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Blue Board entries made by this user
Sample translations submitted: 23
English to Chinese: Bric conference 2018 General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English BRICS 2018
So BRICS was founded on the principal that BRICS which represents about half the humanity on earth adopts a project providing credit for the high technology development projects, educating the youth to meet growth challenges of the future. Full respect for national sovereignty, banishing the imperial policy of regime change and wars and explicit promotions of the common good amongst nations.
Distinguished guests, ladies and gentleman, on behalf of the Minister of Finance the Honorable Mr Nhlanhla Nene, its gives me great pleasure to extend a warm hand of welcome to all of you. I must on behalf of my colleagues at the South African Revenue Service also express my sincere appreciation to all of you who had made the long trip to South Africa. We are truly great full that you have honored our invitation, with your esteemed presence in the port city of Durban, which is our gateway to the Indian ocean. I do want to just say on my behalf welcome to South Africa. It’s good to have you here. And I trust your stay will be fruitful, productive and we will really make inroads into the agenda that we have set ourselves as customs in our area. But thank you very much for coming and welcome again.
Thank you very much.
We’ve had a fantastic day one, here in Durban. It’s a real pleasure to be in South Africa. I think there’s been various presentations, We’ve discussed how we can all join hands in combating various types of enforcement related crimes, how we can learn from each other’s experiences, various dimensions of customs technology, customs management, be it risk based management, be it authorized economic operators for better trade, faster trade, of facilitation, in other words, how we can look at joining hands in capacity building, so I think there’s been some excellent deliberations, we’ve been able to move forward and collectively it’s been a win win win situation for the BRICS.
Today we start the day with good spirits, let’s say.
So today we complete our conclusions, we look forward to endorse them during the heads of customs meeting.
We want to improve our cooperation by making practical approaches. Step by step practical approaches
BRICS countries customs meeting is one of most important mechanism for BRICS countries summit.
Indeed, we would welcome opportunities and explore further opportunities to ensure that globally as a group we able to enhance our capacity building activities.
A very good point which has been made is about formulating a BRICS index for ease of doing business and cross border trade. I think this is something which needs further working apon and India would be happy to engage as a country while formulating the ease of doing business index for BRICS
What was significant about today was that indeed all the resolutions were adopted.
So for me the significate things was about the endorsement about the resolutions that the technical working group have been working over the past two days. So overall it was a success.
Colleagues and friends, we have set ourselves realistic, measurable, time bound as well as specific targets around the process of reaching an agreement in the customs mutual assistance agreement
The key theme if anything that we have to take away from Ethekwini (Durban) and the defining theme has to be about the CMAA. So the consensus that we sort to archive over the past couple of days was on the legal instrument. So the following resolutions were adopted chairperson, a discussion on the revised drafts CMA to be held on the sideline of the WCO council and I can safely report that we are almost at 90% of that agreement and we are quite optimistic that we will be able to on the margins of the WCO council be able to reach finality on this document. We also agreed on the formulation of the joint enforcement operation based on the resolutions that I shared early on, the bi-lateral sharing of best practices on lessons learnt on IEO and Reece methodologies and the conceptualization on the BRICS customs training center and the strengthening of collaboration at WCO.
When we take the visit to the harbor, we see our colleagues coordinated the different departments co-operate to each other on customs enforcements and anti-smuggling
You know if you trying to use a helicopter to co-ordinate from different departments customs and navy’s and marines are not easy in our country, so through this I think we need still learn from SARS in doing our work.
It was very interesting to see how the South African customs work. I really enjoyed learning about all the capacities that SARS has in the customs area.
It was a very good experience and another chance to talk with the colleagues from the state members in another environment, so it was a very amazing opportunity to see and to experience new things.
To say thank you to the organizers at SARS for hosting this meeting, and preparing such a beautiful social event so we can go deeper into the African culture and learn more about our neighbors and friends thank you.
I must say that South African and particularly Durban, a beautiful place to come, my first visit, I went around places met people and let me say this much that I think there is a great need for more people to people movement between India and South Africa with Durban being the gate way port, so let’s hope in that future we have a direct connective as well.
I will say I sincerely appreciate to SARS, Who made an excellent organizers on this meeting
Ultimately we can only look forward to you know reflecting, reading the resolutions, looking at the pictures, reminiscing about the four days that we had here which were tough but they also had their moments of fun. And so all in all it was a great event round.
As hosts of the tax and customs meeting the South African Revenue Services is truly proud to play the role in pursuit of the BRICS agenda, an agenda that seeks to complement the exceptional work of the heads of state and government officials.
I think it helps that it’s not the first BRICS engagement that has taken place. It is a relationship that exists and with relationships always facilities the collaboration.
The objective of these discussions will be to find agreement, reach consensus and most importantly implementation.
What I really wanted to take about was the fourth industrial revolution in particular I would like to talk about artificial intelligence which is a field that I have been working on for the past twenty one years. This is when we are going to make machines intelligent. They are going to do things that we as human beings do. And the implications of that and tax revenues is going to be extensive. Because of the number of tax payers are going to decrease, the amount of taxes that are actually collected, are also going to decrease. That is a crisis. What sort of frame work can we collectively as BRICS as the world put together so that we are able to avoid a tax avoidance?
From the conventional tax administration to artificial intellengence, in day one we covered almost everything.
Half the population of the world is within the BRICS countries and if the BRICS countries operated well, the chances of the BRICS countries being able to surpass the G7’s of this world or at least if not surpass at least give them a good run for their money, is very high.
Just on behalf of the South African Revenue services and on behalf of the country want to welcome our fellow tax men and I like that term, which I am one of them. We looking forward to engagements and its important that we get to know each other because its only through co-operation that we can cross certain divides which impact us as tax authority’s in the country.
Tax as we know it today will not be able to manage if our auditors as an example or our lawyers do not understand the new technology world that we going to be operating in. The transformation not only suggests an exciting new era of business development but also implies a strong likely hood of disruption. We also going to have to see that or recognize resulting shifts and disruptions mean that we live in a time of great promise and great pedal. The fourth industrial revolution is within the control of all of us, as long as we are able to collaborate across geographies, sectors and disciplines to grasp the opportunity it presents.
Most of the countries here have the understanding that the crypto currency doesn’t have the grounds to be considered as a currency in fact, so it’s a digital asset, Its subject to capital gains when you have, but there is a concern that when you use this to directly trade for goods or other assets and you don’t have how to trace it, how to control it, how to have access to that. So I think we’ve done a very important work recently in terms of transparency and the global form leading and including everybody on board and I will call for a special attention to that and to keep something homogeneous and workable in the future for the tax administrations
The BRICS collaborations developing in the countries and tax administrations of BRICS countries are ready to contribute and to come closer. I think this is the best outcome of today’s discussions.
As South Africans we love connecting, Ubuntu is key to what we do. Being able to connect, being able to share experiences, being able to learn from one another, that’s something we all appreciate it and we try and build on that with each engagement
A very good morning to each of you here today, a special welcome to South Africa and in particular to Sandton Johannesburg. I’m honored to address the BRICS heads of Tax authorities meeting, which is taking place for the first time here in South Africa. I’m particularly pleased that the seniority of the official representing the BRICS tax authorities at these meetings, this serves to underline the importance that member states place on promoting, co-operation that we will be discussing between our tax administration within the BRICS framework. We have no choice but to make sure that we as tax collectors are well equipped with the necessary skills and resources to match the challenges that are brought about by the fourth Industrial revolution. What is of paramount importance is for us as BRICS tax authorities to translate and convert our talks into BRICS projects with achievable objectives. No use setting objectives that we cannot deliver on, they need to be achievable. I don’t want this to be just talk, I want it to be do, that we do something practically and make sure that we don’t spend all this money coming together just for a talk shop, but make sure we actually do something
The role of the BRICS dialog and co-operation cannot be under estimated, as member states together we account for 30% of global land mass, 42% of global population and 22% of worlds gross domestic product and 44% of worlds agricultural production. This is a huge share of the world’s economy and just emphasis the importance of BRICS co-operation. The BRICS platform is aimed at promoting peace, security, prosperity and developments. And the basis for economic co-operation between our countries is increasing.
Our collective reports in this forum and in other multi-lateral forums, have risen in significant transparency in exchange of information for tax purpose. In this context BRICS platform also provides for a very active and robust forum to engage in exploring ways to achieve a fine balance between facilitation for tax payers and enforcement. The BRICS forum provides for an excellent opportunity to synergize and co-operate with each other, in meeting our common challenges and goal. Let us build upon this momentum generated for a strong meaningful and lasting partnership. Thank you ladies and gentleman, thank you very much.
I got very surprised and very touched with the fact that we are very similar. People in South Africa are very like Brazilians. The way you receive people, people always happy, people love dancing and singing and parting and these are way of life, is very similar to Brazil. It was a surprise to me because I have some descendants that are Portuguese , that came from Portugal, my great grandfather. But it was interesting to know that in fact internally which may be more Africans than Europeans in fact.
The reason for your presence is simply yet profound, it communicates a message we want to send as members of BRICS that we have no choice but to work together across government and across borders if we are to find meaningful solutions to the challenges we face. The discussion over the past 3 days have focused largely on the challenges and opportunities tax administrations face in the fourth industrial revolution. The meetings also discuss practical challenges such as tax avoidance, schemes and trade miss pricing as well as capacity building.
Given the speed in which we are entering the fourth industrial revolution, we find ourselves at an important juncture, both in government and in business. The choices we make now will determine our futures and that of the generations to follow after us. An important consideration is how we pro- actively prepare ourselves for the inevitable changes that will be confronting us. The bottom line is simple Mr programme director, every Rand, Ruble, Rupee, Real and Renminbi collected by the BRICS tax administration makes a difference in the lives of 3,2 billion BRICS citizens. It is critically important that we learn from one another, we share experiences and best practices. The role that our respective revenue administrations play in our economies, is in estimable, it is a launch pad for all our prosperity, we must not fail in discharging this responsibility. Ladies and gentlemen in closing I wish you a lovely evening and a successful conclusion to the meeting tomorrow. Please enjoy the dinner and entertainment programme. Which is a typical example of South Africa’s hospitality. I thank you.
The South African Revenue services has left no stone unturned to make us feel at home and make this conference a memorable one
It’s really a very good platform for fruitful discussions. I’m very much impressed of how lively the discussion was. I enjoyed it very much and I do see that this is something that can be really big and important for our tax administrations.
please accept my sincere congratulations on such a successful event. This meeting a well organized by SARS, both logically and in terms on contents
Translation - Chinese 金砖国家 2018 00:29 金砖机制成立的原则是，代表全球约一半人口的这几个国家通过这样一个项目，为高 科技发展项目提供贷款，并教会年轻一代面对未来的增长挑战。充分尊重国家主权， 废除政权更迭和战时的帝国政策，明确促进各国间的共同利益。
English to Chinese: investment memorandum General field: Marketing
Source text - English Introduction
Platinum MAP (“MAP”) is an investment holding company with an interest in utility scale infrastructure projects in off-grid energy and ICT. Specifically, MAP Telecom was formed to meet the demand for highly skilled organisations that are able to deliver world class services in the Fibre Optic and Telecommunications industry. MAP key persons are Calvin Maphatswane, Sibongile Tutu and Viwe Soga. Key members of the ICT management team include Glynn Lomberg (COO), Shammy Hendricks (COO) and Rodney Harding (FM).
MAP plans to acquire a private profit company that owns, as its principal income generating asset, a substantial fibre back-bone network in South Africa. The Target has indicated a willingness to sell 100% of the authorised share capital to MAP, for an indicative purchase consideration of R250-million (or R250,000/share). The target company has an imputed annual EBITDA of R16-million, thus sellers have valued the equity at a multiple of 13.7x EBITDA.
MAP is raising mezzanine funding to acquire the Target. MAP will offer R225-million for the network, budgeting R55-million for initial required upgrades, working capital and maintenance. A further R511-million is required over 10-years to achieve full growth potential. The network has an estimated replacement value of R145-million, implying a goodwill element priced in at R79-million. This R79-million is the value allocated, therefore, to regulatory licenses and other long-term strategic partnerships quasi-exclusive or unique to the Target (these goodwill attributes are defensible, and very hard to replicate).
• Total Capital Raise: R791-million [R280m(‘19); R65m (‘20); R203m (‘24); R242m (‘29]
• Equity: R110-million, for a 49% share;
o Forecast RoE: 20.56%;
• Debt (vendor funding to MAP): R115-million, to purchase the 51% remaining share;
o Debt funding terms: 20-years;
o Nominal Rate: Prime Lending Rate;
o Rate reference: https://www.resbank.co.za/.
• Working capital: R55-million (initial); R511-million (2020, 2024, 2029)
o Structure: Shareholder loans to Company
o Nominal Rate: Prime lending rate
Funder and industrial partner can acquire up to 75% of controlling equity in the Target company, however MAP invest should retain an option to re-acquire 26% from the investor after 5-years at a market related price (based on a pre-agreed multiple of audited EBITDA).
Equity IRR presumes an exit year of 2035, and an Exit Valuation (terminal) of 8x Net Earnings After Tax.
CPI (Annual Bed Rate Escalation) 5.00%
PPI (Annual Input Cost Escalation) 4.10%
Annual Top Line Growth 9.52%
Detailed CV for
CEO - Glynn Lomberg
Shammy Hendricks - Operations Manger
Rodney Harding – Procurement Manager
Managing Director (Chairman) - Calvin Maphatswane
Marketing Director - Sibongile Tutu
HOW: MARKETING & GROWTH PLAN
Marketing Decision Making
Defining the Issue
The Current Network has certain customers and certain limitations, It is evident that the existing network was designed for fulfil a core network role. The design is fit for purpose but it does not promote significant growth in customer base.
For the customer base to grow, the network will require fundamental changes that will allow it to get closers to the customer base, and it will need to evolve to deliver a host of new services. These changes will allow the network to compete in a market that it cannot contest at this point in time.
Visibility to target market
The proposed market in our case is that of a wholesaler of network, Passive and Active. It is not our intention to sell directly to the end user, rather, we will build our network all the way to the end customer but will stop at a layer 2.
Courses of action
The network as it stands can only access limited amount of new business. A Metro network will be required to get closer to the customer. There will also be a requirement to close the network to Brits on the R24. This will allow us to provide customers with a business SLA with full diversity.
These factors are out of the control of the marketer and The Customer. We must;
Know our competitors, study strengths and shortfalls.
Understand the market, and The Customers current position in the market.
Understand buyers and their thought processes when looking for other service providers.
Opportunity, Market Segmentation
Identifying new types of customers will be largely dependent on the products that this network will offer. The current market is serviced over 3 layers.
Layer 1, Physical Layer is the most capital intensive and thus this segment has very few players, such as the major Telco’s
Layer 2, Data Layer sees many more large networking organisations that use the major Telco’s.
Layer 3, the network layers has a varied service provider base, from the local ISP to the Major Telco’s.
With the implementation of network being the most capital intensive, many Major Telco’s, large networking companies and a myriad of ISP’s prefer to lease layer 1 or layer 2 services.
Vodacom, and MTN and to lesser degree, Cell C has over that last few years opted to lease fibre services to their base stations from specialist fibre operators such as DFA and Link Africa. They are of the opinion that money would be better spent building more base stations rather that deploying a fibre network.
Many of them have invested in building core routes or routes with high priority, but the bulk of the base stations are still been carried by specialist fibre operators.
The large network companies like IS, Seacom, DD, BCX etc, prefer to use service providers that offer a layer 2 service that will interconnect at data centres.
With the huge drive for FTTH access and Distribution networks, we can leverage our core network to backhaul exsiting providers such as Vumatel, etc. In areas that are close to our core network, we will build a FTTH access network and lease the network on a layer 2 basis as open access
This will include breaking down or the building up of potential buyers into groups. Each segment possesses a homogenous characteristic that will relate to their purchasing behaviour and response to marketing techniques and properties aimed at their segment.
Major Telcos, Core network closure, VC, MTN, CellC, Telkom
Metro network to Base Stations
Large Network Companies
Virgin Mobile, and other VNOs
WHAT: TARGET BACKGROUND
1. Graphical representation of the existing fibre route
2. Metro route duct configuration
3. Graphical representation of the duct and fibre configuration – Teraco to Proefplaas
4. Graphical representation of the duct and fibre configuration – Teraco to Proefplaas
5. Graphical representation of the duct and fibre configuration – Teraco to Proefplaas
6. Graphical representation of the duct configuration – Bakwena section – Proefplaas to Rustenburg
7. Strategic position of SAS – Points of presence/aggregation hubs and strategic value
Each of the Spurs mentioned below are connected via an additional 24km’s of 32mm HDPE duct and a 72 core Fibre cable. SAS Networks bisects the Automotive and ICT industries almost as a linear pass through these segments
Teraco Isando – Vendor Neutral Data Centre and peering point
Waterfall Estate/Waterfall City Ad Outpost/Waterfall Building
The Innovation Hub – Proefplaas (Blue IQ) Dept of Economic Development
AIDC – Rosslyn - (Blue IQ) under Dept of Economic Development
Brits – Infogro Private ISP facility
Rustenburg – Telkom Highsite under management of TFMC
8. SAS’ Proximity to Gauteng metro and suburbs
The Eastern Development Corridor
The EDC is managed by CoE, the hub of manufacturing, logistics and transport industries.
The largest project is the establishment of the Aerotropolis, aimed at revitalising manufacturing, aviation, transport and logistics industries linked to the OR Tambo International Airport. The Aerotropolis Master Plan and other projects has since begun.
The CoE together with the private sector are engaing an effort to build the following:
International Trade Centre in Rhodefield
Aviation Simulation and Training Facility
The Green Reef Development
Gated Communities FTTH Opportunities
Premium Suburbs – Dowerglen, Dunvegan, Senderwood, Bedfordview
All at a cost of R102 billion
The Northern Development Corridor
The goal is to fuel the creation of:
New Industrial Developments, warehousing, distribution hubs, Commcercial Office Park
Micro and Macro Cities
City of Johannesburg, Central Development Corridor: provincial capital, finance, services, ICT and pharmaceutical industries, green and blue economy.
City of Ekurhuleni, Eastern Development Corridor: manufacturing, logistics and transport hub.
City of Tshwane, Northern Development Corridor: research, development, innovation and knowledge-based economy, tourism.
9. AEROTROPOLIS AND ASSOCIATED INDUSTRY EXPANSION
10. TSHWANE HAZELDEAN DEVELOPMENT WEST CAPITAL
The next picture showcases the US$385-million plan of the City of Tshwane to redevelop the western and surrounding parts of the city over the next five to eight years. The West Capital development project, as a mixed-use development, consists of residential accommodation, which will include a student village, retail and commercial components as well as inner-city housing.
The City of Tshwane is of Strategic importance to the country as a whole and is internationally significant. The intention is to build a vital central business area is. Tshwane the capital city, has however become somewhat dysfunctional with key areas of the city not forming part of the mainstream economic and social environments.
SAS Networks runs through the heart of this multi-billion rand Tshwane Upgrade
11. SAS’s Proximity as an enabler makes the 2020 “Smart Cities” vision a reality
Automotive Industry contributes 8.5% to GDP translates to R259 Billion annually 2/3 from platinum belt
AIDC to become the HUB of Auto City’s springboard to global competitive market
Communications Infrastructure will be key to unlocking this 2020 vision and rapidly ramp up from its current 45% growth curve
AIDC/NISSAN JV for Education and Training and houses centres of excellence
• Virtual reality training centres currently in production
Wonderboom Airport to become central HUB of air traffic activity supporting automotive value chain
Necsa, Ondersterpoort Research facility, Medunsa, George Mukhari, CSIR, TIH, AIDC, SPDC
Logistics – Rail & Road advanced infrastructure upgrades has started
BMW Rosslyn 1st award winning plant outside Germany, X3 (R6 Billion investment from 2015) features 30% of BMW’s global sales
• Manufactured more than 1,2 million cars since inception
• Investment bolsters the development, logistics, housing and services
12. AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY TURNOVER vs GDP vs EXPORT MARKETS
Which industries generate the highest turnover?
Turnover generated by the South African business sector in the second quarter of 2017
South Africa’s top 10 countries for vehicle export
South Africa passenger vehicle market exports
Blue IQ’s Annual Report is presented as a consolidated group report, encompassing the agency’s active subsidiaries annual results, these include:
• The Automotive Industry Development Centre (AIDC)
• The Supplier Park Development Company (SPDC)
• The Innovation Hub (TIH)
• The Gauteng Motorsport Company (GMSC)
• The Greater Newtown Development Company (Newtown)
Report for submission to the Legislature in compliance with the Public Finance Management Act regulations.
13. Commercial value in high density areas
The innovation hub – Proefplaas, AIDC – Rosslyn, Ford, Land Rover, Volvo, Mazda – Silverton and lastly yet to come Nazrec distribution facility are all facilities under Blue IQ which is managed by the department of economic development.
With SAS already collocating
at AIDC and TIH respectively, we seamlessly peer with incubators within these facilities an untapped commercial haven.
This explains the graphical detail expressed in slide number 11
• Formulate an integrated approach to all economic facets
• Blue IQ’s mandate is as follows:
o To uplift the automotive industry due to its contribution to Gauteng and national GDP
o Support the development of private networks to advance the ICT sector growing private and public broadband initiatives
o Supply connectivity to offspring FTTH complexes, low-medium-high ISM housing developments, retail, SMME’s SME’s corporates and enterprise clients
o Rama city development – Garankuwa
o Garankuwa industrial development programme
o Automotive and ICT incubation hubs
• 股本： 49%的股份，价值1.1亿兰特
• Blue IQ的使命如下：
o 加兰古华（Garankuwa）Rama city社区开发
English to Chinese: personal correspondence General field: Other
Source text - English Good day Mr Yi
The purpose of this letter is to raise major concerns I have about the waterpark and these concerns are threatening our relationship and ultimately our partnership.
I’ve also noticed that a lot of facts are getting lost in translation and I therefore got my own translator to ensure you understand the letter as it might be the first proper conversation we having since I met you 4 years ago.
1. My involvement in operations
We agreed that you will manage and operate the waterpark but due to cultural differences its leading to huge problems with staff, patrons, community and even myself.
I don’t wish to be part of operations but we have to find a local South African to manage and operate the waterpark whilst you just give advice and Tiko is not the correct person, I’ve advised you previously to let him go and I’m doing it again – he is contributing to the issues and will someday find another job after having caused damages.
I had a 2hour meeting with the neighbours and managed to get their favour and support for the waterpark again. We agreed on a number of things which have to be implemented immediately and this information have been passed to Grace and little Tim and I trust they will attend to it immediately.
The neighbours are supporting the waterpark again because I lied by saying I’m taking over operations, I don’t want to be operationally involved but we have to make drastic changes to give everyone the impression that I’m actually co-managing the facility.
Willie our immediate neighbour is extremely unhappy over a lot of things and he’s in the process of gathering information for his legal case against us but I’m meeting him to resolve issues.
The staff is unhappy and unhappy staff leads to problems.
They already stealing and selling tickets outside the paypoint and it will get worse because they being treated bad. The staff knows where money is kept and who the key people are so they will assist even robbers who plan on robbing the waterpark.
The staff will revolt and stop working which will result in the waterpark being closed for days and you won’t be able to dismiss them as the local labour laws allow them to protest when unhappy.
There is a huge cultural difference and the way you treat local workers might be normal in China but not here in South Africa and If you want the waterpark to be a success you have to start with the staff. Once again – if we get a local GM to run the facility he/she will know how to deal with them.
4. Service Providers
The Chinese management team made a lot of mistakes when they arrived and a lot of invalid contracts were put in place. Contracts we don’t need as its resulting in a lot of losses.
It’s the worst ticketing system in South Africa, the most expensive and worst service so we have to cancel it. We have a payment system on our website and it works perfectly
We should make the facility cashless and force people to pay upfront via our website , this way we know how many people to expect and its also much safer as there will be no cash on the property.
b. Tourist companies
There is no real control over the money they collect and when they paying it to Happy Island. I’m of the opinion that we don’t need them as people across the country know the waterpark and we therefore don’t have to pay them commission
5. Money handling
I have a major concern on how cash is handled on the property. There are drop safes but its not being utilised, cash is being taken from the paypoints and held in the office. This is not only a safety risk but also contravention of local tax regulations as we have to pay tax. If we don’t comply SARS will audit the business and have the legal authority to shut it down.
In South Africa there are only 2 entities that can destroy a business , banks (if they refuse to give you finance) and SARS. SARS paid us millions in VAT claims and we therefore being monitored so we have to make sure all money is properly accounted for tax is paid.
The facility requires immediate and urgent repairs and completion. The quality of construction is very poor at some areas and it’s letting the place look cheap and its evident that everything was rushed. The customers are aware that it’s only a pre-launch and expect for us to close for a while, lets use this closed time to review every feature and every building and fix whatever is required. Let’s focus on landscaping , paint all the small cottages, finalise restaurants and then only reopen. Please bear in mind that people expect the quality to be poor because of the stigma that go with Chinese products so lets do it right.
7. The impact on me
When you met me I was a successful businessman and that it what lured you to South Africa.
I’m a known businessman and I’m directly linked to Happy Island Waterworld .
I’m a family with a wife and kids dependent on me
I’m a brother with a brother and 3 x sisters dependent on me
I’m an employee with atleast 400 x people dependant on me.
For the past 3 x months I’ve been trying to convince you not to open and since the waterpark opened I’ve been trying to change your ways of doing things. Not because I want to dictate to you but because I’m aware of the negative impact it will have on myself, my family, my other employees and eventually you and your family.
I’ve spent many years building my businesses and reputation and all of this is now at stake because I’m linked to the waterpark but my partner in the waterpark don’t take any advice.
Based on the risk associated to the waterpark I decided to end my involvement in the waterpark and systematically cut all ties. Our agreement on food, beverages and events cannot be honoured because the waterpark operations must be 100% in order for me to get my side of the business going which at this point seems impossible.
My attorney will draft an official document but my terms are simple:
1. Immediate payment of R6m
2. An annual payment of R3m (potential income on restaurants, events, food& beverages)
I will stay on as a non-executive director because the law dictates you have a local partner, I’ll assist you wherever required for the next 6 x months but I’ll completely withdraw afterwards.
I trust the above is in order but let formally discuss when you back in SA
English to Chinese: china-opens-investment-corporation General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English The China Overseas Infrastructure Development and Investment Corporation (COIDIC) this week opened its first African headquarters in Joburg, marking an important milestone in China-Africa relations.
COIDIC director Zhou Chao said the corporation recognised the challenges of building infrastructure in Africa.
“We will develop in a very short time and provide mature projects in Africa, thereby attracting more funds to invest in African infrastructure.”
COIDIC, with a $500 million capital base, is the first infrastructure development and investment corporation that focuses on overseas early-stage projects, especially those in Africa.
Zhou said the establishment of COIDIC reflected the China-African Fund (CADFund) and China Development Bank’s fulfilment of the ten major co-operation programmes announced by the Chinese government at the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Co-operation.
He said COIDIC would focus on incubation of overseas infrastructure projects in order to implement the Chinese government’s “The Belt and Road” strategy to improve Chinese enterprises’ capacity of infrastructure development in Africa and around the world, and to boost development of the projects.
COIDIC develops projects from concept to bankability, contributing to China’s overseas infrastructure investment from the very beginning.
He said the headquarters were built in South Africa due to its commercial environment, including project opportunities, travel convenience, supporting services, such as engineering, legal, financing and its economic ties with China.
South Africa provided a good living environment, which would help attract and retain talent and smart people, he said.
Zhou said another reason for choosing South Africa was that the CADFund, which held a majority stake in COIDIC, established a representative office in the country in 2008.
He said COIDIC aimed to establish public-private partnerships (PPP).
Zhou said the core of the PPP model lay in the establishment of a risk-benefit-sharing mechanism to attract private investment in large public products and infrastructure facilities that were traditionally invested in by the government.
“The PPP model has proven to be an efficient way of infrastructure investment and financing globally,” Zhou said.
“With the decline in global commodity prices and the appreciation of the dollar, more and more African countries have constraints on their capacity to borrow to finance infrastructure projects, and many national economies are vulnerable to commodity price fluctuations affecting their capacity to service debt and to maintain good credit ratings, thus the importance of PPP model is also increasingly prominent.”
He said COIDIC would continue to complete the development of infrastructure projects in terms of engineering, legal and financing in accordance with the framework of PPP to achieve the financial clout to attract private capital to participate in the investment.
English to Chinese: chinese-new-year-2018 General field: Other
Source text - English Joburg has a very active Chinese community and local Chinese New Year celebrations are always an exuberant, noisy and colourful affair. Chinese New Year events are spread through the weeks before and after the official date of Chinese New Year (February 16 in 2018) and take place in Joburg's First Chinatown (in the City Centre), the large New Chinatown in Cyrildene and at the Chinese Buddhist temple in Bronkhorstspruit near Pretoria.
In 2018 according to the Chinese zodiac, we are entering the year of the Earth Dog.
Sunday February 18
Chinese New Year at Nan Hua Temple
The magnificent Nan Hua Temple (about 45 minutes drive northeast of Joburg) was built with donations by Taiwanese Buddhists during a period when Taiwan had particularly close ties with South Africa and is now the largest Buddhist temple in the Southern Hemisphere. Chinese New Year celebrations at the Nan Hua Temple are a relatively quiet affair compared to those in Joburg's two Chinatowns and hence make a particularly good destination for young families or anyone else who is averse to big crowds and loud firecrackers. The day-long celebrations include a special programme of martial arts and traditional dancing and visitors can enjoy an array of Chinese, Cantonese and Taiwanese food, buy traditional Chinese handicrafts, paint their own lanterns and learn more about Buddhist culture.
Saturday February 24
Chinese New Year in First Chinatown
Joburg's First Chinatown on Commissioner Street celebrates Chinese New Year on Saturday February 24 with a massive fireworks display, tons of street food stalls and plenty of traditional entertainment. The arrival of the Year of the Dog will be welcomed with dancing Chinese dragons and lions, Chinese drumming and singing and Kung Fu and Tai Chi displays. A variety of Chinese food will be on sale throughout the day in and around the First Chinatown area.
Saturday March 3
Chinese New Year in Cyrildene
On Saturday March 3 it is the turn of Cyrildene, Joburg's biggest Chinatown, to celebrate Chinese New Year. The event is an exuberant, noisy and colourful affair, with the long main street, Derrick Avenue, filled with streetside food stalls and Cyrildene's many restaurants all offer special festive menus (book well in advance for a table, see our Cyrildene feature for some suggestions on where to eat). In the early evening a long parade begins to wind its way up the street, led by a colourful Chinese lion who is followed by dancers in traditional costume and a long, dancing Chinese dragon. Cymbals crash and firecrackers flare as the lion visits every business along the street. Chinese New Year in Cyrildene is a busy, noisy and exciting affair - watch out for the many wayward fireworks! - that makes for a most memorable cultural experience.
For more on Chinese food and culture in Joburg read our special features on Joburg's Chinatowns, where to find traditional Chinese, Thai and Korean food in Joburg and five cool contemporary Asian restaurants.
Translation - Chinese 约翰内斯堡有一个十分活跃的华人团体，当地的中国新年庆祝活动总是一场充满活力，喧嚣而又多彩的盛事。在中国新年官方日期（2018年2月16日）前后几个星期内，约翰内斯堡老唐人街（位于市中心），西罗汀大街的大型新唐人街和位于布龙克霍斯茨普雷（比勒陀利亚附近）的中国佛教寺庙将陆续举行新年庆祝活动。
English to Chinese: GUIDE TO CHINESE VISA APPLICATION General field: Other
Source text - English GUIDE TO CHINESE VISA APPLICATION
In accordance with the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Entry and Exit of Aliens" and other relevant regulations, the aliens who apply for Chinese visas are required to fulfill the following procedures:
1. Basic requirements
a) One completed visa application form with one colored passport size photo attached.
b) A passport valid for more than six months with at least 2 blank visa pages.
c) For people who goes to China for the first time: the latest 3 months bank-statement.
2. A brief introduction to Chinese visas
a) Tourist visa (L- visa)
There are single-entry and double-entry tourist visas. Multiple-entry tourist visa can only be permitted by the Embassy on applicant's particular situation.
Requirements: Tourists must provide the hotel booking record and the return air tickets booking. Applicants who will visit relatives in China should present proof of kinship and the return air tickets booking. A letter of explanation if requesting a multiple-entry tourist visa.
b) Business visa (F-visa)
There are single-entry, double-entry and multiple-entry business visas.
Requirements for single-entry or double-entry visa: hotel booking record, and the return air tickets booking, and the original visa notice addressed to the Embassy from authorized governmental departments or organizations or companies from China.
Requirements for multiple-entry visa: a visa notice from the authorized Chinese governmental departments or companies or organizations together with a letter of introduction from your company. Otherwise, a proof of being a regular visitor to China is needed, such as previous Chinese visas. Please note that the visa officials have the right to decide whether to issue multiple entry visas or not on actual conditions.
c) Resident visa (D-visa)
A permanent residence confirmation is required. The confirmation is from the exit and entry department of public security bureau of the municipal or county where you intend to reside.
d) Employment Visa (Z-visa)
An invitation letter or fax from the department of the Chinese Government, together with an employment certificate issued by the relevant department or certificate of foreign expert. If you are going to work more than 6 months, a "Physical Examination Record For Foreigner" filled out and signed by a doctor shall be submitted.
e) Study Visa (X-visa)
A visa application form for international students (JW-202) issued by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China and a notification of admission from the receiving school. If you are going to study more than 6 months, a "Physical Examination Record For Foreigner" filled out and signed by a doctor shall be submitted.
f) Transit Visa (G-visa)
A valid visa of the destination country and a through air ticket are required.
g) Visas for Train Attendants, Air Crew Members and Seamen (C-visa)
The confirmation is required in accordance with the mutual agreement.
h) Journalist Visa (J-1-visa, J-2-visa)
A letter or fax from the competent department of the Chinese Government. If you are going to work in China as a journalist, a "Physical Examination for Foreigner" filled out and signed by a doctor shall be submitted.
Translation - Chinese 中国签证申请指南
English to Chinese: Like it or not, SA schools set to teach Mandarin General field: Other
Source text - English Like it or not, SA schools set to teach Mandarin
Angie Motshekga’s basic education department has issued a circular to national and provincial education authorities informing them the Chinese language will be taught in local public schools as of January 2016.
The circular, which the Mail & Guardian has seen, is titled “Circular S10 of 2015: incremental implementation of Mandarin as a non-official language from 2016-2018”.
“The roll-out of Mandarin will be incrementally implemented in schools as follows: Grades 4-9 and 10 will be implemented in January 2016, followed by grade 11 in 2017 and grade 12 in 2018,” said the circular, which bears the signature of the department’s acting director general Paddy Padayachee.
The two-page document closes off by appealing to its recipients to publicise its message: “You are kindly requested to bring the contents of circular S10 of 2015 to the attention of all provincial and district officials, and principals and teachers of both public and independent schools.”
‘Worst form of imperialism’
The South African Democratic Teachers’ Union (Sadtu) expressed opposition to the plan in April, a month after Motshekga approved Mandarin and nine other foreign languages pupils can take as additional optional languages.
At the time Mugwena Maluleke, Sadtu’s general secretary, told the M&G that the union would reject teaching of Mandarin in local schools because it would be tantamount to a new form of colonisation.
“We’ll oppose the teaching of Mandarin in our schools with everything that we have. As Sadtu we see it as colonisation. As much as during colonisation some people were complicit in selling our souls, that’s what’s happening [again now]. We’re going to make sure that we’ve got serious campaigns against this particular colonisation. We see it as the worst form of imperialism that is going to happen in Africa,” Maluleke said at the time.
Motshekga first announced plans for teaching of Mandarin in local schools last year, following the signing of bilateral agreements between South Africa and China. In addition to strengthening business ties, the countries agreed to co-operate on education matters.
At the time Motshekga’s office said: “As [China is] South Africa’s biggest trading partner, it is important for our children to become proficient in the Confucius language and develop a good understanding of Chinese culture.”
The department finally approved Mandarin this year, along with German, Serbian, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu as additional optional languages. But the circular does not mention anything about these languages.
Elijah Mhlanga, spokesperson for the department, has told the M&G the introduction of Mandarin is above board. “We have said this before and we will repeat it because it is necessary: Mandarin as a language in school is optional, unofficial and those who wish to offer it will do so. It’s not compulsory.”
Mhlanga questioned why there was no opposition to other non-official languages taught in schools. “Mandarin joins 15 or more other languages that are already offered in schools in the same category and these include; Greek, Portuguese, French, Urdu, Latin, German and others.
English to Chinese: Trade, Tourism and Education: China’s impact on South Africa is growing General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English Trade, Tourism and Education: China’s impact on South Africa is growing
Over the past decade, South Africa has continued to strengthen its ties with the People’s Republic of China. The country could stand to gain from the financial and educational benefits of this relationship. In a two-part series, Fatima Moosa explains the extent of the alliance.
South Africa has signed many trade agreements with China since the early 2000s. In 2015 alone, the two countries signed 25 trade agreements, valued at around $16.5 billion.
According to the South African Revenue Service, China is South Africa’s main import and export partner. Data from May 2017 shows 7.8% of South Africa’s total exports that month went to China while 18.7% of imports to South Africa came from China.
Around 140 medium and large Chinese companies operate in South Africa. Several Chinese firms, including construction company Shanghai Zendai Property, China Construction Bank and State Grid Corporation of China, have made significant investments in South African companies, amounting to more than $13 billion (R199 billion), creating 30 000 jobs. Alipay, the Chinese payment platform with a projected global net worth of $50 billion, also recently launched in South Africa.
Many Chinese companies operating in South Africa are geared towards the rising number of Chinese tourists who visit the country each year. China accounts for the largest number of international visitors to South Africa. According to Statistics South Africa, the number of Chinese visitors to the country increased by 66.1% between August 2015 and August 2016.
South Africa is also home to a large number of Chinese immigrants: Yoon Jung Park, a researcher on Chinese migrants in South Africa, estimates that the numbers are between 350 000 and 500 000. But due to irregular immigration and poor record-keeping, it’s hard to say exactly how many Chinese immigrants there are in the country.
Migration works the other way too. Sanusha Naidu, a researcher for the China in Africa project, says many people from the continent have migrated to China in recent years. Again, there are no concrete numbers but researchers and academics put the number at anywhere from 20 000 to 100 000. Some have migrated to study, others for business and commercial reasons, and others to teach English.
In 2006, China said it would increase the number of Chinese government scholarships to African students from the 2 000 per year to 4 000 per year within three years. China has managed to more or less keep to that target; researchers estimate that in 2015 there were around 49 000 students from Africa studying in China.
According to researchers at the University of Michigan, China has overtaken the UK and the US as the most popular destination for African students studying abroad.
China’s influence, in both South Africa’s formal economy and knowledge economy, is set to keep growing.
English to Chinese: case information General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English Case Information
Application for asylum in terms of the Refugees Act 130 of 1998. The facts and issues appear from the reasons for judgment.
This matter came before Court by way of motion.
In the notice of motion it is stated that the applicant intends to make application for the following orders: H
1. Declaring that the decision of the Refugee Appeal Board taken on or about 13 July 2005, rejecting the applicant's appeal against the decision of the Standing Committee for Refugee Affairs (Standing Committee) taken on or about 17 September 1997, in which his application for refugee status and asylum was denied, was inconsistent with the Constitution [of the Republic of South Africa,] I 1996, and unlawful.
2. Reviewing and setting aside the decision of the Refugee Appeal Board taken on or about 13 July 2005 rejecting the applicant's appeal against the decision of the Standing Committee taken on or about 17 September 1997.
3. Reviewing and setting aside the decision of the Standing Committee taken on or about 17 September 1997 rejecting the applicant's application for refugee status and asylum. B
4. Declaring that the applicant is deemed to have a well-founded fear of persecution on the grounds of his political opinion and membership of a particular social group, as contemplated by s 3(a) of the Refugees Act 130 of 1998. C
5. Granting applicant asylum as contemplated by s 24(3)(a) of the Refugees Act.
6. Declaring that the applicant's wife and his children are dependants of applicant as contemplated by s 3(c) of the Refugees Act.
Founding affidavit E
Applicant alleges that he is an adult male and a national of the People's Republic of China. He is a member of the majority Chinese ethnic group. Presently he is resident, together with his wife and four children, at Queenstown, Eastern Cape.
The Refugee Appeal Board on or about 13 July 2005 rejected his F appeal against the decision of the Standing Committee in which his application for refugee status and asylum was denied.
In a letter dated 17 September 1997 the Standing Committee rejected his application for refugee status and asylum as it held that his fear of persecution was not well founded. G
He was born on 25 April 1964 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China.
Prior to his leaving China, he was a student at Xiamen University, Fujian Province. On or about 5 or 6 June 1989 he saw news coverage, via a Taiwanese news channel to which he had access, of the Tiananmen Square massacre where a student protest against the communist Chinese government was violently suppressed by the Chinese military forces. H
The following day he voiced his anger about the massacre to his classmates. He persuaded some of them to join him on the Xiamen University campus in protests against the massacre. About a thousand students joined in said protests.
Together with other protesters, they marched around the Xiamen I University campus for a number of hours, chanting and waving placards protesting against the Chinese government's actions of 4 June 1989 on
English to Chinese: Chinese celebrities who make lots of money from social media General field: Other
Source text - English Chinese celebrities who make lots of money from social media
Many stars, including actors, singers and internet personalities, use their fame to sell their own products online, not unlike social influencers in the West.
From pop idols to wanghong – a phrase used to refer to internet celebrities – China’s most popular influencers share one thing in common: they’re raking in a lot of money.
The online celebrity economy was projected to be worth around 58 billion yuan (US$8.4 billion) in 2016, according to data company CBNData. That made the sector more valuable than the domestic film industry, which brought in 45.7 billion yuan in revenues during the same year.
Among the most popular of those celebrities is actor-singer Lu Han, a former member of South Korean-Chinese pop group EXO, who has appeared in commercials endorsing everything from luxury Cartier accessories to flavoured milk from local dairy brand Yili.
Actress Yang Mi, with more than 77 million fans on social media platform Weibo, is another bankable name who works with brands such as Estée Lauder and Michael Kors. Regarded as a fashion icon, Yang is also often referred to as a daihuo nüwang – queen of driving sales – for her ability to spark fashion trends based on the designer goods she wears.
Those endorsements contributed to Lu and Yang being ranked in the top three on the 2017 edition of Forbes China's list of celebrities in the country, based on earnings and popularity. Lu reportedly made 210 million yuan in the 12 months up to the end of June 2017. Yang earned 200 million yuan over the same period.
Recognisable names include internet personalities who might have less of a following online, but possess the ability to connect with niche audiences. Papi Jiang, known for her comedic video blogs, has appeared in a commercial for watchmaker Jaeger LeCoultre.
Others have shifted from endorsing brands to starting their own labels. Model-turned-entrepreneur Zhang Dayi runs one of the most popular Chinese shops on Alibaba Group’s Taobao online marketplace. Zhang reportedly earned 300 million yuan from her various business ventures, according to the BBC. Alibaba, the world’s biggest e-commerce company, is the owner of the South China Morning Pos t.
From July to September, more than 400 million users searched for products linked to celebrities on Taobao, according to Ali Data.
One factor behind the boom in the industry is likely to have been the increasing integration of online retail and social media on the mainland, giving rise to a more interactive form of online shopping.
“In China, the line between social media and e-commerce is much more blurred … On Chinese platforms, e-commerce is always one click away from content,” Angelito Tan, CEO of China-based RTG Consulting, told CNBC.
Unlike other social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram, some platforms used in China “explicitly exist to help users make purchase decisions,” Tan said, citing Taobao and social e-commerce app Xiao Hong Shu as examples.
Chinese digital influencers fuel massive 'fan economy'
In a May report focused on the local retail sector, PWC noted that it was “almost impossible to distinguish” between the two areas today.
English to Chinese: China ‘not afraid’ of trade war with Trump General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English China ‘not afraid’ of trade war with Trump
Beijing has condemned Donald Trump’s threat of an additional $100bn in tariffs on imports from China, as Chinese experts warned the US it stood more to lose politically from a worsening tit-for-tat trade dispute that has unnerved global markets.
On Friday, a Ministry of Commerce spokesman said China was prepared to adopt “comprehensive countermeasures” in its dispute with the US, adding: “China doesn’t want a trade war, but we’re not afraid to fight a trade war”.
Lu Kang, China’s foreign ministry spokesperson, echoed the commerce ministry’s statement, adding: “We will accompany [the US] until the end, we will not hesitate in paying any price.”
After the US and China exchanged threats earlier this week to impose tariffs over roughly $50bn worth of imports each, on Thursday evening Mr Trump instructed the US trade representative’s office “to consider whether $100bn of additional tariffs would be appropriate . . . and if so, to identify the products upon which to impose such tariffs”.
Beijing would likely follow suit in ramping up its own tariff threats if the US government implemented Mr Trump’s suggestion of additional penalties. “When someone uses a big stick, the response is to use yours in return,” said Shi Yinhong, professor of international relations at Renmin University in Beijing.
Former commerce ministry official He Weiwen, now a senior fellow at the Center for China and Globalization, a Beijing think-tank, warned that China would almost certainly be pushed to pursue tit-for-tat measures in retaliation if the additional tariffs materialised.
Mr Trump slammed China’s response to the tariffs proposed by his administration on Tuesday. On Wednesday, China announced plans to raise 25 per cent duties on 106 products, including soyabeans, cars and chemicals, on a date to be decided — depending on when the US implements its own tariffs.
Chu Shulong, professor of international strategy at Tsinghua University, said: “China will follow what the US does: if the US wants to threaten, it will threaten, if the US wants to talk, China will talk.”
But, Mr Chu cautioned, “This is a strategy, not the start of a trade war. As with previous China-US disputes, the initial threats are very high but will be lowered when both sides start talking.”
China tariff threat deals another blow to US farmers
Chinese analysts said an escalation of tariffs was likely to cause more political trouble for Mr Trump than for the Chinese Communist party because of the differences in the two countries’ governance structures.
“American industry groups have differing views on Mr Trump’s plan of raising tariffs, which will be likely to influence the final policy,” said Zhang Yingchao, financial analyst at investment bank Everbright SHK in Beijing. “But voices in China have been unified in supporting the government’s decisions.”
The head of the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers told domestic media earlier this week that carmakers in China “should not fear” a trade war. But US soyabean industry groups warned that a conflict over trade would have “devastating” effects.
On Thursday, Beijing had indicated it was willing to escalate its fight with Mr Trump by opening a World Trade Organization challenge to the US’s proposed tariffs.
English to Chinese: The UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database Information for Contributors General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English The UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database
Information for Contributors
What is the UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database
The UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database is an online database providing public access to summaries, and, when available, also full court decisions, of human trafficking cases fromaround the world. As of January 2015, it includes about 1,100 human trafficking cases from 90 countries. The Human Trafficking Case Law Database is fully available in English, and partially available in Spanish and French. It can be accessed through: www.unodc.org/cld.
What is the purpose of the UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database?
The 2014 UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons shows that majority of countries today have anti-trafficking legislation. In particular, of the 173 countries considered for the analysis, 146 criminalize all aspects of trafficking in persons explicitly mentioned in the Trafficking in Person Protocol. However, trafficking in persons continues to be under-prosecuted, and conviction rates remain low. The Report reveals that of the 128 countries covered, between 2010 and 2012, 15 percent did not record a single conviction for trafficking offences and 40 per cent recorded only less than 10 convictions.
In those cases where prosecutions have been undertaken, very little is currently known about them internationally. By creating the Human Trafficking Case Law Database, UNODC is working to increase the visibility of successful prosecutions, and to promote awareness of the realities of this devastating crime. The Database enables users to take experiences and court decisions from other countries into account when dealing with human trafficking issues, consult on practices in different jurisdictions and broaden their knowledge of human trafficking crimes.
The Human Trafficking Case Law Database is a practitioners’ tool for police investigators, prosecutors and judges; a monitoring tool for government policy-makers; an awareness-raising tool for the public and media; as well as an information tool for researchers and all those responding to trafficking in persons. Cases from the Database are also being used in UNODC technical assistance activities, including capacity building trainings for criminal justice practitioners.
What cases can be found in the UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database?
The Human Trafficking Case Law Database collects cases which fall under the internationally agreed definition of human trafficking in Article 3 of the United Nations Trafficking in Persons
. In accordance with this definition, the crime of human trafficking has three constituent
1. An act (what is done): recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of
2. The means (how it is done): threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of
abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability
or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person
having control over another; (in the cases of child trafficking, it is not necessary to
prove this element, but only the act and purpose) and
3. An exploitative purpose (why it is done): this includes, at a minimum, the exploitation
of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or
services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
English to Chinese: Chinese developers seek piece of booming education market General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English Chinese developers seek piece of booming education market
When China’s premier Li Keqiang recently vowed progress on a property tax intended to rein in home prices, it signalled to the country’s real estate developers that more than a decade of double-digit growth would soon end.
Facing slowing growth in their core business, top developers are betting on the education market, building and operating international schools for tens of thousands of students.
The country’s three biggest property developers — Country Garden, Evergrande and Vanke — have seen sales slow in the first quarter of this year, according to an industry ranking compiled by research agency China Real Estate Information Corp. Meanwhile, home price growth has dipped following a clampdown on lending and property speculation.
That has already made a dent in developers’ financials. Dalian Wanda reported a revenue drop of almost 11 per cent in 2017 while other residential developers are girding for longer-term impact. JPMorgan Chase has forecast as much as a 6 per cent decline in mainland Chinese home sales this year.
Now developers are “looking at other sectors in which to invest in order to get the returns that they need to continue growth”, says John Mortensen, regional director of real estate investment and management company JLL, which often works with universities.
Meanwhile, China’s education market is booming. The sector will grow from Rmb1.64tn ($261bn) in revenue in 2015 to Rmb2.9tn ($461bn) in 2020, according to Deloitte, with particularly high demand for English-language curriculums.
Growth in private schools has outpaced China’s overall education growth, with the number of students rising almost 150 per cent in the past decade even as the number of students enrolled in public schools declined almost 15 per cent, according to the Chinese education ministry. In recent years, private school operators have increasingly opened English-only international schools catering to Chinese students.
“Conveniently, the demographic buying new apartments is not dissimilar to that that's looking for education and has the financial wherewithal to be able to afford both an international education and have the aspirations to go on studying overseas,” says Mr Mortensen.
Amid fierce competition to get into good universities at home and overseas, proximity to a good school is often a key factor in determining Chinese property prices. A 2012 study of Shanghai housing found that prices were more than 40 per cent higher in top-rated school districts.
That has prompted residential developers to build new complexes with schools within walking distance of apartments, hiring or building in-house education teams to recruit teachers and design bilingual curriculums.
Guangzhou-based Country Garden, China’s top residential developer by sales, is now also among the country’s biggest private education providers. Its education subsidiary, Bright Scholar, runs 52 bilingual international schools that each offer a full education from kindergarten to secondary school. Bright Scholar listed on the New York Stock Exchange last year, raising more than $150m.
Country Garden’s controlling shareholder Yang Huiyan, daughter of the group’s founder, became China’s richest woman after Country Garden shares surged in January, adding more than $2bn to her wealth.
English to Chinese: New Chinese Immigrants Are Different From Chinese Americans And Proud Of It General field: Other
Source text - English New Chinese Immigrants Are Different From Chinese Americans And Proud Of It
The boisterous new diaspora from China is of a different breed. Their voice in the U.S. will only become louder as their home country becomes more powerful.
Etiquette is at all times and places important, yet perhaps particularly so in the rarefied society peopled by the Committee of 100, a group of Chinese Americans “dedicated to the spirit of excellence and achievement in America.”
Professor Frank Wu, the chairman, recently wrote an article titled “Private Note To Asian-American Activists About New Arrivals,” which ran in The Huffington Post. In light of the reserve and temperance conferred on committee members by their sterling educations and social standing, I shall eschew anything like the emotive rebuttal that Wu’s very un-private note provokes.
The note’s profound misunderstanding of Chinese immigrants to the U.S. since 1980 demonstrates a condescension that establishes a neon distinction between “us” and “them” — the incumbent Chinese-American elite and hordes of politically unenlightened diaspora upstarts. The Chinese-American elite were appalled by the watershed of support for Donald Trump among new Chinese arrivals. The failure to foresee and understand this support arises from their weak connection to the newcomers.
The Chinese-American elite were appalled by the watershed of support for Donald Trump among new Chinese arrivals.
Recent immigrants are drawn to Republican Party rhetoric of individual responsibility and commitment to hard work. Like many minorities in the U.S., they have experienced racial discrimination but have not permitted it to cripple their determination to succeed and excel in a new society. Coming from a socialist country, they are ironically unaccustomed to social welfare and have little sympathy for those who depend on government “handouts.” This stance may be uncharitable, but it is nonetheless what they feel and, in fact, not so far removed from the sentiment of a majority of American citizens as recently as 30 years ago. The new arrivals voted for Trump and will continue to vote for Trump equivalents, as long as such candidates espouse fiscally conservative platforms.
New Chinese arrivals do not feel solidarity with disadvantaged groups not because they are bigoted but because they do not consider themselves disadvantaged. Most are pleased to have a chance to pursue the economic and educational paths the U.S. offers.
Undeniably, they have sometimes found that their interests are misaligned with those of other ethnic minorities. For example, many Chinese have found repugnant the unacknowledged but ubiquitous glass ceiling confronting Chinese applicants to top universities. Qualified applicants of Chinese ethnicity are denied entry, while underperforming applicants of other ethnic groups gain admission on the grounds of “diversity.”
It is small wonder that this mystical euphemism ― “diversity” ― has become a dirty word among many aggrieved Chinese parents, who feel it denies their children a rightful place at American universities. It is odd and more than a touch hypocritical that such squarely discriminatory issues have never been the remit of the Committee of 100. Were the committee genuinely interested in gaining a seat at the table for all Chinese in America, here would be a good place to start. The Chinese-American elite should galvanize our community rather than erecting a cordon sanitaire around a group of new Americans.
English to Chinese: The Chinese economy is rebalancing, at last General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English The Chinese economy is rebalancing, at last
Consumption is at last becoming the most important driver of demand in the Chinese economy. This is a long-awaited and desirable adjustment. It promises to shift China away from its excessive reliance on inefficient, debt-fuelled investment. But it still has a long way to go. As the shift is being completed, the country will need to manage an overhang of bad debt. But the adjustment has begun.
In 2007, premier Wen Jiabao argued rightly that “the biggest problem with China’s economy is that the growth is unstable, unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable”. In that year, gross national savings were 50 per cent of gross domestic product, up from 37 per cent in 2000. These huge savings financed domestic investment of 41 per cent of GDP and a current account surplus of 9 per cent.
Then came the global financial crisis. The Chinese authorities promptly realised that the current account surplus had become unsustainable. In the short run, the only way to avoid a slump was to expand investment further. In 2011, gross investment reached 48 per cent of GDP and the current account surplus fell to 2 per cent. But national savings remained at 50 per cent of GDP. (See charts.)
This solution brought new problems. The first was a declining return on investment. The simplest way of showing this is via the incremental capital-output ratio (ICOR), which measures the amount of investment needed to generate a given increase in output. This has roughly doubled since 2007. That is not surprising: the investment rate has jumped, while growth has nearly halved. Moreover, the rise in the ICOR may well understate the true decline in returns: as Michael Pettis of Peking University’s Guanghua School of Management argues, useless investment does not contribute to GDP.
The second problem is that the increased investment was driven by a huge rise in debt. According to the Institute of International Finance, gross debt rose from 171 to 295 per cent of GDP between the fourth quarter of 2008 and the third quarter of 2017. This is very high for an emerging country. Moreover, half of the increased debt went to non-financial corporate entities, which did much of the increased investment. A substantial portion of this increased debt may prove to be bad. Starting from the dramatic rise in the credit-dependence of growth, London-based Enodo Economics argues that the needed debt write-offs might ultimately amount to 20 per cent of GDP. This might seem big. But it would be manageable for a creditor country with a largely closed financial system.
Up to 2014, then, nothing had happened to make the Chinese economy seem any less unstable, unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable. On the contrary, China had merely replaced an excessive current account surplus, with still more excessive investment, soaring debt and property bubbles.
The past three years have witnessed change at last: investment has fallen by 3 per cent of GDP, while public and private consumption have risen by much the same proportion. As a result, consumption has become a more important source of additional demand than investment.
Translation - Chinese 中国经济终于再度恢复平衡
第二个问题是，新增投资是在债务激增的驱动下产生的。根据国际金融学会（Institute of International Finance）消息，从2008年第四季度到2017年第三季度，中国负债总额占国民生产总值（GDP）的比例从171%上升到295%。这样的债务水平对于一个新兴经济体来说是非常高了。此外，新增债务的一半流入到非金融企业实体，而这些企业在新增投资中占据很高比例。这些新增债务其中很大一部分可能是坏账。伦敦伊诺多经济公司（Enodo Economics）表示，中国经济增长对信贷的依赖度急剧加深，这导致需要被注销的坏账最终可能占国民生产总值（GDP）的20%。这个数字也许看起来很大，但是对于一个金融体系基本封闭的债权国来说，是可以控制的。
English to Chinese: The People of South Africa: Chinese South Africans General field: Other
Source text - English The People of South Africa: Chinese South Africans
Despite being a tiny minority in the country for most of its history, Chinese immigrants have been part of South Africa’s cultural heritage since the first colonists settled in the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Maybe even further back than that. According to Melanie Yap and Daniel Leong Man, in their book “Colour, Confusions and Concessions: the History of Chinese in South Africa” there is evidence of Chinese contact with, and presence in southern Africa long before the first European colonists settled in the Cape. Chinese cartographer Chu Ssu-pen drew the first known map of southern Africa in 1320. The Chinese admiral, Zheng He, explored Africa’s east coast between 1405-1433, and there has been speculation that at least some of Zheng’s ships may have travelled beyond the Cape of Good Hope. Archaeological sites in Zimbabwe and South Africa have produced Sung dynasty porcelain (960-1279 AD) which may have been the result of trade with passing Chinese vessels. In recent times there were some tribes north of Cape Town who claimed to be descendants of 13th century Chinese sailors. Light skinned, with Mongolian features and a Mandarin sounding tonal language, they called themselves the Awatwa or “abandoned people”.
Three main Chinese groups have settled in South Africa since the 19th century. The first group started arriving in the 1870s with the discovery of diamonds in the Kimberley area and later when gold deposits were discovered on the Witwatersrand. The majority of them were independent immigrants from Canton (modern Guangdong Province). Due to discrimination, which prevented them from obtaining mining permits, they mostly became small business owners. This first group can be considered the ancestors of today’s 3rd and 4th generation Chinese South Africans, currently numbering about 10,000.
At the beginning of the 20th century large scale immigration from China was prohibited by legislation like the Transvaal Immigration Restriction Act of 1902 and the Cape Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904. Other laws denied citizenship, prohibited land ownership, and restricted trade for the Chinese. Ironically, the British colonial government in conjunction with the mining industry brought almost 64,000 indentured labourers from China to work on the gold mines of the Witwatersrand between 1904 – 1910. They were all repatriated after 1910 due to strong White opposition to their presence, but only after helping the South African economy, through increased gold production, to recover from the effects of the Anglo-Boer War.
Migration from China to South Africa was effectively shut down after the National Party formed the South African government in 1948, and the Chinese Communist Party triumphed against the Nationalists in 1949. After 1948 Chinese South Africans were subject to discrimination together with other non-European groups under apartheid legislation. The Group Areas Act assigned racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban areas, which threatened Chinese economic viability as it removed them from their diverse customer base.
In the late 1960s, the Chinese community started lobbying for their right to live among other races. They argued that Chinese communities in South Africa were too small to warrant their own separate areas, and that they could not survive by trading amongst themselves.
English to Chinese: case information General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English [Part 1]
China v. Secretary of State for the Home Department
Country: United Kingdom
Court: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal
Sentenced date: 11/11/2008
Purpose of exploitation: Exploitation of prostitution
In this case the appellants are a female citizen of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and her dependent child born in the United Kingdom. She was trafficked into the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Her daughter was born in the UK after she entered the country.
She complaint against the decision of the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal to send her and her daughter to the PRC and having refused them asylum, humanitarian protection and human rights claims. The appeals were dismissed on all grounds with the argument that women and girls in China, in general, face no real risks of serious harm from traffickers.
Asylum and Immigration Tribunal
HC & RC (Trafficked women) China CG  UKAIT 00027
THE IMMIGRATION ACTS
Heard at Field House
on 11th November 2008
SENIOR IMMIGRATION JUDGE STOREY
SENIOR IMMIGRATION JUDGE SPENCER
MS S E SINGER
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENT
For the appellant: Ms N Finch, counsel, instructed by Luqmani Thompson & Partners
For the respondent: Mr G Saunders, Home Office presenting officer
(1) Although the Chinese authorities are intent upon rescuing and rehabilitating women
and girls trafficked for the purposes of prostitution, there are deficiencies in the
measures they have taken to combat the problem of trafficking. The principal
deficiencies are the lack of a determined effort to deal with the complicity of corrupt
law enforcement officers and state officials and the failure to penalise as trafficking
acts of forced labour, debt bondage, coercion, involuntary servitude or offences
committed against male victims.
(2) Women and girls in China do not in general face a real risk of serious harm from
traffickers. Where, however, it can be established in a given case that a woman or a
girl does face a real risk of being forced or coerced into prostitution by traffickers, the
issue of whether she will be able to receive effective protection from the authorities.
will need careful consideration in the light of background evidence highlighting
significant deficiencies in the system of protection for victims of trafficking. But each
case, however, must be judged on its own facts. China is a vast country and it may
be, for example, that in a particular part of Chine the efforts to eliminate trafficking are
determined and the level of complicity between state officials and traffickers is low. If
an appellant comes from such an area, or if she can relocate to such an area, there
may be no real risk to her.
(3) The Chinese state has an obligation to house the homeless and will not allow their
citizens to starve. Therefore a returned trafficked woman without family support will
not be allowed by the authorities to fall into a state of destitution.
English to Chinese: South Africa in BRICS: A Bilateral Trade Analysis General field: Bus/Financial
Source text - English South Africa in BRICS: A Bilateral Trade Analysis
Prior to the rise of BRICS, SA’s economic growth and integration into the global economy were driven by a significant increase in exports following the end of apartheid in 1994. Figures 1 and 2 depict the values of SA imports and exports to and from the EU, BRICS, and the rest of the world.
Balance of trade reflects SA’s balance of trade with other BRIC/S countries in the period under review – in other words, whether trade favoured it or its trading partners. It shows that, while SA recorded a trade deficit with BRIC as a whole for most of 1995–2009, it has recorded consistent surpluses in trade with India since 1999. Prior to SA’s inclusion in BRICS, it recorded trade deficits with China, but this changed dramatically after its inclusion in 2010.
Its trade deficit with Russia also changed to a surplus in 2010, while trade with Brazil was in deficit for most of the period (from 1997 to 2011). Figure 10 shows that SA trade with most BRICS countries swung from deficit to surplus following its inclusion in the BRICS grouping. According to Edwards and Lawrence, this transition has been linked to two related events: the rapid growth of emerging economies, and the resulting rise in the demand for commodities.
The shift in global growth poles to emerging economies led by BRICS resulted in rises in foreign direct investment as well as trade flows within the group. In particular, the demand for primary commodities used for industrial production in these growing economies led to an increase in the demand for those products. As a consequence, the price of commodities rose steeply, favouring commodities exporters.SA is richly endowed with commodities in the form of metal, iron ore, and coal, among others.
China alone contributed about 60% of the rise in demand for commodities, and the total effect of the rise in demand from mostly emerging markets led to the tripling of prices in 2000–2007.
This study has examined trade relations between SA and BRICS. It shows that SA trade became more dynamic at the turn of the millennium, and intensified after SA’s admission to the BRIC grouping. It also shows that SA exports to the other BRICS countries is playing an increasingly important role, as they have surpassed exports to the EU, which dominated SA trade for decades.
Trade with India is the most intense in respect of imports and exports, with China rapidly catching up in both categories. This pattern is replicated by the trade complementarity indices, as India’s import demands coincide most closely with SA exports. Trade with India has been the most favourable in the period under review, with the balance of trade in respect of China switching from a deficit to a surplus, coinciding with SA’s inclusion in BRIC.
The structure of SA trade with the rest of BRICS shows that exports are now less diversified than previously as a result of more intensive trade, with primary products dominating the former, and manufactured goods comprising most of the latter.
English to Chinese: Teaching Mandarin in schools is another slap in the face for African languages General field: Other
Source text - English Teaching Mandarin in schools is another slap in the face for African languages
It’s said that behind every powerful language is an army and money. Consider the case of English. In South Africa, as in its other colonies, the British arrived with the Bible in one hand and the breech-loader in the other. Behind them was the English language, military might and money.
Now there is a new potential coloniser on South Africa’s linguistic block. From 2016, Mandarin will be taught in the country’s schools as a Second Additional Language. This new government policy will see African languages bumped even further down the educational pecking order.
In 2014 South Africa’s Department of Basic Education unveiled a policy designed to prioritise and improve the way African languages like Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho and Tswana are taught. English and Afrikaans are favoured as first languages by most schools, even those whose pupils do not speak either as their mother tongues.
The policy proposed teaching an African language to all children from Grade 1 at the level of a First Additional Language. The department argued that introducing African languages to all pupils would create a more cohesive society and improve communication between all South Africans.
A success story
Mandarin’s addition to the school curriculum appears to be more of a political ploy than a sound educational policy. South African President Jacob Zuma enjoys a close relationship with China’s government, which has led some critics to call the Asian powerhouse a new colonial power. The news of Mandarin’s addition to the school curriculum has enraged South Africa’s largest teacher union.
Mandarin is not a priority
So are we suggesting that Mandarin has no place in South Africa’s education system? Not at all. In fact, it’s already here – at our universities.
Confucius Institutes at, for instance, Rhodes and the University of Cape Town, are well versed in teaching Mandarin and Chinese characters. After three years of immersion at university many students have come out relatively fluent and are now working in China.
But do we need to teach Mandarin or Chinese from Grade R? Other countries, like Australia, have discovered that teaching Chinese as an additional language subject at school just doesn’t work. Australian school leavers emerge after 13 years with the fluency of 500 Chinese characters or less.
There are many varieties of spoken Chinese but only one set of written characters for written language which everyone must learn. The acquisition of the 500 characters after 13 years is the equivalent of Grade 1 competency. Is this worth the effort?No, it’s not.
South Africa must fix its existing system first. Once it has achieved its educational aims through appropriate research-based and empirically sound language-in-education policy implementation, then it can consider adding other world languages to its educational repertoire. For now, let Mandarin be taught at South Africa’s universities as is presently the case.
English to Chinese: FANG v REFUGEE APPEAL BOARD AND OTHERS General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English FANG v REFUGEE APPEAL BOARD AND OTHERS 2007 (2) SA 447 (T)
2007 (2) SA p447
A. About two to three days after leading the protest march, his uncle, who was a policeman stationed at the Lujiang police station, which is located near the Xiamen University campus, informed him that the police want to arrest persons who encouraged others to participate in the protest marches on the Xiamen University campus.
B. His uncle further informed him that his name was on the list of persons who were to be arrested for instigating the protest marches. After his discussion with his uncle, he immediately packed his personal belongings and fled to a friend who lived in Lang-an, a small town that is approximately 200 km from Xiamen
C. He lived with his friend for about a year; he could not return to Xiamen as the people who had participated in the protest march on the Xiamen University campus were still being arrested. Only his close family members and friends knew his whereabouts.
D. His brother managed to bribe a passport-issuing officer to issue him (the applicant) with a passport and visa for Lesotho and arranged and paid for a flight ticket, via Hong Kong to Lesotho. He left China for Lesotho on or about 15 June 1990. He stayed in Lesotho until about 21 May 1991 when political turmoil forced him to leave that country.
E. He entered South Africa and was issued with a temporary residence permit by the relevant authorities. He went to live with a friend in King William's Town where he found employment as a technician in a textile factory. The factory applied on his behalf for a work permit in the Ciskei. He remained in King William's Town for six months.
F. Thereafter he travelled to Thaba Nchu where his employer applied for a residence permit for Bophuthatswana. In 1992 while working in Ga-Rankuwa he obtained a residence and work permit. Whilst in Lesotho he met his wife, Libin Fang. She was legally employed as a contract worker until about 21 May 1991 when the same political turmoil that forced him to leave Lesotho compelled her to leave Lesotho as well.
G. After she left Lesotho she legally entered and remained in South Africa with him. On 16 July 1993 they got married in Pretoria. Out of his marriage with his wife, four children were born - the first on 14 September 1993 in Pretoria, the second on 16 July 1997 in Bloemfontein, the third on 22 July 1999 in Queenstown, and their youngest child on 24 September 2002 in Queenstown. On or about 22 May 1996 he was informed that his residence permit would be revoked. He could not go back to China for fear of persecution. He applied for asylum in South Africa and he was issued with a prohibited person's permit in terms of s 41 of the Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991 by the relevant authorities.
Translation - Chinese 方先生请求审查难民上诉委员会及其他方的决定 2007(2)南非447（文本）
A. 领导抗议游行约两三天后，驻厦门大学附近鹭江派出所 身为警察的叔叔告诉他，警察想抓捕煽动他人在厦门大学参加抗议游行的人。
G. 方李玢离开莱索托之后，她和申请人一起合法地进入并留在了南非。1993年7月16日他们在比勒陀利亚结为夫妻。在这段婚姻中他们一共养育了四名子女：老大于1993年9月14日在比勒陀利亚出生， 老二于1997年7月16日在布隆方丹出生， 老三于1999年7月22日在皇后镇出生，他们最小的孩子于2002年9月24日在皇后镇出生。他于1996年5月22日或前后获悉他的居住证可能会被撤销。由于害怕遭到迫害，他不能返回中国。他在南非申请了庇护，有关当局根据1991年第96号法案《外国人管理法案》第41条为其签发了受禁制人许可证。
English to Chinese: Chinese migrants snub Australia's $5m 'golden ticket' visas
Source text - English Chinese migrants snub Australia's $5m 'golden ticket' visas
Australia’s controversial – the so-called “golden ticket” visa aimed at Chinese investors who invest $5m in Australia – is being snubbed by wealthy migrants, with applications at their lowest levels.
A Productivity Commission report in 2016 said the program should be scrapped, suggesting it was prone to rorting and money laundering, and brought little benefit to Australia.
Australia’s financial intelligence agency, Austrac, reported in 2016 that there were “difficulties in identifying the source of funds and wealth for customers on significant investment visas, as this wealth is often acquired in foreign jurisdictions”.
The SIV program is open to all nationalities but is targeted towards Chinese investors – the visa number 888 (eight is auspicious in Chinese culture) is designed to attract Chinese interest – and is used overwhelmingly by that nationality. About 87% of SIVs granted since the scheme was launched by the Gillard government in 2012 have been to Chinese nationals.
The visa allows people who invest $5m in certain “complying investments” in Australia to be granted a four-year visa that can be converted to permanent residency.
In its first three years, nearly 900 SIVs were granted at a rate of about 28 a month. But concerns over the type of investments being made, and the provenance of the money being invested, led the Abbott government to introduce a raft of restrictions from July 2015, compelling investment in venture capital and keeping money out of government bonds.
In the 2015-16 financial year, the number of visas approved rose to an average of 46 a month. The rate of visa grants slowed significantly over 2016-17 to about 34 a month.
But in the seven months of this financial year, the number of visas granted has dropped to fewer than 100, at an average of only 13 a month.
Several companies across Australia advertise, specifically to foreign investors, “packages” designed to facilitate visas but agents have told Guardian Australia the new, tighter regulations have largely extinguished demand.
A spokesman for the Department of Home Affairs said there had been no changes to the program since 2015 but that the SIV, along with all business, investment and talent visas, was under review in response to a 2015 recommendation of the joint standing committee on migration.
As a citizen of Melbourne, don't I have the right to question immigration?
The investment parameters for the SIV are strict. Of the $5m, $500,000 must be invested into Australian venture capital or growth private equity funds investing in startup and small private companies; $1.5m must be invested in managed funds invested in emerging companies on the ASX; and the $3m balance in funds with a combination of eligible assets, corporate bonds and property in Australia. There is a 10% limit on residential real estate investment. Applicants can be nominated by state governments or by Austrade.
The visa brings significant advantages. Applicants need only spend an average of 40 days in Australia a year and there is no English-language requirement. Applicants can pay more if they have a low level of English.
English to Chinese: China Reducing Massive Influence of Social Media Celebrities General field: Other
Source text - English China Reducing Massive Influence of Social Media Celebrities
China is trying to contain the awesome influence of social media celebrities, some of whom have tens of millions of followers that dwarf more Western media icons like Oprah Winfrey. For example, the top 10 Chinese celebrities on Internet have between 67 million and 90 million online followers.
Recent weeks have seen the closure of social media accounts of several celebrities while the Beijing Cyber Administration (BCA) shut down the accounts of 60 celebrity gossip magazines. It also asked Internet portals hosting these accounts to “adopt effective measures to keep in check the problems of the embellishment of private sex scandals of celebrities, the hyping of ostentatious celebrity spending and entertainment, and catering to the poor taste of the public.”
Analysts said the Chinese Communist Party (CPP) has reason to worry about the massive influence of celebrities, according to Bill Bishop, who runs the widely read The Sinocism China Newsletter.
Money and values
"The Party is really pushing hard on Socialist Core Values and very few of the popular Internet celebrities are paragons of those values," he said. "Individual media creators are much harder to control, and one of the core pillars of the CCP is propaganda and ideological control," he said.
Celebrities are an important tool for marketing and advertising, and thousands of companies depend on them to disseminate product messages. The size of Internet marketing by Chinese celebrities was estimated at $58 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach $100 billion in 2018, according to Beijing-based research agency Analysus.
Many of the social media celebrities come from the world of cinema, television, and sports. But there have been a large number of upstarts who have emerged from nowhere.
Their claim to fame is their ability to raise sensitive social issues, such as the neglect suffered by some so-called "leftover women" who have not found husbands. One such celebrity is Teacher Xu, a popular internet celebrity, who runs a hugely popular account on the WeChat platform.
Almost all celebrities make sure they do not cross the government's policy line in their posts in texts and videos, said Mark Tanner, Managing Director of China Skinny, an internet based marketing company.
"Everyone in China knows that if you want to be a successful and effective voice in China, you need to toe the party line. So right to Pappi Chang to the little guys on the road, they know what to say and what not to say," he said.
Analysts say the immense popularity of these high profile individuals is itself seen as a challenge to the authorities even if they do not take up political issues. A lot of what they talk about is indirectly connected to governance issues like the environment, and this is what bothers top officials.
"Celebrities happen to hold a powerful microphone to speak to society, and in CCP leaders' eyes, that alone is threatening no matter how non-political most of them may be,” said Christopher Cairns, a Cornell scholar.
English to Chinese: A Case Law Compendium in Trafficking in Human Beings General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English A Case Law Compendium in Trafficking in Human Beings
The crime of trafficking in human beings is characterized by certain elements which affect its application.
First and foremost, it is a criminal offence involving multiple acts with alternative forms and acts of perpetration, and may therefore occur in a large number of forms.
Diversity in its manifestation and, at times, the indifference or unwillingness of a victim of trafficking in human beings to have the offence revealed (e.g. when a victim consents to exploitation), can complicate recognition and detection of this criminal offence.
According to the legal definition of this crime provided in Article 186, Paragraph 1 of the CC BiH, a criminal offence comprises three main elements with alternative forms of perpetration: a) Acts: recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons; b) Means: threat or the use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud or deception, abuse of power or influence or position of vulnerability or giving and receiving payments or other benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person; c) Purpose: prostitution of other persons or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or removal of body parts or any other form of exploitation.
In order to have an act qualified as a crime of trafficking in human beings, all three elements, in any of the established alternative forms, must be cumulatively present. For example, recruiting a person by deception for the purpose of sexual exploitation constitutes the criminal offence mentioned above, except in the case that a victim is under the age of 18, when the existence of only two elements would be sufficient for constituting this criminal offence, i.e. the existence of one of the alternative acts of perpetration for the purpose of exploitation, without applying one of the alternative means (Article 186, Paragraph 2 of the BiH CC)
An important feature of this criminal offence is also reflected in Paragraph 9 of the abovementioned Article 186, according to which the consent of a victim of trafficking in human beings to exploitation does not preclude the existence of a criminal offence.
Therefore, the purpose of such codification is to have all forms of trafficking in human beings unconditionally prohibited, irrespective of the victim's consent.
A similar solution is found in CC RS Article 195 regarding sexual violence against a child, which criminalises the act of sexual intercourse or any other sexual activity with a child, notwithstanding the fact whether the child consented to sexual intercourse or any other sexual activity. Such 1. ELEMENTS OF CRIME criminalization reflects the stance of the legislator towards this type of crime, i.e. zero tolerance for this type of crime, and provides the victim with legal protection even if the victim has consented to a sexual activity.
This reflects a type of criminal offence which, by its nature, represents a unilateral criminal offence as a form of 'necessary complicity' where only one person i.e. the perpetrator of the criminal offence is sanctioned and the other is provided with protection.
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I am a native Chinese with a Master's degree in translation. My language combination in university is English to Chinese. During the three years of study (one year of Honours and two years of Masters) I have worked as a freelance translator and interpreter. I also hold a bachelor's degree in German language and literature. I was in Germany for one year and obtained a C2 certificate for German language.