities. Due to industrialization and migration, number of slums in the city are getting added every year to the existing slums. The population of Visakhapatnam has increased considerably over the last few decades with its municipal purview increasing from time to time and due to migration from other parts of the countries in search of livelihood. With the population, the number of slums also has gone up. In 1981, when the population was 5.6 lakh. the number of slums was 140 and slum population estimated was less than 25% of the total population. Another survey in 2003 put the number at 350 slums with 32% of the 9.62 lakh population living in slums. Between 1991 and 2001 owing to migration of people living in surrounding areas the decadal population growth in the city is 75%. After the merger of 32 villages and Gajuwaka municipality the present number of slums is estimated at 741 with about 6 lakh population (38% of the total 16 lakh population living in slums). Visakhapatnam, under Greater Visakha Municipal Corporation, was identified as one of the ‘million-plus’ cities, with the highest slum population (44.1%) in the country to the total urban population. The population crossed two million mark after the expansion of the city limits and now stands at 2.03 million (Government of Andhra Pradesh, 2016). There has been a successive increase in the number of poor migrants, who came from rural areas and with the extension of the city limits, areas which were with poor infrastructure and basic amenities got included within the city limits. The total slum population of Visakhapatnam city is 0.77 million. The present paper reports few socio-economic characteristics and their living conditions of poor migrant labour living in Visakhapatnam city, India.
Translation - Indonesian
Jurnal Populasi Volume 26 Nomor 2 2018

Kondisi Sosial Ekonomi dan Kehidupan Buruh Migran Lokal di Kota Visakhapatnam, India
Godi Rajendra Varma, Konathala Geethakumari, dan Godi Sudhakar
India dalam beberapa tahun terakhir memiliki tingkat migrasi lokal tinggi. Survei Sampel Nasional India ke-64 (SSN) memperkirakan sekitar 326 juta migran lokal (28,5% populasi) pada 2007-08, data juga menunjukkan peningkatan signifikan perpindahan penduduk ke kota (NSSO 2010). Analisis data SNN ini menyimpulkan bahwa diantara para migran lokal, ada proposi cukup besar migran miskin berperkerjaan dengan upah rendah, terutama di sektor informal (Srivastava, 2011).
Sebagian besar penduduk berpindah disebabkan oleh kombinasi faktor pendorong dan penarik migrasi yaitu minimnya lapangan kerja di pedesaan, fragmentasi kepemilikan tanah dan menurunnya investasi publik di bidang pertanian sehingga menciptakan krisis bagi masyarakat pedesaan India. Daerah perkotaan dan sejumlah daerah pedesaan yang memiliki berkembangan tingkat pembangunan industri atau produksi pertanian tinggi menawarkan prospek pekerjaan atau wirausaha yang lebih baik. Bertentangan dengan persepsi umum, pencarian peluang kerja kerap kali terjadi dalam lingkup nasional bukan lingkup antar negara.
Sekitar 9 juta migran lokal berpindah di dalam satu daerah, sementara 5 juta migran internasional berpindah ke negara bagian lain. Angka perpindahan migran lokal ini meliputi migran yang berpindah dari desa ke kota-kota terdekat untuk mencari peluang pekerjaan yang lebih baik. Lebih dari 5,7 juta migran pindah dari desa ke kota untuk mencari pekerjaan. 4,5 juta lainnya bermigrasi dari desa ke desa untuk berburu lowongan pekerjaan. Para migran musiman ini biasanya merupakan kasta yang “tertindas,” mereka adalah korban diskriminasi minoritas dan golongan miskin. Mereka berpindah untuk bekerja pada musim panen atau ke proyek konstruksi, ke tempat pembakaran batu bata, dll. Mereka biasanya berpindah ke luar daerahnya untuk membayar hutang dan untuk bertahan hidup.
Visakhapatnam adalah kota terbesar di Andhra Pradesh, sebuah negara bagian India selatan. Kota ini berpopulasi 2,03 juta jiwa pada tahun 2011 (Sensus India, 2011). Visakhapatnam menduduki peringkat 122 dalam daftar kota dengan pertumbuhan tercepat di dunia. Industrialisasi dan migrasi menyebabkan jumlah daerah kumuh di kota ini bertambah setiap tahun.
Populasi Visakhapatnam telah meningkat pesat selama beberapa dekade terakhir, wilayah munisipalitasnya pun menjadi bertambah dari waktu ke waktu disebabkan oleh migrasi penduduk dari berbagai daerah untuk mencari penghidupan. Kenaikan populasi ini juga menyebabkan meningkatnya jumlah permukiman kumuh. Pada 1981, Visakhapatnam berpopulasi 560.000 jiwa, jumlah daerah kumuh hanya 140 sehingga populasi daerah kumuh diperkirakan kurang dari 25% dari total populasi. Survei lain pada tahun 2003 menyebutkan jumlah daerah kumuh bertambah menjadi 350, 32% dari populasi yaitu 962.000 jiwa tinggal di daerah kumuh. Dalam kurun waktu10 tahun, antara 1991 dan 2001, populasi penduduk naik drastis 75% karena migrasi di area sekitar. Setelah penggabungan 32 desa dan kotamadya Gajuwaka, jumlah daerah kumuh saat ini diperkirakan menjadi 741 dengan sekitar 600.000 populasi (38% dari total 1.600.000 populasi yang tinggal di daerah kumuh).
Perusahaan munisipalitas Greater Visakha mengidentifikasi Visakhapatnam, sebagai salah satu kota ‘sejuta-plus’, dengan populasi daerah kumuh tertinggi (44,1%) dibandingkan total populasi perkotaan di negara ini. Populasi kota ini menembus batas dua juta jiwa setelah perluasan batas kota dan hingga sekarang mencapai 2,03 juta (Data Pemerintah Andhra Pradesh, 2016).
Telah terjadi peningkatan jumlah migran miskin datang dari daerah pedesaan. yang berturut-turut. Ditambah lagi adanya perpanjangan batas kota, daerah-daerah dengan infrastruktur yang buruk dan fasilitas seadanya menjadi bagian dari wilayah kota. Populasi kumuh total kota Visakhapatnam adalah 0,77 juta. Artikel ini melaporkan beberapa karakteristik sosial-ekonomi dan kondisi kehidupan dari buruh migran miskin yang tinggal di kota Visakhapatnam, India.

Translation education Master's degree - Universitas Sebelas Maret
Experience Years of experience: 4. Registered at ProZ.com: Jun 2019.
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Bio

I am Putri, a linguaphile, an information wrangle, a long-life learner, armed with a bachelor’s degree in education training, years of teaching and a master degree in Linguistics.

To support my abilities, I speak, write and read proper English. I have a great interest in writing and translating

 I love new experiences, meeting with diverse people. I enjoy all kinds of discussion, from the civic-minded to the absurd topics.

Among my varying experiences hospitality service and teaching, skill are my top strengths. Despite the short span of service, I deeply comprehend the core concepts of both positions.

I also have a talent for thinking outside the box and coming up with innovative ideas and designs by dabbling with the usage of current technology.

Keywords: Indonesian, Bahasa, Social Science, Linguistics, Linguistics Systemic Functional, English, Humanity, Philosophy, Theology, Religion, Politics


Profile last updated
Nov 12, 2019



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